• Cell-specific conditional deletion of interleukin-1 (IL-1) ligands and its receptors: a new toolbox to study the role of IL-1 in health and disease

      Pinteaux, Emmanuel; orcid: 0000-0002-9986-4401; email: emmanuel.pinteaux@manchester.ac.uk; Abdulaal, Wesam H; Mufazalov, Ilgiz A; Humphreys, Neil E; Simonsen-Jackson, Maj; Francis, Sheila; Müller, Werner; Waisman, Ari (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020-05-29)
      Abstract: The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a key role in many physiological processes and during the inflammatory and immune response to most common diseases. IL-1 exists as two agonists, IL-1α and IL-1β that bind to the only signaling IL-1 type 1 receptor (IL-1R1), while a second decoy IL-1 type 2 receptor (IL-1R2) binds both forms of IL-1 without inducing cell signaling. The field of immunology and inflammation research has, over the past 35 years, unraveled many mechanisms of IL-1 actions, through in vitro manipulation of the IL-1 system or by using genetically engineered mouse models that lack either member of the IL-1 family in ubiquitous constitutive manner. However, the limitation of global mouse knockout technology has significantly hampered our understanding of the precise mechanisms of IL-1 actions in animal models of disease. Here we report and review the recent generation of new conditional mouse mutants in which exons of Il1a, Il1b, Il1r1, and Il1r2 genes flanked by loxP sites (fl/fl) can be deleted in cell-/tissue-specific constitutive or inducible manner by Cre recombinase expression. Hence, IL-1αfl/fl, IL-1βfl/fl, IL-1R1fl/fl, and IL-1R2fl/fl mice constitute a new toolbox that will provide a step change in our understanding of the cell-specific role of IL-1 and its receptor in health and disease and the potential development of targeted IL-1 therapies.
    • Investigating the importance of B cells and antibodies during Trichuris muris infection using the IgMi mouse

      Sahputra, Rinal; orcid: 0000-0001-6612-0417; email: rinal.sahputra@manchester.ac.uk; Murphy, Emma A; Forman, Ruth; Mair, Iris; Fadlullah, Muhammad Z. H.; Waisman, Ari; Muller, Werner; Else, Kathryn J.; email: kathryn.j.else@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020-08-10)
      Abstract: The IgMi mouse has normal B cell development; its B cells express an IgM B cell receptor but cannot class switch or secrete antibody. Thus, the IgMi mouse offers a model system by which to dissect out antibody-dependent and antibody-independent B cell function. Here, we provide the first detailed characterisation of the IgMi mouse post-Trichuris muris (T. muris) infection, describing expulsion phenotype, cytokine production, gut pathology and changes in T regulatory cells, T follicular helper cells and germinal centre B cells, in addition to RNA sequencing (RNA seq) analyses of wild-type littermates (WT) and mutant B cells prior to and post infection. IgMi mice were susceptible to a high-dose infection, with reduced Th2 cytokines and elevated B cell-derived IL-10 in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) compared to controls. A low-dose infection regime revealed IgMi mice to have significantly more apoptotic cells in the gut compared to WT mice, but no change in intestinal inflammation. IL-10 levels were again elevated. Collectively, this study showcases the potential of the IgMi mouse as a tool for understanding B cell biology and suggests that the B cell plays both antibody-dependent and antibody-independent roles post high- and low-dose T. muris infection. Key messages: During a high-dose T. muris infection, B cells are important in maintaining the Th1/Th2 balance in the MLN through an antibody-independent mechanism. High levels of IL-10 in the MLN early post-infection, and the presence of IL-10-producing B cells, correlates with susceptibility to T. muris infection. B cells maintain gut homeostasis during chronic T. muris infection via an antibody-dependent mechanism.