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ParaVR: a virtual reality training simulator for paramedic skills maintenanceRees, Nigel; Vaughan, Neil; Day, Thomas W; Dorrington, Keith; Rees, Lloyd; John, Nigel W (Mark Allen Group, 2020-12-02)Background: Virtual reality (VR) technology is emerging as a powerful tool in medical training and has potential benefits for paramedic education. Aim: The aim of this paper is to report the development of ParaVR, which uses VR to maintain paramedics' skills. Methods: Computer scientists at the University of Chester and the Welsh Ambulance Services NHS Trust (WAST) developed ParaVR in four stages: identifying requirements and specifications; alpha version development; beta version development; and management—development of software, further funding and commercialisation. Results: Needle cricothyrotomy and needle thoracostomy emerged as candidates for the prototype ParaVR. The Oculus Rift head-mounted display was combined with Novint Falcon haptic device and a virtual environment crafted using 3D modelling software, which was ported to the Oculus Go virtual reality headset and the Google Cardboard VR platform. Conclusion: VR is an emerging educational tool with the potential to enhance paramedic skills development and maintenance. The ParaVR programme is the first step in the authors' development, testing and scaling up of this technology.