• Early Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Spontaneous Intraventricular Hemorrhage

      Ziai, Wendy C.; email: weziai@jhmi.edu; Parry-Jones, Adrian R.; email: adrian.parry-jones@manchester.ac.uk; Thompson, Carol B.; email: cthomp45@jhu.edu; Sansing, Lauren H.; email: lauren.sansing@yale.edu; Mullen, Michael T.; email: Michael.Mullen@uphs.upenn.edu; Murthy, Santosh B.; email: sam9200@med.cornell.edu; Mould, Andrew; email: amould@jhmi.edu; Nekoovaght-Tak, Saman; email: snekoov1@gmail.com; Hanley, Daniel F.; email: dhanley@jhmi.edu (MDPI, 2021-07-30)
      We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) expression of inflammatory cytokines and their relationship with spontaneous intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage (ICH, IVH) and perihematomal edema (PHE) volumes in patients with acute IVH. Twenty-eight adults with IVH requiring external ventricular drainage for obstructive hydrocephalus had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected for up to 10 days and had levels of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and C-C motif chemokine ligand CCL2 measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median [IQR] ICH and IVH volumes at baseline (T0) were 19.8 [5.8–48.8] and 14.3 [5.3–38] mL respectively. Mean levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and CCL2 peaked early compared to day 9–10 (p 0.05) and decreased across subsequent time periods. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and CCL2 had positive correlations with IVH volume at days 3–8 whereas positive correlations with ICH volume occurred earlier at day 1–2. Significant correlations were found with PHE volume for IL-6, IL-10 and CCL2 at day 1–2 and with relative PHE at days 7–8 or 9–10 for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. Time trends of CSF cytokines support experimental data suggesting association of cerebral inflammatory responses with ICH/IVH severity. Pro-inflammatory markers are potential targets for injury reduction.