• Prevention and Outpatient Treatment of Asthma Exacerbations in Children.

      Murray, Clare S; email: clare.murray@manchester.ac.uk; Jackson, Daniel J; Teague, W Gerald (2021-07)
      Acute exacerbations cause significant morbidity and mortality in children with asthma worldwide. Although exacerbations can be minor and transient, in some children they are recurrent and significantly adversely impact quality of life. Children with frequent exacerbations account for a disproportionate amount of unscheduled care in nonprimary health facilities. Frequent exacerbators are often prescribed controller medications, but poor adherence is common. Major predictors for asthma exacerbations include genetic, social, comorbid, biological, and environmental factors. Although virus infections are a key trigger for exacerbations, other environmental factors also significantly increase risk. A previous exacerbation is a major risk factor for future exacerbations and thus identifies children to target for prevention of future episodes. In this review, we discuss both modifiable and fixed factors associated with asthma exacerbations, how to assess children for risk, and which pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions may be of benefit. Finally, we review the current evidence around treatment within the outpatient setting for an emerging exacerbation. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]