• Changes in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Due to Enforced COVID-19-Related Lockdown and Movement Restrictions: A Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Kite, Chris; orcid: 0000-0003-1342-274X; email: c.kite@chester.ac.uk; Lagojda, Lukasz; email: lukasz.lagojda@uhcw.nhs.uk; Clark, Cain C. T.; orcid: 0000-0002-6610-4617; email: ad0183@coventry.ac.uk; Uthman, Olalekan; orcid: 0000-0002-8567-3081; email: olalekan.uthman@warwick.ac.uk; Denton, Francesca; orcid: 0000-0002-1016-1786; email: dentonf@uni.coventry.ac.uk; McGregor, Gordon; orcid: 0000-0001-8963-9107; email: ac4378@coventry.ac.uk; Harwood, Amy E.; email: ad5104@coventry.ac.uk; Atkinson, Lou; email: l.atkinson1@aston.ac.uk; Broom, David R.; email: ad5173@coventry.ac.uk; Kyrou, Ioannis; orcid: 0000-0002-6997-3439; email: kyrouj@gmail.com; et al. (MDPI, 2021-05-14)
      Prolonged lockdown/restriction measures due to the COVID-19 pandemic have reportedly impacted opportunities to be physically active for a large proportion of the population in affected countries globally. The exact changes to physical activity and sedentary behaviours due to these measures have not been fully studied. Accordingly, the objective of this PROSPERO-registered systematic review is to evaluate the available evidence on physical activity and sedentary behaviours in the general population during COVID-19-related lockdown/restriction measures, compared to prior to restrictions being in place. Defined searches to identify eligible studies published in English, from November 2019 up to the date of submission, will be conducted using the following databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PSYCinfo, Coronavirus Research Database, Public Health Database, Publicly Available Content Database, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar. The applied inclusion criteria were selected to identify observational studies with no restrictions placed on participants, with outcomes regarding physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour during lockdown/restriction measures, and with comparisons for these outcomes to a time when no such measures were in place. Where appropriate, results from included studies will be pooled and effect estimates will be presented in random effects meta-analyses. To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first systematic review to evaluate one complete year of published data on the impact of COVID-19-related lockdown/restriction measures on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis will constitute the most up-to-date synthesis of published evidence on any such documented changes, and so will comprehensively inform clinical practitioners, public health agencies, researchers, policymakers and the general public regarding the effects of lockdown/restriction measures on both physical activity and sedentary behaviour.
    • Uncertainty, Anxiety and Isolation: Experiencing the COVID-19 Pandemic and Lockdown as a Woman with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

      Atkinson, Lou; email: l.atkinson1@aston.ac.uk; Kite, Chris; orcid: 0000-0003-1342-274X; email: c.kite@chester.ac.uk; McGregor, Gordon; orcid: 0000-0001-8963-9107; email: ac4378@coventry.ac.uk; James, Tamsin; email: jamestno@aston.ac.uk; Clark, Cain C. T.; orcid: 0000-0002-6610-4617; email: ad0183@coventry.ac.uk; Randeva, Harpal S.; email: harpal.randeva@uhcw.nhs.uk; Kyrou, Ioannis; email: ad6702@coventry.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-09-25)
      Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and the related lockdown measures presented a significant risk to physical and mental wellbeing in affected populations. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are predisposed to several cardio-metabolic risk factors which increase the susceptibility to severe COVID-19 and also exhibit increased likelihood of impaired mental health wellbeing. Therefore, these women who usually receive care from multiple primary and specialist healthcare services may be disproportionately impacted by this pandemic and the related restrictions. This study aimed to explore the lived experience of the first UK national lockdown as a woman with PCOS. Methods: As part of a larger cross-sectional study, 12 women with PCOS living in the UK during the first national COVID-19 lockdown were recruited to a qualitative study. Telephone interviews were conducted in June/July of 2020, and data collected were subjected to thematic analysis. Results: Five themes were identified. “My PCOS Journey” describes participants’ experiences of diagnosis, treatment and ongoing management of their PCOS. “Living Through Lockdown” describes the overall experience and impact of the lockdown on all aspects of participants’ lives. “Self-care and Managing Symptoms” describe multiple challenges to living well with PCOS during the lockdown, including lack of access to supplies and services, and disruption to weight management. “Healthcare on Hold” describes the uncertainty and anxiety associated with delays in accessing specialised healthcare for a range of PCOS aspects, including fertility treatment. “Exacerbating Existing Issues” captures the worsening of pre-existing mental health issues, and an increase in health anxiety and feelings of isolation. Conclusion: For the women with PCOS in this study, the COVID-19 pandemic and the first national lockdown was mostly experienced as adding to the pre-existing challenges of living with their condition. The mental health impact experienced by the study participants was increased due to lack of access to their normal support strategies, limitations on healthcare services and uncertainty about their risk of COVID-19.