• Machine Learning-Based Condition Monitoring for PV Systems: State of the Art and Future Prospects

      Berghout, Tarek; email: t.berghout@univ-batna2.dz; Benbouzid, Mohamed; orcid: 0000-0002-4844-508X; email: Mohamed.Benbouzid@univ-brest.fr; Bentrcia, Toufik; email: t.bentrcia@univ-batna2.dz; Ma, Xiandong; email: xiandong.ma@lancaster.ac.uk; Djurović, Siniša; orcid: 0000-0001-7700-6492; email: Sinisa.Durovic@manchester.ac.uk; Mouss, Leïla-Hayet; email: h.mouss@univ-batna2.dz (MDPI, 2021-10-03)
      To ensure the continuity of electric power generation for photovoltaic systems, condition monitoring frameworks are subject to major enhancements. The continuous uniform delivery of electric power depends entirely on a well-designed condition maintenance program. A just-in-time task to deal with several naturally occurring faults can be correctly undertaken via the cooperation of effective detection, diagnosis, and prognostic analyses. Therefore, the present review first outlines different failure modes to which all photovoltaic systems are subjected, in addition to the essential integrated detection methods and technologies. Then, data-driven paradigms, and their contribution to solving this prediction problem, are also explored. Accordingly, this review primarily investigates the different learning architectures used (i.e., ordinary, hybrid, and ensemble) in relation to their learning frameworks (i.e., traditional and deep learning). It also discusses the extension of machine learning to knowledge-driven approaches, including generative models such as adversarial networks and transfer learning. Finally, this review provides insights into different works to highlight various operating conditions and different numbers and types of failures, and provides links to some publicly available datasets in the field. The clear organization of the abundant information on this subject may result in rigorous guidelines for the trends adopted in the future.