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Integrated Cleaner Biocatalytic Process for Biodiesel Production from Crude Palm Oil Comparing to Refined Palm OilMuanruksa, Papasanee; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Wongsirichot, Phavit; email: email@example.com; Winterburn, James; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Kaewkannetra, Pakawadee; email: email@example.com (MDPI, 2021-06-15)An integrated cleaner biocatalyst process was performed for biodiesel production from crude palm oil (CPO) and refined palm oil (RPO). It was evaluated on process efficiency in terms of high purity of biodiesel as well as by-products without purification, less wastewater, less time consuming, and a simple downstream process. A first saponification step was carried out in both f CPO and RPO, a high purity of glycerol (86.25% and 87.5%) was achieved, respectively, while free fatty acids (FFASs) in soap were obtained after hexane extraction. High yields of FFASs were obtained from both CPO and RPO (98.83% and 90.94%). Subsequently, the FFAs were esterified to biodiesel by a biocatalyst of immobilized lipase. The highest biodiesel yields achieved were of 92.14% and 92.58% (CPO and RPO). Remarkably, biodiesel yields obtained from CPO and RPO achieved satisfactory values and the biocatalyst used could be reused for more than 16–17 cycles.