• Detection of Morphological Abnormalities in Schizophrenia: An Important Step to Identify Associated Genetic Disorders or Etiologic Subtypes

      Priol, Anne-Clémence; email: ac.priol@ch-guillaumeregnier.fr; Denis, Laure; email: l.denis@ch-guillaumeregnier.fr; Boulanger, Gaella; email: gaella.boulanger@gmail.com; Thépaut, Mathieu; email: mathieu0thepaut@gmail.com; Geoffray, Marie-Maude; email: marie-maude.geoffray@manchester.ac.uk; Tordjman, Sylvie; email: s.tordjman@ch-guillaumeregnier.fr (MDPI, 2021-08-31)
      Current research suggests that alterations in neurodevelopmental processes, involving gene X environment interactions during key stages of brain development (prenatal period and adolescence), are a major risk for schizophrenia. First, epidemiological studies supporting a genetic contribution to schizophrenia are presented in this article, including family, twin, and adoption studies. Then, an extensive literature review on genetic disorders associated with schizophrenia is reviewed. These epidemiological findings and clinical observations led researchers to conduct studies on genetic associations in schizophrenia, and more specifically on genomics (CNV: copy-number variant, and SNP: single nucleotide polymorphism). The main structural (CNV) and sequence (SNP) variants found in individuals with schizophrenia are reported here. Evidence of genetic contributions to schizophrenia and current knowledge on genetic syndromes associated with this psychiatric disorder highlight the importance of a clinical genetic examination to detect minor physical anomalies in individuals with ultra-high risk of schizophrenia. Several dysmorphic features have been described in schizophrenia, especially in early onset schizophrenia, and can be viewed as neurodevelopmental markers of vulnerability. Early detection of individuals with neurodevelopmental abnormalities is a fundamental issue to develop prevention and diagnostic strategies, therapeutic intervention and follow-up, and to ascertain better the underlying mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.