• Is Breast Cancer Risk Associated with Menopausal Hormone Therapy Modified by Current or Early Adulthood BMI or Age of First Pregnancy?

      Leventea, Eleni; orcid: 0000-0002-7213-1048; email: eleni.leventea@addenbrookes.nhs.uk; Harkness, Elaine F.; orcid: 0000-0001-6625-7739; email: Elaine.F.Harkness@manchester.ac.uk; Brentnall, Adam R.; email: a.brentnall@qmul.ac.uk; Howell, Anthony; email: Anthony.Howell@manchester.ac.uk; Evans, D. Gareth; orcid: 0000-0002-8482-5784; email: Gareth.Evans@mft.nhs.uk; Harvie, Michelle; orcid: 0000-0001-9761-3089; email: michelle.harvie@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-05-31)
      Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) has an attenuated effect on breast cancer (BC) risk amongst heavier women, but there are few data on a potential interaction with early adulthood body mass index (at age 20 years) and age of first pregnancy. We studied 56,489 women recruited to the PROCAS (Predicting Risk of Cancer at Screening) study in Manchester UK, 2009-15. Cox regression models estimated the effect of reported MHT use at entry on breast cancer (BC) risk, and potential interactions with a. self-reported current body mass index (BMI), b. BMI aged 20 and c. First pregnancy >30 years or nulliparity compared with first pregnancy 30 years. Analysis was adjusted for age, height, family history, age of menarche and menopause, menopausal status, oophorectomy, ethnicity, self-reported exercise and alcohol. With median follow up of 8 years, 1663 breast cancers occurred. BC risk was elevated amongst current users of combined MHT compared to never users (Hazard ratioHR 1.64, 95% CI 1.32–2.03), risk was higher than for oestrogen only users (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.79–1.34). Risk of current MHT was attenuated by current BMI (interaction HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65–0.99) per 5 unit increase in BMI. There was little evidence of an interaction between MHT use, breast cancer risk and early and current BMI or with age of first pregnancy.
    • The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Mammographic Density during a Premenopausal Weight Loss Intervention Study

      Atakpa, Emma C.; email: e.c.atakpa@qmul.ac.uk; Brentnall, Adam R.; email: a.brentnall@qmul.ac.uk; Astley, Susan; email: Sue.astley@manchester.ac.uk; Cuzick, Jack; email: j.cuzick@qmul.ac.uk; Evans, D. Gareth; orcid: 0000-0002-8482-5784; email: Gareth.Evans@mft.nhs.uk; Warren, Ruth M. L.; email: rmlw2@cam.ac.uk; Howell, Anthony; email: Anthony.Howell@manchester.ac.uk; Harvie, Michelle; orcid: 0000-0001-9761-3089; email: michelle.harvie@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-06-29)
      We evaluated the association between short-term change in body mass index (BMI) and breast density during a 1 year weight-loss intervention (Manchester, UK). We included 65 premenopausal women (35–45 years, ≥7 kg adult weight gain, family history of breast cancer). BMI and breast density (semi-automated area-based, automated volume-based) were measured at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years after study entry (1 year post intervention). Cross-sectional (between-women) and short-term change (within-women) associations between BMI and breast density were measured using repeated-measures correlation coefficients and multivariable linear mixed models. BMI was positively correlated with dense volume between-women (r = 0.41, 95%CI: 0.17, 0.61), but less so within-women (r = 0.08, 95%CI: −0.16, 0.28). There was little association with dense area (between-women r = −0.12, 95%CI: −0.38, 0.16; within-women r = 0.01, 95%CI: −0.24, 0.25). BMI and breast fat were positively correlated (volume: between r = 0.77, 95%CI: 0.69, 0.84, within r = 0.58, 95%CI: 0.36, 0.75; area: between r = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.63, 0.82, within r = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.23, 0.63). Multivariable models reported similar associations. Exploratory analysis suggested associations between BMI gain from 20 years and density measures (standard deviation change per +5 kg/m2 BMI: dense area: +0.61 (95%CI: 0.12, 1.09); fat volume: −0.31 (95%CI: −0.62, 0.00)). Short-term BMI change is likely to be positively associated with breast fat, but we found little association with dense tissue, although power was limited by small sample size.