Collections in this community

Recent Submissions

  • XMU-MP-1 induces growth arrest in a model human mini-organ and antagonises cell cycle-dependent paclitaxel cytotoxicity

    Mitchell, Ellen; Mellor, Charlotte E. L.; Purba, Talveen S.; orcid: 0000-0003-3735-7735; email: talveen.purba@manchester.ac.uk (BioMed Central, 2020-09-17)
    Abstract: Background: XMU-MP-1 is an inhibitor of the Hippo pathway kinases MST1/2 and has been shown to promote the downstream activation of the pro-proliferative, pro-regenerative and anti-apoptotic transcriptional regulator YAP1. We tested whether XMU-MP-1 can activate YAP1 in a model human mini-organ, namely the hair follicle, to determine whether it can be pharmacologically exploited to promote regeneration in the hair follicle as a novel strategy to treat pathological hair loss disorders. Results: XMU-MP-1 treatment inhibited MOB1 phosphorylation but did not increase active YAP1 in the hair follicle. Rather than promote proliferation, XMU-MP-1 serendipitously decreased the number of Ki-67+, EdU+ and phospho histone H3+ hair matrix keratinocytes and antagonised the cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel. Conclusions: XMU-MP-1 perturbs epithelial cell cycle progression in a model human mini-organ. This may arise as an off-target effect, especially when XMU-MP-1 has been described to strongly inhibit 21 additional kinases beyond MST1/2. Therefore, whilst these effects may be dependent on tissue context, researchers should exercise caution when interpreting the effects of XMU-MP-1, especially in tissues with actively proliferating cell populations.
  • Mixing between chemically variable primitive basalts creates and modifies crystal cargoes

    Neave, David A.; orcid: 0000-0001-6343-2482; email: david.neave@manchester.ac.uk; Beckmann, Philipp; Behrens, Harald; Holtz, François (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021-09-17)
    Abstract: Basaltic crystal cargoes often preserve records of mantle-derived chemical variability that have been erased from their carrier liquids by magma mixing. However, the consequences of mixing between similarly primitive but otherwise chemically variable magmas remain poorly understood despite ubiquitous evidence of chemical variability in primary melt compositions and mixing-induced disequilibrium within erupted crystal cargoes. Here we report observations from magma–magma reaction experiments performed on analogues of primitive Icelandic lavas derived from distinct mantle sources to determine how their crystal cargoes respond to mixing-induced chemical disequilibrium. Chemical variability in our experimental products is controlled dominantly by major element diffusion in the melt that alters phase equilibria and triggers plagioclase resorption within regions that were initially plagioclase saturated. Isothermal mixing between chemically variable basaltic magmas may therefore play important but previously underappreciated roles in creating and modifying crystal cargoes by unlocking plagioclase-rich mushes and driving resorption, (re-)crystallisation and solid-state diffusion.
  • Electronic Properties and Structure of Boron–Hydrogen Complexes in Crystalline Silicon

    De Guzman, Joyce Ann T.; orcid: 0000-0001-5306-5033; email: joyceann.deguzman@manchester.ac.uk; Markevich, Vladimir P.; Coutinho, José; Abrosimov, Nikolay V.; Halsall, Matthew P.; Peaker, Anthony R. (2021-09-17)
    The subject of hydrogen–boron interactions in crystalline silicon is revisited with reference to light and elevated temperature‐induced degradation (LeTID) in boron‐doped solar silicon. Ab initio modeling of structure, binding energy, and electronic properties of complexes incorporating a substitutional boron and one or two hydrogen atoms is performed. From the calculations, it is confirmed that a BH pair is electrically inert. It is found that boron can bind two H atoms. The resulting BH2 complex is a donor with a transition level estimated at E c–0.24 eV. Experimentally, the electrically active defects in n‐type Czochralski‐grown Si crystals co‐doped with phosphorus and boron, into which hydrogen is introduced by different methods, are investigated using junction capacitance techniques. In the deep‐level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) spectra of hydrogenated Si:P + B crystals subjected to heat‐treatments at 100 °C under reverse bias, an electron emission signal with an activation energy of ≈0.175 eV is detected. The trap is a donor with electronic properties close to those predicted for boron–dihydrogen. The donor character of BH2 suggests that it can be a very efficient recombination center of minority carriers in B‐doped p‐type Si crystals. A sequence of boron–hydrogen reactions, which can be related to the LeTID effect in Si:B is proposed.
  • The Role of the European Society of Human Genetics in Delivering Genomic Education

    Tobias, Edward S.; Avram, Elena; Calapod, Patricia; Cordier, Christophe; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Ding, Can; Dolzan, Vita; Houge, Sofia Douzgou; Lynch, Sally Ann; O’Byrne, James; et al. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-09-03)
    The European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) was founded in 1967 as a professional organisation for members working in genetics in clinical practice, research and education. The Society seeks the integration of scientific research and its implementation into clinical practice and the education of specialists and the public in all areas of medical and human genetics. The Society works to do this through many approaches, including educational sessions at the annual conference; training courses in general and specialist areas of genetics; an online resource of educational materials (EuroGEMS); and a mentorship scheme. The ESHG Education Committee is implementing new approaches to expand the reach of its educational activities and portfolio. With changes in technology, appreciation of the utility of genomics in healthcare and the public’s and patients’ increased awareness of the role of genomics, this review will summarise how the ESHG is adapting to deliver innovative educational activity.
  • Autosomal Recessive Cutis Laxa 1C Mutations Disrupt the Structure and Interactions of Latent TGFβ Binding Protein-4

    Alanazi, Yasmene F.; Lockhart-Cairns, Michael P.; Cain, Stuart A.; Jowitt, Thomas A.; Weiss, Anthony S.; Baldock, Clair; email: clair.baldock@manchester.ac.uk (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-09-03)
    Latent TGFβ binding protein-4 (LTBP4) is a multi-domain glycoprotein, essential for regulating the extracellular bioavailability of TGFβ and assembly of elastic fibre proteins, fibrillin-1 and tropoelastin. LTBP4 mutations are linked to autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 1C (ARCL1C), a rare congenital disease characterised by high mortality and severely disrupted connective tissues. Despite the importance of LTBP4, the structure and molecular consequences of disease mutations are unknown. Therefore, we analysed the structural and functional consequences of three ARCL1C causing point mutations which effect highly conserved cysteine residues. Our structural and biophysical data show that the LTBP4 N- and C-terminal regions are monomeric in solution and adopt extended conformations with the mutations resulting in subtle changes to their conformation. Similar to LTBP1, the N-terminal region is relatively inflexible, whereas the C-terminal region is flexible. Interaction studies show that one C-terminal mutation slightly decreases binding to fibrillin-1. We also found that the LTBP4 C-terminal region directly interacts with tropoelastin which is perturbed by both C-terminal ARCL1C mutations, whereas an N-terminal mutation increased binding to fibulin-4 but did not affect the interaction with heparan sulphate. Our results suggest that LTBP4 mutations contribute to ARCL1C by disrupting the structure and interactions of LTBP4 which are essential for elastogenesis in a range of mammalian connective tissues.
  • Pandemics, Protests, and Pronouns: The Changing Landscape of Biomedical Visualisation and Education.

    Finn, Gabrielle M; email: gabrielle.finn@manchester.ac.uk; Quinn, Rebecca; Sanders, Katherine; Ballard, William; Balogun-Katung, Abisola; Dueñas, Angelique N (2021)
    Events in early 2020 changed the landscape of education for the foreseeable future, perhaps permanently. Three events had a significant impact; (1) the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, (2) the death of George Floyd, which resulted in the most recent Black Lives Matter (BLM) protests, and (3) the Twitter storm, the resultant societal fallout and freedom of speech campaigns, following comments made by author JK Rowling which many deemed transphobic. These events had a differential impact on biomedical sciences, when compared to other sectors. COVID-19 resulted in a global lockdown, with higher education institutions closing campuses and moving to online-only delivery. This rapid change required radical shifts in the use of technology, with mass delivery of teaching at short notice. The BLM protests further raised awareness of the inequalities within society, particularly those experienced by Black people and other oppressed groups. As a result, there have been calls for the decolonisation of the curriculum. The implications of these three key events have led institutions to rethink their policies, teaching delivery, assessment, curricula, and physical environments. This chapter considers (1) the implications of a swift change in the primary mode of curriculum delivery within Higher Education to online formats and (2) how recent adverse events have resulted in calls for much-needed changes in visual representations within biomedical sciences. Finally, we consider (3) the role of the hidden curriculum and the potential impact of visual representations in curricula on the delivery of healthcare and the fight against health inequalities, which are often as a result of implicit biases. The year 2020 has proven timely in presenting the opportunity for change, provided through the power of imagery. [Abstract copyright: © 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.]
  • Unravelling the potential of graphene in glioblastoma therapy.

    Foo, Cher Ying; Fu, Richard Z; email: richard.fu@manchester.ac.uk (2021-07-21)
    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant types of central nervous system tumours. Despite advances in treatment modalities, it remains largely incurable with an extremely poor prognosis. Treatment of GBM is associated with several difficulties such as the risk of damaging healthy brain tissues during surgery, drug resistance and inadequate drug delivery across the blood brain barrier. The new nanomaterial graphene, has recently attracted great attention due to its unique physico-chemical characteristics, good biocompatibility, specific targeting and small size. Starting from simple drug delivery systems, the application of graphene-based nanomaterials has been extended to a versatile platform of multiple therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy, gene therapy, photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy. Graphene-based materials can also be engineered to integrate multiple functions into a single platform for combination therapy for enhanced anticancer activity and reduced side effects. This review aims to discuss the state-of-the-art applications of graphene-based materials in GBM diagnosis and therapy. In addition, future challenges and prospects regarding this promising field are discussed, which may pave the way towards improving the safety and efficacy of graphene-based therapeutics. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]
  • High-throughput molecular simulations reveal the origin of ion free energy barriers in graphene oxide membranes.

    Williams, Christopher D, ; email: christopher.williams@manchester.ac.uk; Siperstein, Flor R,; Carbone, Paola, (2021-07-22)
    Graphene oxide (GO) membranes are highly touted as materials for contemporary separation challenges including desalination, yet understanding of the interplay between their structure and salt rejection is limited. K ion permeation through hydrated GO membranes was investigated by combining structurally realistic molecular models and high-throughput molecular dynamics simulations. We show that it is essential to consider the complex GO microstructure to quantitatively reproduce experimentally-derived free energy barriers to K permeation for membranes with various interlayer distances less than 1.3 nm. This finding confirms the non-uniformity of GO nanopores and the necessity of the high-throughput approach for this class of material. The large barriers arise due to significant dehydration of K inside the membrane, which can have as few as 3 coordinated water molecules, compared to 7 in bulk solution. Thus, even if the membranes have an average pore size larger than the ion's hydrated diameter, the significant presence of pores whose size is smaller than the hydrated diameter creates bottlenecks for the permeation process.
  • Suicidality in women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: a systematic literature review

    Osborn, E.; Brooks, J.; O’Brien, P. M. S.; Wittkowski, A.; email: anja.wittkowski@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Vienna, 2020-09-16)
    Abstract: Previous research has identified how menstruation is an important factor in both attempted and completed suicides for women. The purpose of this review was to outline (a) the risk profile for suicidality in women who were identified to experience Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD), a condition characterized by severe physical and psychological changes that occur during the luteal menstrual phase, and (b) the implications of these findings for clinical practice. A systematic literature review was conducted using five databases to identify any peer-reviewed articles published between 1989 and 2019. Ten papers eligible for inclusion were identified: three pertaining to suicide cognitions, five to suicide attempts and two to both cognitions and attempts. Findings showed that suicidal thoughts, ideation, plans and attempts were strongly associated with experiences of PMDD and that these findings were independent of psychiatric co-morbidities. However, women with PMDD did not present with more severe risk profiles for suicide attempts (in terms of frequency, impulsivity and lethality) or make more frequent attempts during the luteal menstrual phase compared with suicide attempters without PMDD. Women with PMDD should be considered a high risk group for suicidality; thus, identifying and treating symptoms are vital in reducing suicide attempts. Implications for clinical practice are outlined in the discussion.
  • Children and young people’s experiences of completing mental health and wellbeing measures for research: learning from two school-based pilot projects

    Demkowicz, Ola; orcid: 0000-0001-9204-0912; email: ola.demkowicz@manchester.ac.uk; Ashworth, Emma; Mansfield, Rosie; Stapley, Emily; Miles, Helena; Hayes, Daniel; Burrell, Kim; Moore, Anna; Deighton, Jessica (BioMed Central, 2020-09-16)
    Abstract: Background: In recent years there has been growing interest in child and adolescent mental health and wellbeing, alongside increasing emphasis on schools as a crucial site for research and intervention. This has coincided with an increased use of self-report mental health and wellbeing measures in research with this population, including in school-based research projects. We set out to explore the way that children and young people perceive and experience completing mental health and wellbeing measures, with a specific focus on completion in a school context, in order to inform future measure and research design. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews and focus groups with 133 participants aged 8–16 years following their completion of mental health and wellbeing measures as part of school-based research programmes, using thematic analysis to identify patterns of experience. Findings: We identified six themes: Reflecting on emotions during completion; the importance of anonymity; understanding what is going to happen; ease of responding to items; level of demand; and interacting with the measure format. Conclusions: Our findings offer greater insight into children and young people’s perceptions and experiences in reporting on their mental health and wellbeing. Such understanding can be used to support more ethical and robust data collection procedures in child and adolescent mental health research, both for data quality and ethical purposes. We offer several practical recommendations for researchers, including facilitating this in a school context.
  • A lesson from the wild: The natural state of eosinophils is Ly6G hi

    Mair, Iris; orcid: 0000-0002-7326-3114; email: iris.mair@manchester.ac.uk; Wolfenden, Andrew; Lowe, Ann E.; Bennett, Alex; orcid: 0000-0003-4869-9132; Muir, Andrew; orcid: 0000-0002-1461-8712; Smith, Hannah; orcid: 0000-0001-8911-9048; Fenn, Jonathan; orcid: 0000-0002-9255-6975; Bradley, Janette E.; orcid: 0000-0003-3973-7977; email: jan.bradley1@nottingham.ac.uk; Else, Kathryn J.; orcid: 0000-0001-6660-055X; email: Kathryn.else@manchester.ac.uk (2021-09-15)
    Abstract: With a long history of promoting pathological inflammation, eosinophils are now emerging as important regulatory cells. Yet, findings from controlled laboratory experiments so far lack translation to animals, including humans, in their natural environment. In order to appreciate the breadth of eosinophil phenotype under non‐laboratory, uncontrolled conditions, we exploit a free‐living population of the model organism Mus musculus domesticus. Eosinophils were present at significantly higher proportions in the spleen and bone marrow of wild mice compared with laboratory mice. Strikingly, the majority of eosinophils of wild mice exhibited a unique Ly6Ghi phenotype seldom described in laboratory literature. Ly6G expression correlated with activation status in spleen and bone marrow, but not peritoneal exudate cells, and is therefore likely not an activation marker per se. Intermediate Ly6G expression was transiently induced in a small proportion of eosinophils from C57BL/6 laboratory mice during acute infection with the whipworm Trichuris muris, but not during low‐dose chronic infection, which better represents parasite exposure in the wild. We conclude that the natural state of the eosinophil is not adequately reflected in the standard laboratory mouse, which compromises our attempts to dissect their functional relevance. Our findings emphasize the importance of studying the immune system in its natural context – alongside more mechanistic laboratory experiments – in order to capture the entirety of immune phenotypes and functions.
  • Bad law or implementation flaws? Lessons from the implementation of the new law on epidemics during the response to the first wave of COVID-19 in Switzerland.

    Francetic, Igor; email: igor.francetic@manchester.ac.uk (2021-08-15)
    After the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic, Switzerland overhauled its 1970 law on epidemics. The reform aimed at improving early detection, surveillance, and preparedness for future outbreaks of infectious diseases. Notably, the law introduced stronger coordination between Federal and Cantonal authorities, better management tools and international cooperation. The new law entered into force in 2016 after a long legislative process. During the process, the law survived a referendum fuelled by concerns about vaccine safety and pharmaceutical industry interference. The law was first applied during the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020. The epicentre of the outbreak in Europe was in Lombardy, a large Italian region adjacent to Switzerland and with strong economic ties with its southern region of Ticino. The first months of pandemic response highlighted two major weaknesses. Firstly, the mechanisms introduced by the new law did not ease the tension between Cantonal autonomy and central coordination of the pandemic response. Central and Cantonal authorities will need to put in place new rules and arrangements to avoid dangerous delayed responses to foreseeable problems related to the spread of infectious diseases. Secondly, relevant stakeholders excluded from the policymaking process (trade unions, firms, large industries) should be involved to allow the introduction of harsh restrictions when needed, both internally and in relation to cross-border workers. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.]
  • Sexuality and the Human Rights of Persons With Dementia

    Peisah, Carmelle; Ayalon, Liat; Verbeek, Hilde; Benbow, Susan Mary; Wiskerke, Esther; Rabheru, Kiran; Sorinmade, Oluwatoyin (Elsevier, 2021-09-13)
    We explore barriers to enjoyment of human rights to sexuality of persons with dementia and remedies for addressing these. Enjoyment of sexuality is contingent upon actualization of rights to dignity, autonomy, respect for will and preferences, abuse safeguarding and equitable access to highest standards of sexual health. Persons with dementia living at home or in care face systemic barriers to enjoyment of sexuality fueled by ageism, apathy and ignorance, compounded by complex legal barriers in relation to consent. Such challenges can be tackled with awareness raising and education of care staff, families and physicians, including training for capacity assessment with dimensional, noncategorical conceptualization of capacity, leaving room for supported decision-making. These measures, together with strengthened legislative and human rights frameworks to cater to the specific needs of older people, may allow people to live well with dementia and exercise their human rights to enjoy sexuality in a safe and lawful manner.
  • ‘Stay home you murderer!’: populist policing of COVID-19 in Italy

    Scalia, Vincenzo; orcid: 0000-0002-5331-7349; email: Vincenzo.Scalia@winchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2021-05-19)
    Italy was the first European country to experience the impact of COVID-19. In order to deal with the health emergency, in early March 2020, the Italian government enforced strict lockdown measures. The different Italian police forces, the Polizia di Stato, Carabinieri and city police forces (Polizia Municipale), patrolled the streets, ensuring that people stayed at home and non-essential shops remained closed. These police forces received unprecedented support from the public in enforcing lockdown. People were active in their neighbourhoods, taking pictures of alleged violators and reporting them to the police, as well as posting pictures of those violating the rules on social networks. Local administrators encouraged citizens to report lockdown violations and in the case of Rome, introduced an online reporting system. This article focuses on the policing of lockdown in Italy. The article develops the argument that public attitudes, defined as policing from below, combined with policing from above by local administrators, produced a populist policing of the lockdown. Qualitative methodology is used to discuss interviews with police officers and analyse newspaper articles. Populist political forces are hegemonising in Italy, relying on the feelings of insecurity that the virus has embittered. Populist hegemony strongly influenced the policing of problems related to COVID. The lack of community policing or plural policing models within the organisation of Italian police forces, which remain a combination of continental and colonial models, has been decisive in the development of populist policing. The consequence of this is a type of ‘policing on demand’, with the public providing the police with intelligence and demanding enforcement.
  • Information content best characterises the hemispheric selectivity of the inferior parietal lobe: a meta-analysis

    Gray, Oliver; email: oliver.gray@manchester.ac.uk; Fry, Lewis; Montaldi, Daniela (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2020-09-15)
    Abstract: Our understanding of the inferior parietal lobe (IPL) remains challenged by inconsistencies between neuroimaging and neuropsychological perspectives. To date, others assume that hemispheric specialisation of the IPL is linked with the type of processing; attention processing in the right hemisphere; memory retrieval and semantic judgement in the left hemisphere. Here, we provide compelling evidence associating the type of information being processed with the recruitment of each hemisphere’s IPL. In a meta-analysis, we classify 121 previous fMRI reports of IPL activity arising from episodic memory retrieval, according to the type of information that characterises each fMRI contrast. We demonstrate that the left IPL is more consistently associated with retrieval of the semantic (95% of eligible contrasts) than perceptual aspects of memory (83%). In contrast, the right IPL is more consistently associated with the retrieval of perceptual (97%), than semantic aspects of memory (43%). This work revises assumptions of how the IPL contributes to healthy cognition and has major implications for IPL-related neuropsychological deficits.
  • ‘Is climate science taking over the science?’: A corpus-based study of competing stances on bias, dogma and expertise in the blogosphere

    Pérez-González, Luis; orcid: 0000-0003-1756-9458; email: Luis.Perez-Gonzalez@manchester.ac.uk (Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2020-09-15)
    Abstract: Climate change science has become an increasingly polarized site of controversy, where discussions on epistemological rigour are difficult to separate from debates on the impact that economic and political interests have on the production of evidence and the construction of knowledge. Little research has been conducted so far on the antagonistic discursive processes through which climate knowledge is being contested and traditional forms of expertise are being (de-)legitimized—whether by members of the scientific community or non-scientist actors. This corpus-based study contributes to previous scholarship on the climate science controversy in a number of respects. Unlike earlier studies based on the analysis of mainstream media articles, this paper interrogates a corpus of climate change blog posts published by scientists, journalists, researchers and lobbyists laying claim to core, contributory and interactional forms of expertise—as conceptualized within the third wave of science studies. Further, the corpus informing this study has been designed to reflect the complex and multivoiced nature of the climate knowledge production process. Drawn from five different blogs, the views represented are not confined to the two poles between which the entrenched dialectic of ‘alarmists’ versus ‘deniers’ is typically played out in the climate science debate. Following a systemic functional conceptualization of dialogic engagement as a means of positioning authorial voices vis-à-vis competing perspectives construed and referenced in a text, this paper reports on bloggers’ use of three lexical items (bias, dogma and peer review) to expose their reliance on (non-)epistemic values. Concordances and a range of visualization tools are used to gain systematic insights into the network of lexical choices that obtain around these items, and to gauge whether/how bloggers construct coherent authorial subjectivities in a bid to claim expert status and/or question the recognition of other players in the debate.
  • Visual impairment and medication safety: a protocol for a scoping review

    Giles, Sally J.; orcid: 0000-0003-1623-6029; email: sally.giles@manchester.ac.uk; Panagioti, Maria; Riste, Lisa; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Lewis, Penny; Adeyemi, Isabel; Davies, Karen; Morris, Rebecca; Phipps, Denham; Dickenson, Christine; et al. (BioMed Central, 2021-09-15)
    Abstract: Background: The number of individuals with a visual impairment in the UK was estimated a few years ago to be around 1.8 million. People can be visually impaired from birth, childhood, early adulthood or later in life. Those with visual impairment are subject to health inequities and increased risk for patient safety incidents in comparison to the general population. They are also known to be at an increased risk of experiencing medication errors compared to those without visual impairment. In view of this, this review aims to understand the issues of medication safety for VI people. Methods/design: Four electronic bibliographic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo and CINAHL. Our search strategy will include search combinations of two key blocks of terms. Studies will not be excluded based on design. Included studies will be empirical studies. They will include studies that relate to both medication safety and visual impairment. Two reviewers (SG and LR) will screen all the titles and abstracts. SG, LR, RM, SCS and PL will perform study selection and data extraction using standard forms. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion or third party adjudication. Data to be collected will include study characteristics (year, objective, research method, setting, country), participant characteristics (number, age, gender, diagnoses), medication safety incident type and characteristics. Discussion: The review will summarise the literature relating to medication safety and visual impairment.
  • Simulations of Neutrino and Gamma-Ray Production from Relativistic Black-Hole Microquasar Jets

    Papavasileiou, Theodora; orcid: 0000-0002-2044-1845; email: th.papavasileiou@uowm.gr; Kosmas, Odysseas; orcid: 0000-0002-7047-9438; email: odysseas.kosmas@manchester.ac.uk; Sinatkas, Ioannis; email: isinatkas@uowm.gr (MDPI, 2021-09-13)
    Recently, microquasar jets have aroused the interest of many researchers focusing on the astrophysical plasma outflows and various jet ejections. In this work, we concentrate on the investigation of electromagnetic radiation and particle emissions from the jets of stellar black hole binary systems characterized by the hadronic content in their jets. Such emissions are reliably described within the context of relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics. Our model calculations are based on the Fermi acceleration mechanism through which the primary particles (mainly protons and electrons) of the jet are accelerated. As a result, a small portion of thermal protons of the jet acquire relativistic energies, through shock-waves generated into the jet plasma. From the inelastic collisions of fast (non-thermal) protons with the thermal (cold) ones, secondary charged and neutral particles (pions, kaons, muons, η-particles, etc.) are created, as well as electromagnetic radiation from the radio wavelength band to X-rays and even very high energy gamma-rays. One of our main goals is, through the appropriate solution of the transport equation and taking into account the various mechanisms that cause energy losses to the particles, to study the secondary particle concentrations within hadronic astrophysical jets. After assessing the suitability and sensitivity of the derived (for this purpose) algorithms on the Galactic MQs SS 433 and Cyg X-1, as a concrete extragalactic binary system, we examine the LMC X-1 located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way Galaxy. It is worth mentioning that, for the companion O star (and its extended nebula structure) of the LMC X-1 system, new observations using spectroscopic data from VLT/UVES have been published a few years ago.
  • Europe’s Transition to Sustainability: Actors, Approaches and Policies

    Fernandez, Rosa; orcid: 0000-0002-0444-7999; Schoenefeld, Jonas J.; orcid: 0000-0002-9451-9174; Hoerber, Thomas; Oberthür, Sebastian (Informa UK Limited, 2021-09-06)
  • Community Renewable Energy Projects: The Future of the Sustainable Energy Transition?

    Fernandez, Rosa; orcid: 0000-0002-0444-7999 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-09-06)

View more