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  • Targeting dissociation using cognitive behavioural therapy in voice hearers with psychosis and a history of interpersonal trauma: A case series

    Varese, Filippo; orcid: 0000-0001-7244-598X; email: filippo.varese@manchester.ac.uk; Douglas, Maggie; Dudley, Robert; Bowe, Samantha; Christodoulides, Thomas; Common, Stephanie; Grace, Tim; Lumley, Victoria; McCartney, Laura; Pace, Sonia; et al. (2020-09-10)
    Abstract: Objectives: Previous studies have suggested that dissociation might represent an important mechanism in the maintenance of auditory verbal hallucinations (i.e., voices) in people who have a history of traumatic life experiences. This study investigated whether a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention for psychosis augmented with techniques specifically targeting dissociative symptoms could improve both dissociation and auditory hallucination severity in a sample of voice hearers with psychosis and a history of interpersonal trauma (e.g., exposure to sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse). Design: Case series. Methods: A total of 19 service users with psychosis were offered up to 24 therapy sessions over a 6‐month intervention window. Participants were assessed four times over a 12‐month period using measures of dissociation, psychotic symptoms severity, and additional secondary mental‐health and recovery measures. Results: Sixteen participants engaged in the intervention and were included in last‐observation‐carried‐forward analyses. Dropout rates were in line with those of other CBT for psychosis trials (26.3%). Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed large and significant improvements in dissociation (drm = 1.23) and hallucination severity (drm = 1.09) by the end of treatment; treatment gains were maintained 6 months following the end of therapy. Large and statistically significant gains were also observed on measures of post‐traumatic symptoms, delusion severity, emotional distress, and perceived recovery from psychosis. Conclusions: The findings of this case series suggest that the reduction of dissociation represents a valuable and acceptable treatment target for clients with auditory verbal hallucinations and a trauma history. Future clinical trials might benefit from considering targeting dissociative experiences as part of psychological interventions for distressing voices. Practitioner points: Practitioners should consider the role of dissociation when assessing and formulating the difficulties of voice hearers with a history of trauma. Techniques to reduce dissociation can be feasibly integrated within psychological interventions for voices. Voice hearers with histories of trauma can benefit from psychological interventions aimed at reducing dissociation.
  • Heuristic assessment of psychological interventions in schools (HAPI Schools)

    Platt, Ian A.; orcid: 0000-0003-2497-6713; Kannangara, Chathurika; orcid: 0000-0001-6955-8158; Carson, Jerome; orcid: 0000-0002-7596-116X; Tytherleigh, Michelle; orcid: 0000-0003-2498-8175 (Wiley, 2021-05-02)
  • Shift work is associated with positive COVID-19 status in hospitalised patients.

    Maidstone, Robert; Anderson, Simon G; Ray, David W; Rutter, Martin K; Durrington, Hannah J; orcid: 0000-0002-9990-9446; Blaikley, John F; orcid: 0000-0001-7651-5682 (2021-04-26)
    Shift work is associated with lung disease and infections. We therefore investigated the impact of shift work on significant COVID-19 illness. 501 000 UK Biobank participants were linked to secondary care SARS-CoV-2 PCR results from Public Health England. Healthcare worker occupational testing and those without an occupational history were excluded from analysis. Multivariate logistic regression (age, sex, ethnicity and deprivation index) revealed that irregular shift work (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.92 to 3.05), permanent shift work (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.19), day shift work (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.6), irregular night shift work (OR 3.04, 95% CI 2.37 to 3.9) and permanent night shift work (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.67 to 3.7) were all associated with positive COVID-19 tests compared with participants that did not perform shift work. This relationship persisted after adding sleep duration, chronotype, premorbid disease, body mass index, alcohol and smoking to the model. The effects of workplace were controlled for in three ways: (1) by adding in work factors (proximity to a colleague combined with estimated disease exposure) to the multivariate model or (2) comparing participants within each job sector (non-essential, essential and healthcare) and (3) comparing shift work and non-shift working colleagues. In all cases, shift work was significantly associated with COVID-19. In 2017, 120 307 UK Biobank participants had their occupational history reprofiled. Using this updated occupational data shift work remained associated with COVID-19 (OR 4.48 (95% CI 1.8 to 11.18). Shift work is associated with a higher likelihood of in-hospital COVID-19 positivity. This risk could potentially be mitigated via additional workplace precautions or vaccination. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.]
  • TCF3 Dominant Negative Variant Causes an Early Block in B-Lymphopoiesis and Agammaglobulinemia.

    Al Sheikh, Ebtehal; Arkwright, Peter D; email: peter.arkwright@manchester.ac.uk; Herwadkar, Archana; Hussell, Tracy; Briggs, Tracy A (2021-04-27)
  • Phenanthrene alters the electrical activity of atrial and ventricular myocytes of a polar fish, the Navaga cod.

    Abramochkin, Denis V; Kompella, Shiva N; Shiels, Holly A; email: holly.shiels@manchester.ac.uk (2021-04-04)
    Oil and gas exploration in the Arctic can result in the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into relatively pristine environments. Following the recent spill of approximately 17 500 tonnes of diesel fuel in Norilsk, Russia, May 2020, our study focussed on the effects of phenanthrene, a low molecular weight PAH found in diesel and crude oil, on the isolated atrial and ventricular myocytes from the heart of the polar teleost, the Navaga cod (Eleginus nawaga). Acute exposure to phenanthrene in navaga cardiomyocytes caused significant action potential (AP) prolongation, confirming the proarrhythmic effects of this pollutant. We show AP prolongation was due to potent inhibition of the main repolarising current, I , with an IC value of ~2 µM. We also show a potent inhibitory effect (~55%) of 1 µM phenanthrene on the transient I currents that protects the heart from early-after-depolarizations and arrhythmias. These data, along with more minor effects on inward sodium (I ) (~17% inhibition at 10 µM) and calcium (I ) (~17% inhibition at 30 µM) currents, and no effects on inward rectifier (I and I ) currents, demonstrate the cardiotoxic effects exerted by phenanthrene on the atrium and ventricle of navaga cod. Moreover, we report the first data that we are aware of on the impact of phenanthrene on atrial myocyte function in any fish species. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]
  • Advances in Biofabrication for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Applications

    Domingos, Marco; email: marco.domingos@manchester.ac.uk; Moxon, Sam; email: samuel.moxon@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-05-09)
    Biofabrication strategies continue to gain considerable interest in the efforts to develop methods for better replicating in vitro models of human tissues [...]
  • Humanity, expectations, access and transformation (HEAT): revisiting South African higher education entrance assessment in a postcolonial context

    Francis, Suzanne; Lewis, Janine; Fredericks, Brenton; Johnson, Belinda (Informa UK Limited, 2020-07-19)
  • Scholar, gentleman and player: a tribute to Eric Dunning

    Malcolm, Dominic; orcid: 0000-0002-5898-2911; Waddington, Ivan; orcid: 0000-0002-5311-9967 (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-14)
  • Millimeter-Wave Free-Space Dielectric Characterization

    Liu, Xiaoming; Gan, Lu; Yang, Bin
    Millimeter wave technologies have widespread applications, for which dielectric permittivity is a fundamental parameter. The non-resonant free-space measurement techniques for dielectric permittivity using vector network analysis in the millimeter wave range are reviewed. An introductory look at the applications, significance, and properties of dielectric permittivity in the millimeter wave range is addressed first. The principal aspects of free-space millimeter wave measurement methods are then discussed, by assessing a variety of systems, theoretical models, extraction algorithms and calibration methods. In addition to conventional solid dielectric materials, the measurement of artificial metamaterials, liquid, and gaseous-phased samples are separately investigated. The pros of free-space material extraction methods are then compared with resonance and transmission line methods, and their future perspective is presented in the concluding part.
  • Finding my voice: A qualitative exploration into the perceived impact of person‐centred counsellor training upon counsellors who were adopted as a baby

    Parkes, Charlotte Hannah; orcid: 0000-0002-8578-0768; email: 1327305@chester.ac.uk; email: c.hannah.parkes@gmail.com; Mintz, Rita (2021-05-10)
    Abstract: This small‐scale qualitative study explored how qualified person‐centred counsellors who were adopted as a baby perceived the impact of their person‐centred counselling training. The study focused on the adoptees’ experiences of adoption and how these influenced their experience of person‐centred counselling training. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to gain insight into how the participants made sense of their lived experience. The findings supported the difficulties associated with adoption, which not only are present in existing literature and research but also placed an emphasis on the particular vulnerabilities associated with being adopted as a baby. The findings further highlighted the positive impact of person‐centred counselling training on the participants’ personal development, which included the following: increased self‐awareness, self‐acceptance, identity development and ‘having a voice’. The findings confer implications for clinical practice in understanding the experience of adoptees who were adopted as a baby and for trainers in the planning and provision of person‐centred training. The research also identifies the healing aspects of person‐centred counselling training, which facilitated the participants’ positive self‐development. In addition, unique opportunities for counsellors who were also adopted as a baby are suggested and the need for the Adoption Support Fund to be extended to allow an adoptee of any age to access therapeutic support is also identified. The links made between adoption and person‐centred training are an original area of research and are worthy of further exploration.
  • Transitions to higher education: the case of students with vocational background

    Katartzi, Eugenia; orcid: 0000-0003-1303-8916; Hayward, Geoff (Informa UK Limited, 2019-04-27)
  • A quest for relaxation? A figurational analysis of the transformation of yoga into a global leisure time phenomenon

    Thurston, Miranda; orcid: 0000-0001-7779-3836; Bloyce, Daniel; orcid: 0000-0003-4114-3588 (Informa UK Limited, 2020-08-31)
  • Norwegian youngsters’ perceptions of physical education: exploring the implications for mental health

    Røset, Linda; orcid: 0000-0003-3377-7636; Green, Ken; orcid: 0000-0003-1692-7065; Thurston, Miranda; orcid: 0000-0001-7779-3836 (Informa UK Limited, 2019-06-24)
  • Prediction of One Repetition Maximum Using Reference Minimum Velocity Threshold Values in Young and Middle-Aged Resistance-Trained Males

    Fernandes, John F. T.; email: jfmtfernandes@hotmail.co.uk; Dingley, Amelia F.; email: amelia.dingley@hartpury.ac.uk; Garcia-Ramos, Amador; orcid: 0000-0003-0608-8755; email: amagr@ugr.es; Perez-Castilla, Alejandro; orcid: 0000-0001-5535-2087; email: alexperez@ugr.es; Tufano, James J.; orcid: 0000-0001-8325-0344; email: tufano@ftvs.cuni.cz; Twist, Craig; orcid: 0000-0001-6168-0378; email: c.twist@chester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-05-07)
    Background: This study determined the accuracy of different velocity-based methods when predicting one-repetition maximum (1RM) in young and middle-aged resistance-trained males. Methods: Two days after maximal strength testing, 20 young (age 21.0 ± 1.6 years) and 20 middle-aged (age 42.6 ± 6.7 years) resistance-trained males completed three repetitions of bench press, back squat, and bent-over-row at loads corresponding to 20–80% 1RM. Using reference minimum velocity threshold (MVT) values, the 1RM was estimated from the load-velocity relationships through multiple (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% 1RM), two-point (20 and 80% 1RM), high-load (60 and 80% 1RM) and low-load (20 and 40% 1RM) methods for each group. Results: Despite most prediction methods demonstrating acceptable correlations (r = 0.55 to 0.96), the absolute errors for young and middle-aged groups were generally moderate to high for bench press (absolute errors = 8.2 to 14.2% and 8.6 to 20.4%, respectively) and bent-over-row (absolute error = 14.9 to 19.9% and 8.6 to 18.2%, respectively). For squats, the absolute errors were lower in the young group (5.7 to 13.4%) than the middle-aged group (13.2 to 17.0%) but still unacceptable. Conclusion: These findings suggest that reference MVTs cannot accurately predict the 1RM in these populations. Therefore, practitioners need to directly assess 1RM.
  • Impact Damage Characteristics of Carbon Fibre Metal Laminates: Experiments and Simulation

    Shi, Y.; Pinna, C.; Soutis, C.; email: constantinos.soutis@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-05-08)
    Abstract: In this work, the impact response of carbon fibre metal laminates (FMLs) was experimentally and numerically studied with an improved design of the fibre composite lay-up for optimal mechanical properties and damage resistance. Two different stacking sequences (Carall 3–3/2–0.5 and Carall 5–3/2–0.5) were designed and characterised. Damage at relatively low energy impact energies (≤30 J) was investigated using Ultrasonic C-scanning and X–ray Computed Tomography (X-RCT). A 3D finite element model was developed to simulate the impact induced damage in both metal and composite layers using Abaqus/Explicit. Cohesive zone elements were introduced to capture delamination occurring between carbon fibre/epoxy plies and debonding at the interfaces between aluminium and the composite layers. Carall 5–3/2–0.5 was found to absorb more energy elastically, which indicates better resistance to damage. A good agreement is obtained between the numerically predicted results and experimental measurements in terms of force and absorbed energy during impact where the damage modes such as delamination was well simulated when compared to non-destructive techniques (NDT).
  • Impact of integrating mental health services within existing tuberculosis treatment facilities

    Pasha, Aneeta; orcid: 0000-0002-2699-4301; email: aneeta.pasha@ird.global; Siddiqui, Hasha; Ali, Shiza; Brooks, Meredith B; Maqbool, Naveen R; Khan, Aamir J (SAGE Publications, 2021-04-27)
    Introduction:: Depression and anxiety among tuberculosis (TB) patients can adversely affect TB treatment adherence and completion. Aim:: We studied whether integrating mental health services into existing TB treatment programs would reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety and improve treatment completion among patients with drug-susceptible TB. Methods:: Integrated practice units (IPUs) for TB and mental health were established within six existing TB treatment facilities in Karachi, Pakistan. Patients were screened for depression and anxiety and, if symptomatic, offered a mental health intervention consisting of at least four counseling sessions. We measured changes in reported levels of depression and anxiety symptoms from baseline following completion of counseling sessions, and rates of TB treatment completion. Results:: Between February 2017 and June 2018, 3500 TB patients were screened for depression and anxiety. 1057 (30.2%) symptomatic patients received a baseline adherence session. 1012 enrolled for a mental health intervention received at least 1 counseling session. 522 (51.5%) reported no symptoms after four to six sessions. Symptomatic patients who completed at least four counseling sessions had higher rates of TB treatment completion than those who did not (92.9% vs 75.1%; p < 0.0001). Conclusion:: Mental health interventions integrated within TB programs can help reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety and improve TB treatment completion.
  • (Custodial) spaces to grow? Adolescent development during custodial transitions

    Price, Jayne; orcid: 0000-0003-3719-1851; Turner, Jennifer (Informa UK Limited, 2021-01-11)
  • Impact of integrating mental health services within existing tuberculosis treatment facilities

    Pasha, Aneeta; orcid: 0000-0002-2699-4301; Siddiqui, Hasha; Ali, Shiza; Brooks, Meredith B; Maqbool, Naveen R; Khan, Aamir J (SAGE Publications, 2021-04-27)
    Introduction: Depression and anxiety among tuberculosis (TB) patients can adversely affect TB treatment adherence and completion. Aim: We studied whether integrating mental health services into existing TB treatment programs would reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety and improve treatment completion among patients with drug-susceptible TB. Methods: Integrated practice units (IPUs) for TB and mental health were established within six existing TB treatment facilities in Karachi, Pakistan. Patients were screened for depression and anxiety and, if symptomatic, offered a mental health intervention consisting of at least four counseling sessions. We measured changes in reported levels of depression and anxiety symptoms from baseline following completion of counseling sessions, and rates of TB treatment completion. Results: Between February 2017 and June 2018, 3500 TB patients were screened for depression and anxiety. 1057 (30.2%) symptomatic patients received a baseline adherence session. 1012 enrolled for a mental health intervention received at least 1 counseling session. 522 (51.5%) reported no symptoms after four to six sessions. Symptomatic patients who completed at least four counseling sessions had higher rates of TB treatment completion than those who did not (92.9% vs 75.1%; p &lt; 0.0001). Conclusion: Mental health interventions integrated within TB programs can help reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety and improve TB treatment completion.

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