Novel ultra-energy-efficient reversible designs of sequential logic quantum-dot cellular automata flip-flop circuits
AffiliationLiverpool John Moores University; University of Chester
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AbstractQuantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a technological approach to implement digital circuits with exceptionally high integration density, high switching frequency, and low energy dissipation. QCA circuits are a potential solution to the energy dissipation issues created by shrinking microprocessors with ultra-high integration densities. Current QCA circuit designs are irreversible, yet reversible circuits are known to increase energy efficiency. Thus, the development of reversible QCA circuits will further reduce energy dissipation. This paper presents novel reversible and irreversible sequential QCA set/reset (SR), data (D), Jack Kilby (JK), and toggle (T) flip-flop designs based on the majority gate that utilizes the universal, standard, and efficient (USE) clocking scheme, which allows the implementation of feedback paths and easy routing for sequential QCA-based circuits. The simulation results confirm that the proposed reversible QCA USE sequential flip-flop circuits exhibit energy dissipation less than the Landauer energy limit. Irreversible QCA USE flip-flop designs, although having higher energy dissipation, sometimes have floorplan areas and delay times less than those of reversible designs; therefore, they are also explored. The trade-offs between the energy dissipation versus the area cost and delay time for the reversible and irreversible QCA circuits are examined comprehensively.
CitationAlharbi, M., Edwards, G., & Stocker, R. (2023). Novel ultra-energy-efficient reversible designs of sequential logic quantum-dot cellular automata flip-flop circuits. The Journal of Supercomputing, vol(issue), pages. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11227-023-05134-1
JournalThe Journal of Supercomputing
DescriptionThe version of record of this article, first published in [The Journal of Supercomputing], is available online at Publisher’s website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11227-023-05134-1
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/