Interacting effects of environmental enrichment across multiple generations on early life phenotypes in zebrafish
AffiliationUniversity of Chester; Liverpool John Moores University
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AbstractThe environment plays an important role in an individual's development during early life, however, parents may also influence offspring development through so called “parental effects.” We examined the effects of environmental enrichment in zebrafish (Danio rerio) across two generations through the paternal lineage. Fathers and grandfathers were exposed to either standard or high levels of housing enrichment for 4-weeks during adulthood. First-generation (F1) and second-generation (F2) offspring were obtained from controlled breeding and tested as larvae for changes in morphology at hatching stage (72hpf), and in locomotor activity at larval stage (120hpf) in both generations. We found paternal experience of enrichment resulted in changes in trunk length of F1 offspring and changes in spine curvature and dorsal length of F2 offspring, while changes in snout morphology of F2 offspring seemed to be driven by whether grandpaternal and paternal experience of the environment was matched or not. We found that while paternal enrichment increased the frequency of spontaneous movement in F1 and F2 offspring, interacting effects of paternal and grandpaternal enrichment on movement distance were seen in F2 offspring, and that spontaneous movement and the distance that larvae swam are thus distinct phenotypes that were differentially affected by the experiences of previous paternal generations. Taken together, these findings suggest that the parental and grandparental environment influence zebrafish behavior and morphology. The nature of these effects and the design of this study mean that these phenotypes were likely the result of nongenetic transmission through the paternal germline.
CitationGreen, M. R., & Swaney, W. T. (2023). Interacting effects of environmental enrichment across multiple generations on early life phenotypes in zebrafish. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 340(5), 354-365. https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.b.23184
DescriptionThis is the peer reviewed version of the following article: [Green, M. R., & Swaney, W. T. (2023). Interacting effects of environmental enrichment across multiple generations on early life phenotypes in zebrafish. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 340(5), 354-365], which has been published in final form at [https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.b.23184]. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.
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