Monitoring Metropolitan Growth Dynamics for Achieving Sustainable Urbanization (SDG 11.3) in Kolkata Metropolitan Area, India
AuthorsMithun, Sk; orcid: 0000-0002-1749-1382; email: email@example.com
Sahana, Mehebub; orcid: 0000-0002-3166-5916; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Chattopadhyay, Subrata; email: email@example.com
Johnson, Brian Alan; orcid: 0000-0003-1911-3585; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Khedher, Khaled Mohamed; orcid: 0000-0002-4167-1690; email: email@example.com
Avtar, Ram; orcid: 0000-0003-3653-5771; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractThe mass accumulation of population in the larger cities of India has led to accelerated and unprecedented peripheral urban expansion over the last few decades. This rapid peripheral growth is characterized by an uncontrolled, low density, fragmented and haphazard patchwork of development popularly known as urban sprawl. The Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) has been one of the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in India and is experiencing rampant suburbanization and peripheral expansion. Hence, understanding urban growth and its dynamics in these rapidly changing environments is critical for city planners and resource managers. Furthermore, understanding urban expansion and urban growth patterns are essential for achieving inclusive and sustainable urbanization as defined by the United Nations in the Sustainable Development Goals (e.g., SDGs, 11.3). The present research attempts to quantify and model the urban growth dynamics of large and diverse metropolitan areas with a distinct methodology considering the case of KMA. In the study, land use and land cover (LULC) maps of KMA were prepared for three different years (i.e., for 1996, 2006, and 2016) through the classification of Landsat imagery using a support vector machine (SVM) classification approach. Then, change detection analysis, landscape metrics, a concentric zone approach, and Shannon’s entropy approach were applied for spatiotemporal assessment and quantification of urban growth in KMA. The achieved classification accuracies were found to be 89.75%, 92.00%, and 92.75%, with corresponding Kappa values of 0.879, 0.904, and 0.912 for 1996, 2006, and 2016, respectively. It is concluded that KMA has been experiencing typical urban sprawl. The peri-urban areas (i.e., KMA-rural) are growing rapidly, and are characterized by leapfrogging and fragmented built-up area development, compared to the central KMA (i.e., KMA-urban), which has become more compact in recent years.
CitationRemote Sensing, volume 13, issue 21, page e4423
DescriptionFrom MDPI via Jisc Publications Router
History: accepted 2021-10-29, pub-electronic 2021-11-03
Publication status: Published
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
No Difference in Penetrance between Truncating and Missense/Aberrant Splicing Pathogenic Variants in MLH1 and MSH2: A Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database StudyDominguez-Valentin, Mev; orcid: 0000-0001-7856-0057; email: Mev.Dominguez.Valentin@rr-research.no; Plazzer, John-Paul; orcid: 0000-0001-5114-4301; email: email@example.com; Sampson, Julian R.; email: Sampson@cardiff.ac.uk; Engel, Christoph; orcid: 0000-0002-7247-282X; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Aretz, Stefan; orcid: 0000-0002-5228-1890; email: email@example.com; Jenkins, Mark A.; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Sunde, Lone; email: email@example.com; Bernstein, Inge; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Capella, Gabriel; orcid: 0000-0002-4669-7320; email: email@example.com; Balaguer, Francesc; orcid: 0000-0002-0206-0539; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; et al. (MDPI, 2021-06-28)Background. Lynch syndrome is the most common genetic predisposition for hereditary cancer. Carriers of pathogenic changes in mismatch repair (MMR) genes have an increased risk of developing colorectal (CRC), endometrial, ovarian, urinary tract, prostate, and other cancers, depending on which gene is malfunctioning. In Lynch syndrome, differences in cancer incidence (penetrance) according to the gene involved have led to the stratification of cancer surveillance. By contrast, any differences in penetrance determined by the type of pathogenic variant remain unknown. Objective. To determine cumulative incidences of cancer in carriers of truncating and missense or aberrant splicing pathogenic variants of the MLH1 and MSH2 genes. Methods. Carriers of pathogenic variants of MLH1 (path_MLH1) and MSH2 (path_MSH2) genes filed in the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) were categorized as truncating or missense/aberrant splicing according to the InSiGHT criteria for pathogenicity. Results. Among 5199 carriers, 1045 had missense or aberrant splicing variants, and 3930 had truncating variants. Prospective observation years for the two groups were 8205 and 34,141 years, respectively, after which there were no significant differences in incidences for cancer overall or for colorectal cancer or endometrial cancers separately. Conclusion. Truncating and missense or aberrant splicing pathogenic variants were associated with similar average cumulative incidences of cancer in carriers of path MLH1 and path_MSH2.
Gene-Environment Interactions Relevant to Estrogen and Risk of Breast Cancer: Can Gene-Environment Interactions Be Detected Only among Candidate SNPs from Genome-Wide Association Studies?Park, JooYong; email: email@example.com; Choi, Ji-Yeob; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Choi, Jaesung; email: email@example.com; Chung, Seokang; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Song, Nan; orcid: 0000-0002-9182-1060; email: email@example.com; Park, Sue K.; orcid: 0000-0001-5002-9707; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Han, Wonshik; email: email@example.com; Noh, Dong-Young; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; email: email@example.com; Lee, Jong Won; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; et al. (MDPI, 2021-05-14)In this study we aim to examine gene–environment interactions (GxEs) between genes involved with estrogen metabolism and environmental factors related to estrogen exposure. GxE analyses were conducted with 1970 Korean breast cancer cases and 2052 controls in the case-control study, the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SEBCS). A total of 11,555 SNPs from the 137 candidate genes were included in the GxE analyses with eight established environmental factors. A replication test was conducted by using an independent population from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 62,485 Europeans and 9047 Asians. The GxE tests were performed by using two-step methods in GxEScan software. Two interactions were found in the SEBCS. The first interaction was shown between rs13035764 of NCOA1 and age at menarche in the GE|2df model (p-2df = 1.2 × 10−3). The age at menarche before 14 years old was associated with the high risk of breast cancer, and the risk was higher when subjects had homozygous minor allele G. The second GxE was shown between rs851998 near ESR1 and height in the GE|2df model (p-2df = 1.1 × 10−4). Height taller than 160 cm was associated with a high risk of breast cancer, and the risk increased when the minor allele was added. The findings were not replicated in the BCAC. These results would suggest specificity in Koreans for breast cancer risk.
Strategies to Improve Antimicrobial Utilization with a Special Focus on Developing CountriesGodman, Brian; orcid: 0000-0001-6539-6972; email: email@example.com; Egwuenu, Abiodun; orcid: 0000-0002-9369-4771; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Haque, Mainul; orcid: 0000-0002-6124-7993; email: email@example.com; Malande, Oliver Ombeva; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Schellack, Natalie; email: email@example.com; Kumar, Santosh; orcid: 0000-0002-5117-7872; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Saleem, Zikria; orcid: 0000-0003-3202-6347; email: email@example.com; Sneddon, Jacqueline; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Hoxha, Iris; email: email@example.com; Islam, Salequl; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; et al. (MDPI, 2021-06-07)Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a high priority across countries as it increases morbidity, mortality and costs. Concerns with AMR have resulted in multiple initiatives internationally, nationally and regionally to enhance appropriate antibiotic utilization across sectors to reduce AMR, with the overuse of antibiotics exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Effectively tackling AMR is crucial for all countries. Principally a narrative review of ongoing activities across sectors was undertaken to improve antimicrobial use and address issues with vaccines including COVID-19. Point prevalence surveys have been successful in hospitals to identify areas for quality improvement programs, principally centering on antimicrobial stewardship programs. These include reducing prolonged antibiotic use to prevent surgical site infections. Multiple activities centering on education have been successful in reducing inappropriate prescribing and dispensing of antimicrobials in ambulatory care for essentially viral infections such as acute respiratory infections. It is imperative to develop new quality indicators for ambulatory care given current concerns, and instigate programs with clear public health messaging to reduce misinformation, essential for pandemics. Regular access to effective treatments is needed to reduce resistance to treatments for HIV, malaria and tuberculosis. Key stakeholder groups can instigate multiple initiatives to reduce AMR. These need to be followed up.