Characterisation of road-dust sediment in urban systems: a review of a global challenge
AuthorsHaynes, Haydn M.
Taylor, Kevin G.; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractAbstract: Purpose: The proportion of people living in urbanised areas is predicted to rise to > 65% by 2050, and therefore, more humans than ever will be exposed to urban environmental pollution. Accumulation of organic and inorganic substances on street and road surfaces is a major global challenge requiring scientifically robust methods of establishing risk that inform management strategies. This aim of this contribution is to critically review the global literature on urban road–deposited sediment contamination with a specific focus on variability in sampling and analytical methods. Materials and methods: In order to assess the concentration of contaminants in global road-deposited sediment (RDS), a comprehensive search of published RDS studies was completed. We review methodological approaches used in RDS studies to highlight the variability in datasets as a result of sampling technique, grain size fractionation, geochemical and mineralogical characterisation methods and establishing the influence of local geology on contaminant concentrations. We also consider emerging contaminants in RDS, and we provide a workflow diagram which promotes a standardised sampling and analysis regime that we believe can reduce data variability and promote collaboration when it comes to tackling the important issue of RDS contamination. Results and discussion: Across the literature, Asia (except China) and Africa are underrepresented in RDS studies despite these continents having the largest and fastest growing populations, respectively. The removal of tetraethyl lead from gasoline produced a noticeable decrease in lead concentrations in global RDS, and platinum group element (PGE) concentrations in RDS were consistent with catalytic converter usage. Research into the impact of electric vehicles on non-exhaust emissions suggests other contaminants such as zinc may become more prominent in the future. Most RDS studies consider grain size fractions larger than > 20 μm due to sampling constraints despite RDS < 20 μm being most relevant to human health. The use of chemical extraction methods to establish contaminant geochemistry is popular; however, most extraction procedures are not relevant or specific to minerals identified in RDS through microscopic and spectroscopic investigations. Conclusions: This review highlights considerable variability in sampling and analytical approach which makes it difficult to identify broad global patterns in RDS contamination. To remove this variability from future RDS research, this review suggests a workflow plan which attempts to improve the comparability between RDS studies. Such comparability is crucial in identifying more discrete RDS trends and informing future emission policy.
CitationJournal of Soils and Sediments, volume 20, issue 12, page 4194-4217
PublisherSpringer Berlin Heidelberg
DescriptionFrom Springer Nature via Jisc Publications Router
History: received 2020-04-14, accepted 2020-10-08, registration 2020-10-09, pub-electronic 2020-10-21, online 2020-10-21, pub-print 2020-12
Publication status: Published
Funder: University of Manchester