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dc.contributor.authorSmith, Tessa E.
dc.contributor.authorStanley, Christina R.
dc.contributor.authorHosie, Charlotte A.
dc.contributor.authorEdwards, Morgan J.
dc.contributor.authorWormell, Dominic
dc.contributor.authorPrice, Eluned
dc.date.accessioned2021-10-06T13:08:30Z
dc.date.available2021-10-06T13:08:30Z
dc.identifierhttps://chesterrep.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10034/626043/Enclosure%20Use%20Accepted%20Manuscript.pdf?sequence=4
dc.identifier.citationEdwards, M. J., Hosie, C. A., Smith, T. E., Wormell, D., Price, E., & Stanley, C. R. (2021). Principal component analysis as a novel method for the assessment of the enclosure use patterns of captive Livingstone’s Fruit Bats (Pteropus livingstonii). Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 244, 105479. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2021.105479en_US
dc.identifier.issn0168-1591
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.applanim.2021.105479
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10034/626043
dc.description.abstractThe Spread of Participation Index (SPI) is a standard tool for assessing the suitability of enclosure design by measuring how captive animals access space. This metric, however, lacks the precision to quantify individual-level space utilization or to determine how the distribution of resources and physical features within an enclosure might influence space use. Here we demonstrate how Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can be employed to address these aims and to therefore facilitate both individual-level welfare assessment and the fine-scale evaluation of enclosure design across a range of captive settings. We illustrate the application of this methodology by investigating enclosure use patterns of the Livingstone’s fruit bat (Pteropus livingstonii) population housed at Jersey Zoo. Focal sampling was used to estimate the time each of 44 individuals in the first data collection period and 50 individuals in the second period spent in each of 42 theoretical enclosure sections. PCA was then applied to reduce the 42 sections to five and seven ecologically relevant “enclosure dimensions” for the first and second data collection periods respectively. Individuals were then assigned to the dimension that most accurately represented their enclosure use patterns based on their highest dimensional eigenvalue. This assigned dimension is hereafter referred to as the individual’s Enclosure Use Style (EUS). Sex was found to be significantly correlated with an individual’s EUS in the second period, whilst age was found to significantly influence individual fidelity to assigned EUS. When assessing the effect of resource location on group-level preference for certain sections, the presence of feeders and proximity to public viewing areas in period one, and feeders and heaters in period two, were positively correlated with space use. Finally, individual EUS remained consistent between both data collection periods. We interpret these results for this species in the context of its observed behavioural ecology in the wild and evaluate the degree to which the current captive enclosure for this population allows for optimal individual welfare through the facilitation of spatial choice. We then explore how these methods could be applied to safeguard captive animal welfare across a range of other scenarios.en_US
dc.publisherElsevieren_US
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0168159121002665en_US
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/applied-animal-behaviour-scienceen_US
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/en_US
dc.subjectLivingstone’s fruit baten_US
dc.subjectcaptive welfareen_US
dc.subjectanimal welfareen_US
dc.subjectprincipal component analysisen_US
dc.subjectenclosure useen_US
dc.subjectSpread of Participation Indexen_US
dc.subjectzoo managementen_US
dc.titlePrincipal Component Analysis as a Novel Method for the Assessment of the Enclosure Use Patterns of Captive Livingstone’s Fruit Bats (Pteropus livingstonii)en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Chester; Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trusten_US
dc.identifier.journalApplied Animal Behaviour Scienceen_US
or.grant.openaccessYesen_US
rioxxterms.funderunfundeden_US
rioxxterms.identifier.projectunfundeden_US
rioxxterms.versionAMen_US
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1016/j.applanim.2021.105479en_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2022-10-06
dcterms.dateAccepted2021-10-02
rioxxterms.publicationdate2021-10-06
dc.date.deposited2021-10-06en_US
dc.indentifier.issn0168-1591en_US


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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution 4.0 International