Trichuris muris infection drives cell-intrinsic IL4R alpha independent colonic RELMα+ macrophages
AuthorsForman, Ruth; orcid: 0000-0003-0374-6679; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Logunova, Larisa; orcid: 0000-0002-7601-8296
Smith, Hannah; orcid: 0000-0001-8911-9048
Wemyss, Kelly; orcid: 0000-0003-0385-5920
Allen, Judith E.; orcid: 0000-0002-3829-066X
Muller, Werner; orcid: 0000-0002-1297-9725
Pennock, Joanne L.; orcid: 0000-0002-8304-2905
Else, Kathryn J.; orcid: 0000-0001-6660-055X; email: Kathryn.email@example.com
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractThe intestinal nematode parasite Trichuris muris dwells in the caecum and proximal colon driving an acute resolving intestinal inflammation dominated by the presence of macrophages. Notably, these macrophages are characterised by their expression of RELMα during the resolution phase of the infection. The RELMα+ macrophage phenotype associates with the presence of alternatively activated macrophages and work in other model systems has demonstrated that the balance of classically and alternatively activated macrophages is critically important in enabling the resolution of inflammation. Moreover, in the context of type 2 immunity, RELMα+ alternatively activated macrophages are associated with the activation of macrophages via the IL4Rα. Despite a breadth of inflammatory pathologies associated with the large intestine, including those that accompany parasitic infection, it is not known how colonic macrophages are activated towards an alternatively activated phenotype. Here, we address this important knowledge gap by using Trichuris muris infection, in combination with transgenic mice (IL4Rαfl/fl.CX3CR1Cre) and IL4Rα-deficient/wild-type mixed bone marrow chimaeras. We make the unexpected finding that education of colonic macrophages towards a RELMα+, alternatively activated macrophage phenotype during T. muris infection does not require IL4Rα expression on macrophages. Further, this independence is maintained even when the mice are treated with an anti-IFNγ antibody during infection to create a strongly polarised Th2 environment. In contrast to RELMα, PD-L2 expression on macrophages post infection was dependent on IL4Rα signalling in the macrophages. These novel data sets are important, revealing a surprising cell-intrinsic IL4R alpha independence of the colonic RELMα+ alternatively activated macrophage during Trichuris muris infection.
CitationPLOS Pathogens, volume 17, issue 7, page e1009768
PublisherPublic Library of Science
DescriptionFrom PLOS via Jisc Publications Router
History: received 2021-02-23, accepted 2021-06-29, collection 2021-07, epub 2021-07-30
Publication status: Published
Funder: Medical Research Council; funder-id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000265; Grant(s): MR/N022661/1
Funder: wellcome trust; funder-id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100004440; Grant(s): 106898/A/15/Z
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No Difference in Penetrance between Truncating and Missense/Aberrant Splicing Pathogenic Variants in MLH1 and MSH2: A Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database StudyDominguez-Valentin, Mev; orcid: 0000-0001-7856-0057; email: Mev.Dominguez.Valentin@rr-research.no; Plazzer, John-Paul; orcid: 0000-0001-5114-4301; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Sampson, Julian R.; email: Sampson@cardiff.ac.uk; Engel, Christoph; orcid: 0000-0002-7247-282X; email: email@example.com; Aretz, Stefan; orcid: 0000-0002-5228-1890; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Jenkins, Mark A.; email: email@example.com; Sunde, Lone; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Bernstein, Inge; email: email@example.com; Capella, Gabriel; orcid: 0000-0002-4669-7320; email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Balaguer, Francesc; orcid: 0000-0002-0206-0539; email: email@example.com; et al. (MDPI, 2021-06-28)Background. Lynch syndrome is the most common genetic predisposition for hereditary cancer. Carriers of pathogenic changes in mismatch repair (MMR) genes have an increased risk of developing colorectal (CRC), endometrial, ovarian, urinary tract, prostate, and other cancers, depending on which gene is malfunctioning. In Lynch syndrome, differences in cancer incidence (penetrance) according to the gene involved have led to the stratification of cancer surveillance. By contrast, any differences in penetrance determined by the type of pathogenic variant remain unknown. Objective. To determine cumulative incidences of cancer in carriers of truncating and missense or aberrant splicing pathogenic variants of the MLH1 and MSH2 genes. Methods. Carriers of pathogenic variants of MLH1 (path_MLH1) and MSH2 (path_MSH2) genes filed in the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) were categorized as truncating or missense/aberrant splicing according to the InSiGHT criteria for pathogenicity. Results. Among 5199 carriers, 1045 had missense or aberrant splicing variants, and 3930 had truncating variants. Prospective observation years for the two groups were 8205 and 34,141 years, respectively, after which there were no significant differences in incidences for cancer overall or for colorectal cancer or endometrial cancers separately. Conclusion. Truncating and missense or aberrant splicing pathogenic variants were associated with similar average cumulative incidences of cancer in carriers of path MLH1 and path_MSH2.
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