Technical Note: Four‐dimensional deformable digital phantom for MRI sequence development
AuthorsHanson, Hanna M.; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
McClelland, Jamie R.
van Herk, Marcel
Rowland, Benjamin C.
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AbstractAbstract: Purpose: MR‐guided radiotherapy has different requirements for the images than diagnostic radiology, thus requiring development of novel imaging sequences. MRI simulation is an excellent tool for optimizing these new sequences; however, currently available software does not provide all the necessary features. In this paper, we present a digital framework for testing MRI sequences that incorporates anatomical structure, respiratory motion, and realistic presentation of MR physics. Methods: The extended Cardiac‐Torso (XCAT) software was used to create T1, T2, and proton density maps that formed the anatomical structure of the phantom. Respiratory motion model was based on the XCAT deformation vector fields, modified to create a motion model driven by a respiration signal. MRI simulation was carried out with JEMRIS, an open source Bloch simulator. We developed an extension for JEMRIS, which calculates the motion of each spin independently, allowing for deformable motion. Results: The performance of the framework was demonstrated through simulating the acquisition of a two‐dimensional (2D) cine and demonstrating expected motion ghosts from T2 weighted spin echo acquisitions with different respiratory patterns. All simulations were consistent with behavior previously described in literature. Simulations with deformable motion were not more time consuming than with rigid motion. Conclusions: We present a deformable four‐dimensional (4D) digital phantom framework for MR sequence development. The framework incorporates anatomical structure, realistic breathing patterns, deformable motion, and Bloch simulation to achieve accurate simulation of MRI. This method is particularly relevant for testing novel imaging sequences for the purpose of MR‐guided radiotherapy in lungs and abdomen.
DescriptionFrom Wiley via Jisc Publications Router
History: received 2021-02-04, rev-recd 2021-05-14, accepted 2021-05-26, pub-electronic 2021-08-02
Article version: VoR
Publication status: Published
Funder: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000266; Grant(s): EP/R5131631/1
Funder: NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre
Funder: Cancer Research UK; Id: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000289; Grant(s): A21993