Calcium signaling in neuroglia.
|dc.contributor.author||Lim, Dmitry; email: email@example.com|
|dc.contributor.author||Verkhratsky, Alexei; email: firstname.lastname@example.org|
|dc.identifier.citation||International review of cell and molecular biology, volume 362, page 1-53|
|dc.description||From PubMed via Jisc Publications Router|
|dc.description||Publication status: ppublish|
|dc.description.abstract||Glial cells exploit calcium (Ca ) signals to perceive the information about the activity of the nervous tissue and the tissue environment to translate this information into an array of homeostatic, signaling and defensive reactions. Astrocytes, the best studied glial cells, use several Ca signaling generation pathways that include Ca entry through plasma membrane, release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and from mitochondria. Activation of metabotropic receptors on the plasma membrane of glial cells is coupled to an enzymatic cascade in which a second messenger, InsP is generated thus activating intracellular Ca release channels in the ER endomembrane. Astrocytes also possess store-operated Ca entry and express several ligand-gated Ca channels. In vivo astrocytes generate heterogeneous Ca signals, which are short and frequent in distal processes, but large and relatively rare in soma. In response to neuronal activity intracellular and inter-cellular astrocytic Ca waves can be produced. Astrocytic Ca signals are involved in secretion, they regulate ion transport across cell membranes, and are contributing to cell morphological plasticity. Therefore, astrocytic Ca signals are linked to fundamental functions of the central nervous system ranging from synaptic transmission to behavior. In oligodendrocytes, Ca signals are generated by plasmalemmal Ca influx, or by release from intracellular stores, or by combination of both. Microglial cells exploit Ca permeable ionotropic purinergic receptors and transient receptor potential channels as well as ER Ca release. In this contribution, basic morphology of glial cells, glial Ca signaling toolkit, intracellular Ca signals and Ca -regulated functions are discussed with focus on astrocytes. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]|
|dc.title||Calcium signaling in neuroglia.|