AbstractThis paper aims to demonstrate how the rationale and delivery of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), in those countries with long term established standards of practice, has changed over the past eight decades. A narrative report based on the evolution of key published guidelines, systematic reviews and medical policies since the 1940s. Case reports of the value of exercise in cardiac disease can be dated back to 1772. Formative groundwork for exercise-based CR was published between 1940 and 1970. However, it was not until the late 1980s that a large enough data set of controlled trials was available to show significant reductions in premature all-cause and cardiac mortality. Since the mid 1990s, cardiac mortality has been greatly reduced due to enhanced public health, emergency care and more sensitive diagnostic techniques and aggressive treatments. As a result, there appears to be an associated reduced potency of CR to affect mortality. New rationales for why, how and where CR is delivered have emerged including: adapting to a longer surviving ageing multi-morbid population, where healthcare cost savings and quality of life have become increasingly important. In light of these results, an emerging focus for CR, and in some cases "pre-habilitation", is that of a chronic disability management programme increasingly delivered in community and home settings. Within this delivery model, the use of remote personalised technologies is now emerging, especially with new needs accelerated by the pandemic of COVID-19. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONWith continued advances in medical science and better long term survival, the nature of cardiac rehabilitation has evolved over the past eight decades. It was originally an exercise-focused intervention on short term recovery and reducing cardiac and all-cause mortality, to now being one part of a multi-factor lifestyle, behavioural, and medical chronic disease management programme.Throughout history, the important influence of psycho-social well-being and human behaviour has, however, always been of key importance to patients.The location of rehabilitation can now be suited to patient need, both medically and socially, where the same components can be delivered in either a traditional outpatient clinic, community settings, at home and more recently all of these being supported or augmented with the advent of mobile technology.
CitationDisability and rehabilitation, page 1-8
DescriptionFrom PubMed via Jisc Publications Router
Publication status: aheadofprint