A Review of Passive and Active Ultra-Wideband Baluns for Use in Ground Penetrating Radar
Authorsvan Verre, Wouter; orcid: 0000-0003-3331-5140; email: email@example.com
Podd, Frank J. W.; orcid: 0000-0002-5228-4602; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Gao, Xianyang; orcid: 0000-0002-5682-811X; email: email@example.com
Daniels, David J.; orcid: 0000-0002-9103-2416; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Peyton, Anthony J.; orcid: 0000-0002-5740-348X; email: email@example.com
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractMicrowave ultra-wideband technology has been widely adopted in instrumentation and measurement systems, including ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sensors. Baluns are essential components in these systems to feed balanced antennas from unbalanced feed cables. Baluns are typically introduced to avoid issues with return signals, asymmetrical radiation patterns and radiation from cables. In GPR systems, these issues can cause poor sensitivity due to a reduction in radiated power, blind spots due to changes in the radiation pattern and additional clutter from common mode radiation. The different balun technologies currently available exhibit a wide variation in performance characteristics such as insertion loss, reflection coefficient and phase balance, as well as physical properties such as size and manufacturability. In this study, the performance of two magnetic transformer baluns, two tapered microstrip baluns and an active balun based on high-speed amplifiers were investigated, all up to frequencies of 6 GHz. A radio frequency current probe was used to measure the common mode currents on the feed cables that occur with poor performing baluns. It was found that commercially available magnetic transformer baluns have the best phase linearity, while also having the highest insertion losses. The active balun design has the best reflection coefficient at low frequencies, while, at high frequencies, its performance is similar to the other baluns tested. It was found that the active balun had the lowest common mode current on the feed cables.
CitationRemote Sensing, volume 13, issue 10, page e1899
DescriptionFrom MDPI via Jisc Publications Router
History: accepted 2021-05-07, pub-electronic 2021-05-13
Publication status: Published
Funder: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council; Grant(s): EP/N509565/1
Funder: Sir Bobby Charlton Foundation; Grant(s): SEMIS III
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