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dc.contributor.authorZickfeld, Janis H.
dc.contributor.authorvan de Ven, Niels
dc.contributor.authorPich, Olivia
dc.contributor.authorSchubert, Thomas W.
dc.contributor.authorBerkessel, Jana B.
dc.contributor.authorPizarro, José J.
dc.contributor.authorBhushan, Braj
dc.contributor.authorMateo, Nino Jose
dc.contributor.authorBarbosa, Sergio
dc.contributor.authorSharman, Leah
dc.contributor.authorKökönyei, Gyöngyi
dc.contributor.authorSchrover, Elke
dc.contributor.authorKardum, Igor
dc.contributor.authorAruta, John Jamir Benzon
dc.contributor.authorLazarevic, Ljiljana B.
dc.contributor.authorEscobar, María Josefina
dc.contributor.authorStadel, Marie
dc.contributor.authorArriaga, Patrícia
dc.contributor.authorDodaj, Arta
dc.contributor.authorShankland, Rebecca
dc.contributor.authorMajeed, Nadyanna M.
dc.contributor.authorLi, Yansong
dc.contributor.authorLekkou, Eleimonitria
dc.contributor.authorHartanto, Andree
dc.contributor.authorÖzdoğru, Asil A.
dc.contributor.authorVaughn, Leigh Ann
dc.contributor.authordel Carmen Espinoza, Maria
dc.contributor.authorCaballero, Amparo
dc.contributor.authorKolen, Anouk
dc.contributor.authorKarsten, Julie
dc.contributor.authorManley, Harry
dc.contributor.authorMaeura, Nao
dc.contributor.authorEşkisu, Mustafa
dc.contributor.authorShani, Yaniv
dc.contributor.authorChittham, Phakkanun
dc.contributor.authorFerreira, Diogo
dc.contributor.authorBavolar, Jozef
dc.contributor.authorKonova, Irina
dc.contributor.authorSato, Wataru
dc.contributor.authorMorvinski, Coby
dc.contributor.authorCarrera, Pilar
dc.contributor.authorVillar, Sergio
dc.contributor.authorIbanez, Agustin
dc.contributor.authorHareli, Shlomo
dc.contributor.authorGarcia, Adolfo M.
dc.contributor.authorKremer, Inbal
dc.contributor.authorGötz, Friedrich M.
dc.contributor.authorSchwerdtfeger, Andreas
dc.contributor.authorEstrada-Mejia, Catalina
dc.contributor.authorNakayama, Masataka
dc.contributor.authorNg, Wee Qin
dc.contributor.authorSesar, Kristina
dc.contributor.authorOrjiakor, Charles T.
dc.contributor.authorDumont, Kitty
dc.contributor.authorBulut Allred, Tara
dc.contributor.authorGračanin, Asmir
dc.contributor.authorRentfrow, Peter J.
dc.contributor.authorSchönefeld, Victoria
dc.contributor.authorVally, Zahir
dc.contributor.authorBarzykowski, Krystian
dc.contributor.authorPeltola, Henna-Riikka
dc.contributor.authorTcherkassof, Anna
dc.contributor.authorHaque, Shamsul
dc.contributor.authorŚmieja, Magdalena
dc.contributor.authorSu-May, Terri Tan
dc.contributor.authorIJzerman, Hans
dc.contributor.authorVatakis, Argiro
dc.contributor.authorOng, Chew Wei
dc.contributor.authorChoi, Eunsoo
dc.contributor.authorSchorch, Sebastian L.
dc.contributor.authorPáez, Darío
dc.contributor.authorMalik, Sadia
dc.contributor.authorKačmár, Pavol
dc.contributor.authorBobowik, Magdalena
dc.contributor.authorJose, Paul
dc.contributor.authorVuoskoski, Jonna
dc.contributor.authorBasabe, Nekane
dc.contributor.authorDoğan, Uğur
dc.contributor.authorEbert, Tobias
dc.contributor.authorUchida, Yukiko
dc.contributor.authorZheng, Michelle Xue
dc.contributor.authorMefoh, Philip
dc.contributor.authorŠebeňa, René
dc.contributor.authorStanke, Franziska A.
dc.contributor.authorBallada, Christine Joy
dc.contributor.authorBlaut, Agata
dc.contributor.authorWu, Yang
dc.contributor.authorDaniels, Judith K.
dc.contributor.authorKocsel, Natália
dc.contributor.authorBurak, Elif Gizem Demirag
dc.contributor.authorBalt, Nina F.
dc.contributor.authorVanman, Eric
dc.contributor.authorStewart, Suzanne L. K.
dc.contributor.authorVerschuere, Bruno
dc.contributor.authorSikka, Pilleriin
dc.contributor.authorBoudesseul, Jordane
dc.contributor.authorMartins, Diogo
dc.contributor.authorNussinson, Ravit
dc.contributor.authorIto, Kenichi
dc.contributor.authorMentser, Sari
dc.contributor.authorÇolak, Tuğba Seda
dc.contributor.authorMartinez-Zelaya, Gonzalo
dc.contributor.authorVingerhoets, Ad
dc.date.accessioned2021-03-24T10:44:40Z
dc.date.available2021-03-24T10:44:40Z
dc.identifierhttps://chesterrep.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10034/624388/CCT%20Stage%20II%20PrePrint%20Final.pdf?sequence=1
dc.identifier.citationZickfeld, J. H., van de Ven, N., Pich, O., Schubert, T. W., Berkessel, J. B, Pizarro J.,…& Vingerhoets, A. (in press). Tears evoke the intention to offer social support: A systematic investigation of the interpersonal effects of emotional crying across 41 countries. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10034/624388
dc.description.abstractTearful crying is a ubiquitous and likely uniquely human phenomenon. Scholars have argued that emotional tears serve an attachment function: Tears are thought to act as a social glue by evoking social support intentions. Initial experimental studies supported this proposition across several methodologies, but these were conducted almost exclusively on participants from North America and Europe, resulting in limited generalizability. This project examined the tears-social support intentions effect and possible mediating and moderating variables in a fully pre-registered study across 7,007 participants (24,886 ratings) and 41 countries spanning all populated continents. Participants were presented with four pictures out of 100 possible targets with or without digitally-added tears. We confirmed the main prediction that seeing a tearful individual elicits the intention to support, d = .49 [.43, .55]. Our data suggest that this effect could be mediated by perceiving the crying target as warmer and more helpless, feeling more connected, as well as feeling more empathic concern for the crier, but not by an increase in personal distress of the observer. The effect was moderated by the situational valence, identifying the target as part of one’s group, and trait empathic concern. A neutral situation, high trait empathic concern, and low identification increased the effect. We observed high heterogeneity across countries that was, via split-half validation, best explained by country-level GDP per capita and subjective well-being with stronger effects for higher-scoring countries. These findings suggest that tears can function as social glue, providing one possible explanation why emotional crying persists into adulthood.en_US
dc.publisherElsevieren_US
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/en_US
dc.subjectemotional cryingen_US
dc.subjectemotional tearsen_US
dc.subjectattachmenten_US
dc.subjectcross-culturalen_US
dc.subjectsocial supporten_US
dc.titleTears Evoke the Intention to Offer Social Support: A Systematic Investigation of the Interpersonal Effects of Emotional Crying Across 41 Countriesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Chester and othersen_US
dc.identifier.journalJournal of Experimental Social Psychologyen_US
or.grant.openaccessYesen_US
rioxxterms.funderunfundeden_US
rioxxterms.identifier.projectunfundeden_US
rioxxterms.versionAOen_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2022-12-01
dcterms.dateAccepted2021-03-18
rioxxterms.publicationdate2021
dc.date.deposited2021-03-24en_US
dc.indentifier.issn0022-1031en_US


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