Sarcopenia during COVID-19 lockdown restrictions: long-term health effects of short-term muscle loss.
AuthorsKirwan, Richard; orcid: 0000-0003-4645-0077; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
McCullough, Deaglan; orcid: 0000-0002-9882-9639
Butler, Tom; orcid: 0000-0003-0818-1566; email: email@example.com
Perez de Heredia, Fatima; orcid: 0000-0002-2537-3327
Davies, Ian G; orcid: 0000-0003-3722-8466
Stewart, Claire; orcid: 0000-0002-8104-4819
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic is an extraordinary global emergency that has led to the implementation of unprecedented measures in order to stem the spread of the infection. Internationally, governments are enforcing measures such as travel bans, quarantine, isolation, and social distancing leading to an extended period of time at home. This has resulted in reductions in physical activity and changes in dietary intakes that have the potential to accelerate sarcopenia, a deterioration of muscle mass and function (more likely in older populations), as well as increases in body fat. These changes in body composition are associated with a number of chronic, lifestyle diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, osteoporosis, frailty, cognitive decline, and depression. Furthermore, CVD, diabetes, and elevated body fat are associated with greater risk of COVID-19 infection and more severe symptomology, underscoring the importance of avoiding the development of such morbidities. Here we review mechanisms of sarcopenia and their relation to the current data on the effects of COVID-19 confinement on physical activity, dietary habits, sleep, and stress as well as extended bed rest due to COVID-19 hospitalization. The potential of these factors to lead to an increased likelihood of muscle loss and chronic disease will be discussed. By offering a number of home-based strategies including resistance exercise, higher protein intakes and supplementation, we can potentially guide public health authorities to avoid a lifestyle disease and rehabilitation crisis post-COVID-19. Such strategies may also serve as useful preventative measures for reducing the likelihood of sarcopenia in general and in the event of future periods of isolation.
CitationKirwan, R., McCullough, D., Butler, T., Perez de Heredia, F., Davies, I. & Stewart, C. (2020). Sarcopenia during COVID-19 lockdown restrictions: long-term health effects of short-term muscle loss. GeroScience. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-020-00272-3
DescriptionFrom PubMed via Jisc Publications Router
History: received 2020-06-25, accepted 2020-09-16
Publication status: aheadofprint
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards interlaboratory study on intensity calibration for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy instruments using low-density polyethylene.Reed, Benjamen P; orcid: 0000-0002-7574-5483; Cant, David J H; orcid: 0000-0002-4247-5739; Spencer, Steve J; Carmona-Carmona, Abraham Jorge; Bushell, Adam; Herrera-Gómez, Alberto; orcid: 0000-0002-9101-4058; Kurokawa, Akira; orcid: 0000-0003-2953-0593; Thissen, Andreas; Thomas, Andrew G; orcid: 0000-0002-1900-6686; Britton, Andrew J; et al. (2020-11-23)We report the results of a Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards interlaboratory study on the intensity scale calibration of x-ray photoelectron spectrometers using low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as an alternative material to gold, silver, and copper. An improved set of LDPE reference spectra, corrected for different instrument geometries using a quartz-monochromated Al Kα x-ray source, was developed using data provided by participants in this study. Using these new reference spectra, a transmission function was calculated for each dataset that participants provided. When compared to a similar calibration procedure using the NPL reference spectra for gold, the LDPE intensity calibration method achieves an absolute offset of ∼3.0% and a systematic deviation of ±6.5% on average across all participants. For spectra recorded at high pass energies (≥90 eV), values of absolute offset and systematic deviation are ∼5.8% and ±5.7%, respectively, whereas for spectra collected at lower pass energies (<90 eV), values of absolute offset and systematic deviation are ∼4.9% and ±8.8%, respectively; low pass energy spectra perform worse than the global average, in terms of systematic deviations, due to diminished count rates and signal-to-noise ratio. Differences in absolute offset are attributed to the surface roughness of the LDPE induced by sample preparation. We further assess the usability of LDPE as a secondary reference material and comment on its performance in the presence of issues such as variable dark noise, x-ray warm up times, inaccuracy at low count rates, and underlying spectrometer problems. In response to participant feedback and the results of the study, we provide an updated LDPE intensity calibration protocol to address the issues highlighted in the interlaboratory study. We also comment on the lack of implementation of a consistent and traceable intensity calibration method across the community of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) users and, therefore, propose a route to achieving this with the assistance of instrument manufacturers, metrology laboratories, and experts leading to an international standard for XPS intensity scale calibration. [Abstract copyright: © 2020 Author(s).]
Risk Governance of Emerging Technologies Demonstrated in Terms of its Applicability to Nanomaterials.Isigonis, Panagiotis; orcid: 0000-0002-8404-7708; Afantitis, Antreas; Antunes, Dalila; Bartonova, Alena; Beitollahi, Ali; Bohmer, Nils; Bouman, Evert; Chaudhry, Qasim; Cimpan, Mihaela Roxana; Cimpan, Emil; et al. (2020-07-23)Nanotechnologies have reached maturity and market penetration that require nano-specific changes in legislation and harmonization among legislation domains, such as the amendments to REACH for nanomaterials (NMs) which came into force in 2020. Thus, an assessment of the components and regulatory boundaries of NMs risk governance is timely, alongside related methods and tools, as part of the global efforts to optimise nanosafety and integrate it into product design processes, via Safe(r)-by-Design (SbD) concepts. This paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art regarding risk governance of NMs and lays out the theoretical basis for the development and implementation of an effective, trustworthy and transparent risk governance framework for NMs. The proposed framework enables continuous integration of the evolving state of the science, leverages best practice from contiguous disciplines and facilitates responsive re-thinking of nanosafety governance to meet future needs. To achieve and operationalise such framework, a science-based Risk Governance Council (RGC) for NMs is being developed. The framework will provide a toolkit for independent NMs' risk governance and integrates needs and views of stakeholders. An extension of this framework to relevant advanced materials and emerging technologies is also envisaged, in view of future foundations of risk research in Europe and globally. [Abstract copyright: © 2020 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.]
Multiscale understanding of electric polarization in poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based ferroelectric polymersMeng, Nan; orcid: 0000-0002-7609-0407; Ren, Xintong; orcid: 0000-0003-2472-4866; Zhu, Xiaojing; orcid: 0000-0001-8947-1658; Wu, Jiyue; orcid: 0000-0002-0827-2831; Yang, Bin; orcid: 0000-0001-5620-9506; Gao, Feng; orcid: 0000-0002-5075-4076; Zhang, Han; orcid: 0000-0002-0479-224X; Liao, Yaozu; orcid: 0000-0001-9263-6281; Bilotti, Emiliano; orcid: 0000-0003-3952-1148; Reece, Michael J.; et al. (Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2020)The electric polarization of ferroelectric polymers with tailored structures was studied using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique combined with impedance analysis.