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dc.contributor.authorHulme CH
dc.contributor.authorBrown SJ
dc.contributor.authorFuller HR
dc.contributor.authorRiddell J
dc.contributor.authorOsman A
dc.contributor.authorChowdhury J
dc.contributor.authorKumar N
dc.contributor.authorJohnson WE
dc.contributor.authorWright KT
dc.date.accessioned2020-06-26T09:50:31Z
dc.date.available2020-06-26T09:50:31Z
dc.date.issued2016-12-20
dc.identifierhttps://chesterrep.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10034/623522/Hulme%202017.pdf?sequence=4
dc.identifier.citationHulme, C. H., Brown, S. J., Fuller, H. R., Riddell, J., Osman, A., Chowdhury, J., ... & Wright, K. T. (2017). The developing landscape of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for spinal cord injury in cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Spinal Cord, 55(2), 114-125.en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/sc.2016.174
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10034/623522
dc.descriptionReview articleen_US
dc.description.abstractSTUDY DESIGN: Review study. OBJECTIVES: The identification of prognostic biomarkers of spinal cord injury (SCI) will help to assign SCI patients to the correct treatment and rehabilitation regimes. Further, the detection of biomarkers that predict permanent neurological outcome would aid in appropriate recruitment of patients into clinical trials. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current state-of-play in this developing field. SETTING: Studies from multiple countries were included. METHODS: We have completed a comprehensive review of studies that have investigated prognostic biomarkers in either the blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of animals and humans following SCI. RESULTS: Targeted and unbiased approaches have identified several prognostic biomarkers in CSF and blood. These proteins associate with cellular damage following SCI and include components from neurons, oligodendrocytes and reactive astrocytes, that is, neurofilament proteins, glial fibrillary acidic protein, Tau and S100 calcium-binding protein β. Unbiased approaches have also identified microRNAs that are specific to SCI, as well as other cell damage-associated proteins. CONCLUSIONS: The discovery and validation of stable, specific, sensitive and reproducible biomarkers of SCI is a rapidly expanding field of research. So far, few studies have utilised unbiased approaches aimed at the discovery of biomarkers within the CSF or blood in this field; however, some targeted approaches have been successfully used. Several studies using various animal models and some with small human patient cohorts have begun to pinpoint biomarkers in the CSF and blood with putative prognostic value. An increased sample size will be required to validate these biomarkers in the heterogeneous clinical setting.en_US
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherNature Publishing Groupen_US
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.nature.com/articles/sc2016174.pdfen_US
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/en_US
dc.subjectSpinal cord injuryen_US
dc.subjectprognosisen_US
dc.subjectbiomarkersen_US
dc.titleThe developing landscape of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for spinal cord injury in cerebrospinal fluid and blooden_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.eissn1476-5624en_US
dc.contributor.departmentKeele University, RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, University of Glasgow, University of Chesteren_US
dc.identifier.journalSpinal Corden_US
or.grant.openaccessYesen_US
rioxxterms.funderThis study was supported by the Midlands Centre for Spinal Injuries and the Institute of Orthopaedics, RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, UK.en_US
rioxxterms.identifier.projectUnfundeden_US
rioxxterms.identifier.projectUnfundeden_US
rioxxterms.versionAMen_US
rioxxterms.versionofrecordhttps://doi.org/10.1038/sc.2016.174en_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2220-12-20
refterms.dateFCD2020-06-25T10:07:46Z
refterms.versionFCDAM
rioxxterms.publicationdate2016-12-20
dc.dateAccepted2016-10-31
dc.date.deposited2020-06-26en_US
dc.indentifier.issn1362-4393en_US


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