LevelEd VR: A virtual reality level editor and workflow for virtual reality level design
AffiliationUniversity of Chester
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AbstractVirtual reality entertainment and serious games popularity has continued to rise but the processes for level design for VR games has not been adequately researched. Our paper contributes LevelEd VR; a generic runtime virtual reality level editor that supports the level design workflow used by developers and can potentially support user generated content. We evaluated our LevelEd VR application and compared it to an existing workflow of Unity on a desktop. Our current research indicates that users are accepting of such a system, and it has the potential to be preferred over existing workflows for VR level design. We found that the primary benefit of our system is an improved sense of scale and perspective when creating the geometry and implementing gameplay. The paper also contributes some best practices and lessons learned from creating a complex virtual reality tool, such as LevelEd VR.
CitationBeever, L., Pop, S. W. & John, N, W. (2020). LevelEd VR: A virtual reality level editor and workflow for virtual reality level design. 2020 IEEE Conference on Games (24-27th August).
PublisherIEEE Conference Publications
JournalIEEE Conference on Games
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Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Evaluating LevelEd AR: An Indoor Modelling Application for Serious Games Level DesignBeever, Lee; Pop, Serban R.; John, Nigel W.; University of Chester (IEEE Conference Publications, 2019-09-06)We developed an application that makes indoor modelling accessible by utilizing consumer grade technology in the form of Apple’s ARKit and a smartphone to assist with serious games level design. We compared our system to that of a tape measure and a system based on an infra-red depth sensor and application. We evaluated the accuracy and efficiency of each system over four different measuring tasks of increasing complexity. Our results suggest that our application is more accurate than the depth sensor system and as accurate and more time efficient as the tape measure over several tasks. Participants also showed a preference to our LevelEd AR application over the depth sensor system regarding usability.
Negative cognition, affect, metacognition and dimensions of paranoia in people at ultra-high risk of psychosis: A multi-level modelling analysisMorrison, Anthony P.; Shryane, Nick; Fowler, David; Birchwood, Max; Gumley, Andrew I.; Taylor, Hannah E.; French, Paul; Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Jones, Peter B.; Lewis, Shôn W.; et al. (Cambridge University Press, 2015-04-08)Background: Paranoia is one of the commonest symptoms of psychosis but has rarely been studied in a population at risk of developing psychosis. Based on existing theoretical models, including the proposed distinction between ‘poor me’ and ‘bad me’ paranoia, we test specific predictions about associations between negative cognition, metacognitive beliefs and negative emotions and paranoid ideation and the belief that persecution is deserved (deservedness). Methods: We used data from 117 participants from the EDIE-2 trial of cognitive behaviour therapy for people at high risk of developing psychosis, comparing them with samples of psychiatric inpatients and healthy students from a previous study. Multi-level modelling was utilised to examine predictors of both paranoia and deservedness, with post-hoc planned comparisons conducted to test whether person-level predictor variables were associated differentially with paranoia or with deservedness. Results: Our sample of ARMS participants was not as paranoid, but reported higher levels of “bad-me” deservedness, compared to psychiatric inpatients. We found several predictors of paranoia and deservedness. Negative beliefs about self were related to deservedness but not paranoia, whereas negative beliefs about others were positively related to paranoia but negatively with deservedness. Both depression and negative metacognitive beliefs about paranoid thinking were specifically related to paranoia but not deservedness. Conclusions: This study provides evidence for the role of negative cognition, metacognition and negative affect in the development of paranoid beliefs, which has implications for psychological interventions and our understanding of psychosis.
Factors affecting small-sided game demands among high-level junior rugby league playersTwist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; Nicholas, Ceri; Foster, Christine (University of Chester, 2012)Small-sided games (SSGs) are commonly incorporated into the conditioning programmes of rugby league (RL) players. However, although several studies have examined the physiological, perceptual, movement and skill demands of SSGs, the majority of research in this area has focused on these responses in soccer players. Therefore, the purpose of this programme of research was to examine the effects of altering selected variables (player number, playing area size, the role of the player and the role of the coach) on the physiological and technical demands imposed on junior, high-level RL players during SSGs. In addition, SSG responses were investigated in different junior age groups to determine if playing age has an effect on SSG demands. Finally, given the role of SSGs as a conditioning tool, the consistency of the exercise intensities generated was assessed over repeated trials. Chapter 3 investigated the influence of player number and playing area size on the heart rate (HR) responses elicited by junior male RL players during SSGs. Twenty-two players from a professional club (mean age: 14.5 ± 1.5 yr; stature: 172.5 ± 11.4 cm; body mass: 67.8 ± 15.1 kg; 2OVpeak: 53.3 ± 5.6 ml·kg-1·min-1; HRmax: 198 ± 7.8 b·min-1) participated in two repeated trials of six four-minute conditioned SSGs over a two-week period. The SSGs varied by playing area size; 15x25 m, 20x30 m, and 25x35 m, and player number; 4v4 and 6v6. Analysis revealed non-significant (P>0.05) effects of trials and playing area size on HRs, but a significant effect of player number in the U16 age group only (P<0.001), with HRs being higher in the 4v4 (90.6% HRmax) than the 6v6 SSGs (86.2% HRmax). The HR responses were found to be repeatable in all SSG conditions (within ± 1.9% HRmax) apart from the small 6v6 condition in the older players. Chapter 4 investigated the HR responses and incidence of specific game actions during attacking and defending play in SSGs, with and without coach encouragement. Seventeen boys from a professional club (mean age: 13.4 ± 1.1 yr; stature: 168 ± 11.8 cm; body mass: 61.5 ± 14.9 kg; 2OVpeak: 55.0 ± 5.6 ml·kg-1·min-1; HRmax: 202 ± 6.5 b·min-1) participated in two repeated trials of four, four-minute conditioned SSGs over a two-week period. It was observed that attacking play elicited a greater amount of time above 90% HRmax than defending (62.0 ± 31.5 versus 48.4 ± 31.3% of total time). Compared to the older junior players (U15), the younger junior players (U13) elicited a greater average SSG intensity (90.5 ± 1.7% versus 87.9 ± 0.6% HRmax) and spent a greater amount of time above 90% HRmax (68.6 ± 22.5% versus 43.3 ± 34.6% of total time). Moreover, compared to the U15 players, the U13 players completed a greater volume of passes (20.8 ± 2.9 versus 15.5 ± 2.6), successful passes (21.3 ± 0.0 versus 17.4 ± 3.1), pass plays (6.6 ± 1.4 versus 3.0 ± 0.5) and tries (2.5 ± 1.1 versus 0.6 ± 0.3), but a lower volume of attacking runs (25.9 ± 1.3 versus 32.3 ± 0.2), dummy runs (10.6 ± 1.8 versus 18.9 ± 1.8), touches (30.0 ± 35.0 versus 35.8 ± 6.3), successful touches (30.5 ± 0.5 versus 42.1 ± 1.1) and completed sets (1.6 ± 0.0 versus 3.5 ± 0.6). The addition of coach encouragement had no effect on the HR responses or volume of game actions conducted. The SSGs demonstrated large trial-to-trial variability in the game actions and average and peak HR intensities (bias of 3.7 ± and ± 4% HRmax) and percentage of time in HR Zones (bias of ± 25% percentage of time), indicative of poor reliability. The findings from this research demonstrate that SSGs specific to RL can generate HR responses suitable for aerobic conditioning that, whilst unaffected by the size of the area used, are sensitive to the player number, player role and age. Moreover, coach encouragement may not affect SSG demands when players are habituated to SSG conditioning. Furthermore, manipulating SSG rules can adversely affect the reproducibility of HR responses.