• Exploration and Implementation of Augmented Reality for External Beam Radiotherapy

      John, Nigel W.; Vaarkamp, Jaap; Cosentino, Francesco (University of Chester, 2018-07-17)
      We have explored applications of Augmented Reality (AR) for external beam radiotherapy to assist with treatment planning, patient education, and treatment delivery. We created an AR development framework for applications in radiotherapy (RADiotherapy Augmented Reality, RAD-AR) for AR ready consumer electronics such as tablet computers and head mounted devices (HMD). We implemented in RAD-AR three tools to assist radiotherapy practitioners with: treatment plans evaluation, patient pre-treatment information/education, and treatment delivery. We estimated accuracy and precision of the patient setup tool and the underlying self-tracking technology, and fidelity of AR content geometric representation, on the Apple iPad tablet computer and the Microsoft HoloLens HMD. Results showed that the technology could already be applied for detection of large treatment setup errors, and could become applicable to other aspects of treatment delivery subject to technological improvements that can be expected in the near future. We performed user feedback studies of the patient education and the plan evaluation tools. Results indicated an overall positive user evaluation of AR technology compared to conventional tools for the radiotherapy elements implemented. We conclude that AR will become a useful tool in radiotherapy bringing real benefits for both clinicians and patients, contributing to successful treatment outcomes.