• Agnotology and the Criminological Imagination

      White, Holly; Barton, Alana; Davis, Howard; University of Chester; Edge Hill University (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018-11-08)
      In this chapter we reflect upon the concept of ‘agnotology’ and its usefulness for the expansion of a zemiological criminology. Initially presented as an analytical tool in the fields of science and medicine, agnotology explores the social and political underpinnings of forms of ignorance and their role in both generating and securing acquiescence in mass harms and crimes of the powerful. Typically originating within state-corporate symbioses of ideology, policy and practice, ‘crimes of the powerful’ include harms inflicted through health and safety violations, ‘security’, criminal justice, social and economic policies, war, disaster and environmental destruction. In each case real harms are obscured, denied or otherwise neutralised. Two cases of mass harm are presented here as examples. First, we discuss corporate constructed agnosis over the use of asbestos that has allowed corporations to kill hundreds of thousands yet avoid criminal justice. Second, we reflect on the Holocaust and the role of agnosis in this most extreme form of state-generated harm. Despite its scale, and in contrast with the attention from other disciplines, criminology has remained remarkably taciturn about this crime. We conclude that the central zemiological purpose of an imaginative criminology—the understanding of and struggle against major harm—cannot be undertaken without systematic and rigorous attention to ignorance.
    • Alternative salvations?

      Swinton, Valda; University of Chester (British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, 2013)
      In our secular and diverse culture people may be seeking to fill the vacuum that religion played in the lives of preceding generations. The word salvation does conform to a set of beliefs that is set out in the Christian scriptures and the means by which to attain this salvation. This understanding of the nature, grounds, and means of obtaining salvation. This understanding of salvation is grounded uniquely in the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. This is not the salvation that is experience in counselling training or therapy.
    • Anti-Politics in the Anthropocene

      Cox, Peter; Revi, Ben; University of Chester (2015-10-31)
      The governing logic of the neoliberal world seeks to impose strict policy outcomes without all the trouble of political debate. Neoliberal governmentality is constructed as ‘apolitical’ or, in James Ferguson’s words, an ‘anti-politics machine’, a function of economic science, conceived by experts (such as independent reserve banks, committees and advisors) whose recommendations determine appropriate social behaviours and methods to encourage their practice. Politicians are judged not on their skill in delivering agreement and compromise, but rather on their skill at delivering balanced budgets and economic growth. This sets up an interesting proposition. When the overwhelming majority of the world’s climate scientists advocate policy to address the threat of climate change, how does neoliberalism react? Counterintuitively, many neoliberal actors have sought to undermine the authority of climate science. This has caused a rift in the governing logic of neoliberalism, as it selectively abandons the 'anti-politics’ positivism it is built on. Therefore, the anthropocene as a mode of understanding could present a discursive challenge to neoliberal hegemony, exposing the paradoxes and contradictions that lie within the anti-politics agenda. We argue, therefore that the nurture of moral political debate is a crucial task of an anthropocene mode of understanding, one already emergent in activist movements. While these movements are frequently characterised as anti-political in themselves, we argue that instead they should be understood as prefigurative of new extensions of democracy.
    • Anti-Psychiatry Movement

      Taylor, Paul J.; University of Chester (Policy Press, 2014-10-22)
      This chapter documents the history of the anti-psychiatry movement. Within the domains of criminal justice and mental health care, critical debate concerning 'care' versus 'control' and 'therapy' versus 'security' is now commonplace. Indeed, the 'hybridisation' of these areas is now a familiar theme. This unique and topical text provides an array of expert analyses from key contributors in the field that explore the interface between criminal justice and mental health. Using concise yet robust definitions of key terms and concepts, it consolidates scholarly analysis of theory, policy and practice. Readers are provided with practical debates, in addition to the theoretical and ideological concerns surrounding the risk assessment, treatment, control and risk management in a cross-disciplinary context. Included in this book is recommended further reading and an index of legislation, making it an ideal resource for students at undergraduate and postgraduate level, together with researchers and practitioners in the field.
    • Antipsychiatry

      Taylor, Paul J.; University of Chester (SAGE, 2016-03-01)
      A historical mapping of the development and influence of the antipsychiatry perspective
    • Are sustainability strategies the losers of austerity times?

      Fernandez, Rosa M.; University of Chester (Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Oviedo, 2015-06)
      During the last decade Europe seemed to be focused on reaching a sustainable development path and what it involved: low carbon economies, investment on renewable energies, environmental policy integration on the rest of policies, corporate social responsibility as the way forward for business behavior… The fight against climate change and the European Union international leadership on this area appeared as priority in all main forums and regulations. However the deep financial and economic crisis affecting most European economies seemed to have put on hold those priorities and made them become only wishful thinking. National budgets have been severely reduced and in some countries this has been translated on a reduction to the minimum on environmental protection expenditure, the cancellation of projects, the elimination of favourable fiscal regimes for renewable energies and even the disappearance of the institutions responsible for the implementation of sustainability measures. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the different European economies have reacted to the crisis in the environmental and sustainability areas and to which extent austerity measures can put at risk the targets that the EU have set for the medium and long term in order to achieve a sustainable, smart and inclusive growth path. Especial focus will be given to those countries whose bail out conditions have made their national budgets subject to international scrutiny, in comparison to those whose green economy approaches have provided room for growth without compromising sustainability. The methodology will include the analysis of quantitative and qualitative sets of data, in order to assess, among other factors, the influence of internal and external actors for macroeconomic policy determination, such as political parties preferences, citizens interests and exogenous shocks. Whenever possible, the differences in policies at national and regional level will be separated, as well as the possibilities of non-consistencies in the interactions between both levels of policy implementation. It is expected that findings will confirm that those countries more severely affected by the crisis will present a lack of green economy approach prior to the crisis, which will difficult a change of course in policy making and as such, the reinforce their possibility of lagging behind the most advanced countries in the reach of sustainable growth paths.
    • Assessing the perceived limitations of Reflexive Groups for supporting Clergy in the Church of England

      Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-18)
      For this research, eight Church of England Bishops’ Advisors for Pastoral Care and Counselling were interviewed to ascertain the limitations of Reflexive Groups (RGs). The data were analysed using a thematic analysis. One superordinate theme emerged: Hindrances, along with 10 subordinate themes. An online survey was then sent to RG participants (n=64), to see if their experiences matched those limitations identified by the Bishops’ Advisors. The data reveal that RGs are perceived as limited by the inability of clergy to commit to the time; it was scary for participants to be vulnerable with others; sometimes the needs of some participants were too big and could sabotage the group; dual relationships could cause complexity and hinder sharing; prayer; being sent by a Bishop or Archdeacon; the open agenda and style of facilitation does not suit some people; and sometimes there are struggles with expectations.
    • Assessing the perceived value of Reflexive Groups for supporting Clergy in the Church of England

      Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (Routledge, 2016-07-18)
      Little research has been conducted to assess the effectiveness of reflexive groups in supporting clergy. For this research, eight Church of England Bishops’ Advisors for Pastoral Care and Counselling were interviewed to ascertain the value of reflexive groups. These data were analysed using a thematic analysis. Two superordinate themes emerged: Contextual issues and Benefits, along with 20 subordinate themes. An online survey, consisting of questions that came from the Bishops’ Advisors data, was then sent to reflexive group participants (n=64), to see if their experiences matched those benefits identified by the Bishops’ Advisors. The data from 37 participants was statistically analysed. The data from both sets of participants reveal that reflexive groups are psychologically beneficial to clergy. The research concludes that the implementation of reflexive groups as a way of developing self-awareness and enculturating attitudes towards resilience and self-care is important to foster psychologically and spiritually healthy practice.
    • Australian MPs and the Internet: Avoiding the digital age?

      Ward, Stephen; Lusoli, Wainer; Gibson, Rachel; University of Oxford ; University of Chester ; University of Leicester (Blackwell, 2007-06)
      Based on content analysis of representatives' websites and face-to-face interviews, this article discusses the way in which Australian MPs (Federal House of Representatives) have adopted the internet to get and keep in touch with their constituents, in the case of large electorates. The results indicate that while websites amongst legislators are growing, they are used primarily as supplementary, administrative tools.
    • Autoethnography: A methodological chat with self.

      Egeli, Cemil; University of Chester; (The British Psychological Society, 2017-03-01)
      There is paucity of counselling psychology literature which explores the experience of people coming from a mixed cultural background. The literature available focuses on developmental theories and cultural competencies of practitioners but all too often fails to capture the peculiarities and particularities of the mixed experience. It also has a tendency to focus on ethnic, racial and cultural labels which are not always useful or helpful for people. This paper explores autoethnography as a methodology with which to research the mixed cultural experience. It aims to highlight the importance for the counselling psychology professions of reflexive and subjective research with regards to studying and understanding people’s experiences of mixed culture. It examines the methods and processes used by a researcher in the data gathering, analysis and explication of their own subjective research. It reveals some of the difficulties encountered and ethical decisions which had to be made during the research. In keeping with the ethnographic and creative approach it is written as a self diaologue and hopes to give the reader a sense of how the research was undertaken. It concludes that autoethnography can highlight the complexities of the experience of people operating between or on the edge of cultures and can bring greater understanding and awareness to counselling professionals who will then hopefully be better enabled to help people.
    • Bicycle design history and systems

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (Routledge, 2017-02-02)
      This chapter focuses on the ways in which bicycle design connects with a range of factors; how external forces may shape reinterpretations of bicycle design, and how bicycle design, in turn, may be used to try to shape the external world. Two historical cases are explored to show how bicycles, as design objects, are entangled with practices and identities: Germany in the 1920s and 1930s and England in the 1960s and 1970s. In the first case, design is used to reproduce and reinforce a dominant political ideology through reinterpretation rather than innovation. Here the bicycle allows new connections to be made between state and citizen. In the second case, design innovation is employed to challenge dominant ideologies of mobility: bicycles are used to connect citizens to new mobility practices. Both cases illustrate the relations between design and politics and both have implications for inclusion and access aspects of social justice. Both studies make use of close reading of manufacturers’ literature but place it more strongly in a political/cultural context to understand the relationship between the design objects and wider society.
    • Biking and Tourism

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (2016-02-24)
      Keynote presentation at Cycling Forum, organized by Institute of Parks and Recreation, held at the Urban Redevelopment Authority, Singapore.
    • The Bio‐Medical Model and Ageing: Towards an Anti‐Reductionist Model?

      Powell, Jason; Owen, Tim; University of Chester; UCLan (Emerald, 2005-09-10)
      Anti‐reductionist social theory is a relatively ‘new’ but methodically eclectic body of theory which analyses the complexity of the tripartite theory, policy and practice.
    • Book review of Bruce D. Epperson (2014) Bicycles in American Highway Planning. The critical years of policy-making 1969-1991. Jefferson, NC: McFarland

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (2015-12)
      Book review of Bruce D. Epperson (2014) Bicycles in American Highway Planning. The critical years of policy-making 1969-1991. Jefferson, NC: McFarland
    • Book review: Quest for speed

      Cox, Peter; University Of Chester (Manchester University Press, 2013-12-01)
      This is a book review of Quest for Speed, a book which brings together a wealth of data on the emergence of cycling racing and, in particular, on the relationship between sport and technological innovation.
    • Book Reviews

      Gutelius, Beth; Gibson, Janet; Zunino Singh, Dhan; Gold, Steven J.; Portmann, Alexandra; Cox, Peter; Volti, Rudi; Drummond-Cole, Adrian; Spalding, Steven D. (Berghahn Books, 2017-12-01)
      Matthew Heins, The Globalization of American Infrastructure: The Shipping Container and Freight Transportation (New York: Routledge, 2016), 222 pp., $145 (hardback)Lesley Murray and Susan Robertson, eds., Intergenerational Mobilities: Relationality, Age and Lifecourse (London: Routledge, 2017), 194 pp., 14 illustrations, $145 (hardback)Sebastián Ureta, Assembling Policy: Transantiago, Human Devices, and the Dream of a World-Class Society (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015), 224 pp., 22 illustrations, $39 (hardback)Yuk Wah Chan, David Haines, and Jonathan H. X. Lee, eds., The Age of Asian Migration: Continuity, Diversity, and Susceptibility, vol. 1 (Newcastle on Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2014), 450 pp., £54.99Robert Henke and Eric Nicholson, eds., Transnational Mobilities in Early Modern Theater (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014) 320 pp., 22 illustrations, $117 (hardback)Ruth Oldenziel and Helmuth Trischler, eds., Cycling and Recycling: Histories of Sustainable Practices (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2016), 256 pp., 18 illustrations, £67 (hardback)Margo T. Oge, Driving the Future: Combating Climate Change with Cleaner, Smarter Cars (New York: Arcade, 2015), xv + 351 pp., $25.99 (hardback)Thomas Birtchnell, Satya Savitzky, and John Urry, eds., Cargomobilities: Moving Materials in a Global Age (New York: Routledge, 2015), 236 pp., 16 illustrations, $148 (hardback)Jacques Lob and Jean-Marc Rochette, Snowpiercer 1: The Escape, trans. Virginie Sélavy (London: Titan Comics, 2014), 110 pp., $19 (hardback)
    • Breaking up with Jesus: a phenomenological exploration of the experience of deconversion from an Evangelical Christian faith to Atheism

      Lee, Karen A.; Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2019-06-10)
      This study examines the experience of deconversion from an Evangelical Christian faith to Atheism in the UK. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants and the data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The resulting superordinate themes emerged: Process of Deconversion; Post Deconversion Issues; What Helped and Did Not Help. The findings are supportive of similar research conducted on deconversion but are from the UK, rather than from a largely American, perspective. The underlying reason for deconversion is found to be cognitive dissonance and, as such, deconversion is a rational and intellectual process. Helping professionals need to convey a non-judgemental attitude, being understanding, sympathetic, supportive and kind.
    • Bridging the Gap: Developing an Adapted Model of Pluralistic Counselling and Psychotherapy for Boys (Aged 11-16 Years) Who Present with Specific Learning Difficulties

      Reeves, Andrew; Gubi, Peter; Tebble, Gary (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2019-09-30)
      Objective: Young people who present with specific learning difficulties face many challenges and barriers when accessing effective, adjusted and helpful therapeutic intervention and mental health support. The objective of this research was to develop and produce a theoretical model of adapted pluralistic therapy and to address the practice and research gap, through using this therapeutic intervention and the use of therapeutic feedback with boys in psychotherapy. Design: The philosophical underpinning of the study was grounded in a pluralistic and social constructionist stance, which dovetailed and guided the selected systematic case study design (Cooper & Dryden, 2016; Widdowson, 2011).A concurrent mixed methods design was implemented, with a concurrent embedded strategy and an integrative method used for combining the data sets (Iwakabe & Gazzola, 2009; Creswell, 2009). A dual role paradigm of therapist/researcher, client-participant was adopted and embedded within a multiple case study approach, which utilised a grounded theory analysis (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). The dual role was ethical and professionally managed through evaluating the ethical risks of researching with own clients, exploring issues of informed consent including the use of parental consent, the use of rolefluency, strong boundaries, working with levels of self-disclosure, protecting children and avoiding harm, managing confidentiality, outlining benefits for participating in the research and through ongoing clinical and research supervision. Findings: A theoretical framework established from the grounded theory process, indicated that an adapted pluralistic approach had been approved and implemented. This included the development of collaboration and shared understanding through a meta-therapeutic communicative approach (shared-decision making), where therapeutic focus, activities and concepts were also established, in order instigate a reduction of psychological distress and mental health concern. Alongside the pluralistic framework, the use of therapeutic teaching and the emergence of a therapeutic-educational stance was identified as an essential feature of the process. The theoretical model identified consisted of various elements of therapeutic practice, but was centred on four distinct pillars; therapeutic foundation and the creation of a collaborative and pedagogical culture, the development of construction and learning, the development of assimilation and expression and the emergence of therapeutic change and development through the awareness of therapeutic insight. Four key pathways were also highlighted throughout the grounded theory process, which included the empowerment pathway, the engagement pathway, the expression pathway and the enhancement pathway, all of which give the therapeutic process direction and movement. The adapted pluralistic model of practice resulted in a reduction in participant’s psychological distress relating to their presenting issues, with quantitative findings suggesting that both therapeutic reliability change and clinical change was present for most of the participants. Implications: The study has noteworthy relevance for both the psychological professions and the allied fields, including the educational setting. It is also particularly relevant for any professionals working with boys who present with specific learning difficulties and are in the special educational needs grouping, who may be willing to adopt a more pluralistic and adaptive approach.
    • British Military Veterans and the Criminal Justice System in the United Kingdom: Situating the Self in Veteran Research

      Mottershead, Richard (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2019-11)
      The 21st Century has seen the continuation of armed conflict, exposing military personnel to the rigours of warfare and the challenges of transition back to a civilian identity. There has been a renewed realisation that there exists a sub-group within the criminal justice system (CJS) of veterans and whilst the exact figures are debated, their presence is not. This thesis seeks to capture the perspectives and experiences of veterans who are identified as exoffenders and those having been employed in the CJS as practitioners. The super-structuralist concept of the CJS collectively represent services of a ‘total institution’ that have shared similarities and differences to life within the ‘total institution’ of the Armed Forces. The life stories of the participants indicated that whilst one veteran life story trajectory (veteran practitioner) appeared to be able to adapt during the transition to a civilian identity successfully, there was evidence that the other veteran life story trajectory (veteran exoffender) found themselves segregated and isolated from a familiar veteran identity with few resources to survive the experience unscathed. This exploratory qualitative study provides emancipatory evidence that the process of entering the CJS as offenders often fails to address the origins of their criminal behaviour or from the wider social context that creates a cyclical response. The veteran practitioners appear to hold a crucial insight into the issues and seek to progress the CJS’s need to expand its knowledge base on the identification, diversion and management of veteran offenders. The study was theoretically informed through the use of reflexivity to articulate the internal and external dialogue of what is known and how it is known in understanding the lived experiences of 17 participants. Life stories were collected from in-depth interviews across the United Kingdom. The life stories were analysed thematically, providing insight and understanding through the elicitation of narratives derived from the contours of meaning from the participants’ (veterans) experiences and enunciating the two separate life story trajectories into the CJS. The findings of this study indicate the participants need to belong and explores how their veteran identity instilled in them both a source of strength and a feeling of anguish, as their new lives could not offer the same security and sense of belonging. The negative consequences of being identified as an offender often resulted in the emergence of stigma and associated shame upon themselves and their families. The life stories demonstrated disparities between the attempted empowering philosophies of the veteran practitioners and the practices imposed generally by the CJS. There were numerous examples of how the veterans’ prior exposure to the institution of the Armed Forces had shaped their experiences and engagement with the institutions of the CJS. Both sub-groups of veterans constructed positive ownership of their veteran identity which at times served to counterbalance their negative experiences of transition from military to a civilian identity. These constructions of their experiences highlight the vulnerability of this sub-group within the CJS and the failure of the system and wider society to address the consequences of military service on some veterans. This research raises the issue of the ‘fallout’ from the recruitment of youth from communities where established socio-economic deprivation has created fertile recruitment grounds for the Armed Forces. The analysis identifies a pragmatic need to address the gaps within the research literature as well as multi-agency working, in order to expand veteran peer support schemes. The voice of the veteran has been overlooked within the positivist research approach, this study seeks to capture the viewpoint of the veterans through reflexive exploratory research undertaken by a veteran researcher to understand the phenomena. Researching the experiences of veterans’ experiences of the CJS presented ethical and methodological challenges. The study has provided new knowledge and understanding that can be disseminated and used to improve current practices and policies.
    • Building a case for accessing service provision in child and adolescent mental health assessments

      O'Reilly, Michelle; Kiyimba, Nikki; Lester, Jessica N. (Sage, 2019-04-29)
      In everyday conversations, people put forward versions of events and provide supporting evidence to build a credible case. In environments where there are potentially competing versions, case-building may take a more systematic format. Specifically, we conducted a rhetorical analysis to consider how in child mental health settings, families work to present a credible ‘doctorable’ reason for attendance. Data consisted of video-recordings of 28 families undergoing mental health assessments. Our findings point to eight rhetorical devices utilised in this environment to build a case. The devices functioned rhetorically to add credibility and authenticate the case being built, which was relevant as the only resource available to families claiming the presence of a mental health difficulty in the child were their spoken words. In other words, the ‘problem’ was something constructed through talk and therefore the kinds of resources used were seminal in decision-making.