• A qualitative exploration of therapists’ experiences as clients who prematurely terminated their therapy in England

      Gubi, Peter M.; Reeves, Andrew; Bonsmann, Christine F. (University of Chester, 2016-07-31)
      This qualitative study explored experiences of prematurely terminating adult individual therapy from the perspectives of therapists as clients in England. The aims of the study were to gain an overview of the experience of prematurely terminating therapy; to understand the experience of dissatisfaction when this is given as a reason for prematurely terminating therapy; and to inform and thus help improve practice. Rates of premature termination from counselling and psychotherapy remain high despite a considerable body of research into possible predictors of this phenomenon. Few studies have explored clients’ experiences of premature termination in depth. Clients often report dissatisfaction as a reason for premature termination, and this experience is under-researched. From practitioners’ perspectives, little is known about indicators of dissatisfaction, and how to manage premature termination if it occurs. The study was conducted in two stages. The purposeful sample were therapists who, as clients, prematurely terminated personal therapy after attending at least two sessions. Participants self-selected as having prematurely terminated therapy. Stage one used an online qualitative survey to gain an overview of participants’ experiences of premature termination, and the 40 usable responses were analysed inductively using thematic analysis. The survey was used to recruit participants for stage two. In stage two, six semi-structured interviews were carried out with participants who had prematurely terminated therapy for reasons of dissatisfaction. The data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Overall, the major themes created were: feeling dissatisfied; client becomes unable to continue therapy; and communication about the premature termination. The findings confirm the importance of the working alliance in therapy, and illuminate how the alliance failed to develop in experiences of dissatisfaction. It is argued that understanding clients’ experiences could enable practitioners to recognise the presence of dissatisfaction, and adapt therapy, if appropriate, to minimise avoidable premature termination. The need for therapy to ‘add value’ was also identified. The findings indicate a failure by some therapists to act in a relational way when clients prematurely terminated therapy, thereby disrupting the dominant discourse about the importance of the therapeutic relationship. Clients’ needs at the point of premature termination were identified. The findings of this study are not generalisable but may be transferable. The study concludes that therapists’ management of how therapy ends is just as important as the management of how it begins, regardless of how it ends. This has implications for practice and training. Areas for further research are identified.
    • Quantitative and Qualitative Inquiry in Mental Health Research

      Ogden, Cassandra A.; University of Chester (Policy Press, 2014-10-22)
      A dictionary entry explaining the main qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry in research interested in mental health.
    • Question use in child mental health assessments and the challenges of listening to families.

      O’Reilly, Michelle; Karim, Khalid; Kiyimba, Nikki; University of Chester; University of Leicester (The Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2015-10-07)
      Background: The mental health assessment is a fundamental aspect of clinical practice and central to this is the use of questions. Aims: To investigate the frequency and type of questions utilised within a child mental health assessment. Method: The data consisted of 28 naturally occurring assessments from a UK child and adolescent mental health service. Data were analysed using quantitative and qualitative content analysis to determine frequencies and question type. Results: Results indicated a total of 9086 questions in 41 h across the 28 clinical encounters. This equated to a mean of 3.7 questions per minute. Four types of questions were identified; yes–no interrogatives, wh-prefaced questions, declarative questions and tag questions. Conclusions: The current format of questioning may impede the opportunity for families to fully express their particular concerns and this has implications for service delivery and training.
    • (Re)connecting politics? Parliament, the public and the Internet

      Lusoli, Wainer; Ward, Stephen; Gibson, Rachel; University of Chester ; University of Oxford ; Australian National University (Oxford University Press, 2005-11-04)
      Much concern has been voiced about the ability of UK parliamentary institutions and elected representatives to respond to twenty-first century politics. Consequently, there has been an increasing focus around the need to modernise representative politics and re-engage public interest in democratic institutions. Perhaps not surprisingly, the emergence of the internet and email, has been seized upon as one potential solution to public disconnection from parliament. This article examines the extent to which new media can: open up new channels of communication between MPs and the public and whether it could widen/deepen participation in parliamentary politics. To answer such questions, the paper draws on public opinion survey data which assesses: the extent of current usage of parliamentary websites; whether there is a new audience using online communication; the comparative value of different forms of communication with representatives; the demand for online parliamentary consultation and participation; and attitudes towards use of new media in the parliamentary politics. It concludes by suggesting that whilst new media technologies have potential, without wider changes to parliamentary politics, they are just as likely to reinforce existing participation patterns.
    • Reclaiming the spiritual in Reflective Practice Groups for Clergy

      Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, 2017-07-01)
      Reclaiming the spiritual in reflective practice groups
    • Reconciling Work, Care and Justice: informal care, status inclusion and self-empowering dynamics

      Pratesi, Alessandro; University of Chester (University of Chester Press, 2014-09-30)
    • Reconciling Work, Care and Justice: informal care, status inclusion and self-empowering dynamics

      Pratesi, Alessandro; University of Chester (University of Chester Press, 2014-09-30)
      The phenomenological analysis presented in this chapter sheds light onto the less visible and often unexplored aspects of care. One of these aspects concerns the energising and empowering effects of care responsibilities that clearly help people not only to overcome the exhaustion connected with multi-task operations but also to balance their perceived status exclusion from other settings. Indeed, the crucial role of care in terms of status inclusion represents one of the unexpected and certainly still uncharted aspects of care. Such broader phenomenological analysis brings to the surface important and understudied elements, perhaps a blend of new and old elements, which acquire a completely new sense in light of the Interaction Ritual model (Collins, 2004) and with the inclusion of gay/lesbian and single carers.
    • Reconstructing Postmodernism

      Powell, Jason; Owen, Tim; University of Chester; UCLan (Nova Science Publishers, 2007-08-23)
      There has been an array of literature on the notion of 'postmodernism' in social science literature in recent years. This exciting book focuses on three broad continuities: one, debunking the central theoretical tenets of postmodernism with reference to identity, methodology, governance and modernist theory; two, the book engages with current social issues and events in popular culture: for example, film; professional power, masculinity and terrorism; three, the book also rethinks postmodernism in light of under-researched variables of analysis of time and ageing, the 'body', ‘biology’ and 'choice'.
    • Reconstructing Social Policy and Ageing

      Powell, Jason; Halsall, Jamie; University of Chester (World Scientific News, 2015)
      This article draws from the work of Michel Foucault to reconstruct an understanding of social policy and ageing in contemporary Britain. In many ways, policy provides three trajectories for older people; first, as independent self-managing consumers with private means and resources; second, as people in need of some support to enable them to continue to self-manage and third, as dependent and unable to commit to self-management. Governmentality provides the theoretical framework through which to view policy and practice that is largely governed by discourses of personalisation.
    • Recovery capital in the context of homelessness, high levels of alcohol consumption, and adverse significant life events

      Ross-Houle, Kim; Porcellato, Lorna; University of Chester; Liverpool John Moores University (Taylor and Francis, 2021-12-16)
      Homelessness and heavy alcohol consumption are increasing global public health concerns. Homelessness is associated with poorer health outcomes, shorter life expectancy, and are more likely to engage in health risk behaviours. High levels of alcohol consumption intersect with the cause and effect of homelessness making this an important consideration for research. This is explored through a theoretical lens of recovery capital, referring to the resources required to initiate and maintain recovery, and is applied to both heavy alcohol consumption and homelessness. Life history calendars were utilised alongside semi-structured interviews to explore the impact that adverse life events had on alcohol consumption and living situations with 12 participants in contact with homelessness services in North-West England. The findings consider how social, health, and structural-related adverse life events were both a cause and effect of homelessness and increasing consumption of alcohol, which were further exacerbated by a lack of recovery capital. The authors argue for further consideration relating to the intersection of homelessness and high levels of alcohol consumption in relation to recovery capital. The findings have implications for policy and practice by demonstrating the need for relevant services to help individuals develop and maintain resources that will sustain recovery capital.
    • Reflecting on what ‘you said’ as a way of reintroducing difficult topics in child mental health assessments

      Kiyimba, Nikki; O’Reilly, Michelle; University of Chester; University of Leicester (Wiley, 2017-03-25)
      Background In child and adolescent mental health assessments, questions are integral to the process. There has been limited research focused on the assessment process, or on how questions are constructed within this clinical environment. Methods We examined 28 naturally occurring initial assessments, with particular attention to how practitioners used questions in their communication with children and young people. We utilised conversation analysis to examine the data. Results Analysis revealed a particular type of question preface used to reintroduce a prior topic. This was achieved through the use of ‘you said x’ as a foundation for asking a follow-up question and demonstrated active listening. Conclusions Arguably, this approach is a useful way of gathering assessment-relevant information in a child-centred way.
    • Reflections from behind the screen: avoiding therapeutic rupture when utilising reflecting teams

      Parker, Nicola; O'Reilly, Michelle; University of Chester; University of Leicester (Sage, 2013-03-06)
      Since Tom Andersen developed the use of reflecting teams to facilitate the progress and process of family therapy, little empirical evidence has emerged regarding their effectiveness or use in therapeutic practice. Reflecting teams are typically embraced by family therapists as a positive mechanism for enhancing practice and thus it is important that research explores how they are utilized. In this article, we draw upon videotaped data of naturally occurring family therapy from the United Kingdom. Using conversation analysis, we identified three performative actions related to interrupting the therapeutic conversation to consult with a reflecting team. We found that therapists had difficulty exiting therapy, that on some occasions exit was hindered, and that there were disturbances in feeding back the reflections of the team. By examining the use of teams in real practice, we were able to make a number of recommendations for practicing family therapists to facilitate the use of this valuable resource.
    • Reforming masculinity: the politics of gender, race, militarism and security sector reform in the DRC

      Massey, Rachel; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2021-06-23)
      Conflict-related sexual violence has become an increasingly visible issue for feminists as well as various international actors. One of the ways global policy makers have tried to tackle this violence is through addressing the violent masculinity of security sector forces. While such efforts have their roots in feminist analyses of militarized masculinity, this article seeks to contribute to the critical discourse on ‘gender-sensitive security sector reform’ (GSSR). There are three dimensions to my critical reading of GSSR. Firstly, I ask what gendered and racialized power relations are reproduced through efforts to educate male security agents about the wrongs of sexual violence. Secondly, I offer a critique of how GSSR normalizes military solutions to addressing sexual violence and strengthens the global standing of military actors. Finally, I bring these themes together in an analysis of the United States-led military training mission Operation Olympic Chase in the DRC. Here, I reveal the limitations of attempting to address sexual violence within the security sector without more radically confronting how gender, race and militarism often work together to form the conditions for this violence. I conclude with some reflections on feminist complicity in upholding military power and the possibilities for developing global solidarity.
    • Reforms, Rights or Wrongs? A Foucauldian Exploration on New Mental Health Bill in UK

      Bertram, Mark; Powell, Jason; Kent University; University of Chester (Emerald, 2005-09-10)
      This article deconstructs the hagiography surrounding British mental health policy and provides a critical analysis of the ‘New Labour’ Government reforms of the Mental Health Act 1983 grounded in Foucauldian insights. Smart (1985) suggests that a Foucauldian perspective deconstructs “common sense assumptions” that lie at the heart of policies formulated by the State. A cogent discussion grounded in Foucault’s work can illustrate how surveillance and discourses of power impact on the positioning of service users as objects of control, domination and subordination.
    • Relativizing Universality: Sociological Reactions to Liberal Universalism

      Horsley, Mark; University of Chester (University of York, 2013-12-31)
      This paper offers an appraisal of the relationship between sociology and philosophy grounded in a critique of the former discipline’s failure to contend with the dominance of neoliberalism in the run up to the financial crisis. In the first instance, it considers the prevailing philosophical ethos after the end of the Cold War and what Francis Fukuyama (1992) called the ‘End of History’. It observes the emergence of an increasingly unchallenged political monad around the conjoined principles of liberal democracy and neoliberal economics and its ascendance to the status of socio-historical universality despite becoming increasingly problematic. The second half of the essay then carries this political-philosophical analysis into an exploration of contemporary sociology and its approach to the intellectual critique of dominant ideas and structures. It proposes that an emergent strain of philosophical relativism has inadvertently moved us away from some of the critical responsibilities of the traditional intellectual and eroded our capacity to offer practical alternatives to overwhelmingly neoliberal governance. The article ends on the hopeful note that a slight change in tack might push us toward reclaiming responsibilities and revitalising the debate on social transformation.
    • Representation and Misrepresentation: San regional advocacy and the Global imagery

      Francis, Suzanne; Francis, Michael; University of Chester; University of KwaZulu-Natal (Taylor & Francis, 2010-07-19)
      The San of southern Africa are one of the most represented peoples of southern Africa. Internationally, they are most often depicted as a hunting-gathering people or as a people recently removed from that way of life. Organisations such as Survival International draw on these images for political advocacy and in campaigns for land rights for indigenous peoples. In southern Africa, San organisations fight for similar rights and, despite their membership being comprised of San people, the images and ideas of San-ness are dominated by the global imagery. The images and ideas of the San draw on racialised caricatures and colonial imagery that freeze San imagery into a mythologised past. We argue that this is a limiting factor in political advocacy that constrains the types of responses possible for aboriginal rights in Africa.
    • Research as Transformation and Transfromation as Research

      Vahed, Anisa; Ross, Ashley; Francis, Suzanne; Millar, Bernie; Mputuri, Oliver; Searle, Ruth; DUT; University of Chester, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Jackana, 2019-01-31)
      The authors explore the transformational process of supervisors and postgraduate students through five research projects using activity theory. The projects were funded by the DHET and endorsed by HELTASA and CHE.
    • Research to develop Spiritual Pedagogy, Awareness and Change

      Swinton, Valda; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-04-21)
      A co-operative inquiry group consisting of 8 counsellors met for 11 months to explore their experience of spirituality in their counselling training and in their work with clients (Swinton, 2010; 2015). The aim was to explore whether spirituality was absent from the process of counselling training, specifically to discover (1) how counsellors perceived and described their experience of spirituality in their training and (2) with a view to developing spiritual pedagogy; how spirituality could be incorporated into the training process of practitioners
    • Researching Lesser-Explored Issues in Counselling and Psychotherapy

      Gubi, Peter M.; Swinton, Valda; University of Chester (Karnac Books, 2016-05-11)
      The aim of the volume is to inform counsellors and psychotherapists, and those in allied professions who support and care for people, towards developing a greater awareness of issues they may encounter. These include sexuality after breast cancer in young, single women; the impact of pregnancy loss on women who delayed childbirth and remain childless; adult reflections on being an only child; processing parental rejection through personal development; the nature of school-based counselling; the impact of emotional labour on secondary school teachers; and the impact of inappropriately referred clients on counselling trainees in placement.
    • Researching spirituality in counselling training

      Swinton, Valda; University of Chester (British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, 2007)
      The spiritual is always present and this presence manifests itself in the learning environment. In conclusion, education and training within the area of psychology, religion, - spirituality appears to be very limited. Yet the finding suggests that counsellors are interested in the exploration of spirituality in counsellor training.