• Magazines as contradictory spaces for alcohol messaging: a mixed method content and thematic analysis of UK women’s magazine representations of alcohol and its consumption

      Atkinson, Amanda; Meadows, Beth; Ross-Houle, Kim; Smith, Chloe; Sumnall, Harry; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester
      BACKGROUND Women’s magazines provide a space in which gendered norms around alcohol-related practice are (re)-produced. They act as important points of reference for women to draw upon in their own understandings of alcohol use within their identity making. Studying the alcohol-related messages women’s magazines disseminate is therefore an important line of inquiry. METHODS An analysis of textual and visual alcohol depictions, including alcohol advertising, in 70 editions of 20 printed magazines targeted at and read by women, published between August 2020 and January 2021, was conducted using quantitative content and qualitative thematic analysis. RESULTS Women’s magazines have the potential to disseminate public health messages about the physical and mental health impacts of alcohol use, alcohol’s role in gender inequalities and the risk of harm from alcohol use by men. However, they do so in ways that reproduce harmful gender norms and expectations, and overlook the structural causes of alcohol-related harms. Associations between alcohol use and violence against women were simplified, in ways that ignored the root causes, produced victim-blaming narratives and deflected responsibility from the perpetrator to the effects of alcohol. Narratives around drinking and sobriety were underpinned by concerns over appearance, which reinforced social expectations of the ideal feminine body. Health narratives were in conflict with the presence of pro-alcohol messages such as consumption suggestions and alcohol advertising, which promoted alcohol use as a normalised aspect of women’s day to day lives. CONCLUSIONS Women receive a number of mixed and contradictory messages on alcohol use through their magazine readership, which places limits on magazines as educational sources of public health messaging.
    • The maintenance of orderly disorder: Modernity, markets and the pseudo-pacification process

      Horsley, Mark; Kotze, Justin; Hall, Steve; University of Chester; Teesside University (The European Society for History of Law; STS Science Centre Ltd., 2015-06-15)
      In contrast with the rather violent and unstable period between the collapse of the Roman Empire and the rise of Plantagenet monarchy, the earliest phase of England’s market economy coincided with a remarkable attenuation of brutal interpersonal violence. While, for some, this diminution of aggression is indicative of a ‘civilizing process’, this paper sets out to advance our theorization of the shift from physically violent to pacified socioeconomic competition in England and Western Europe between the late fourteenth century and the mid-twentieth century. In this pursuit we draw upon the more critical theory of the ‘pseudo-pacification process’ to explain how physical violence was sublimated and harnessed to drive the nascent market economy, which established and reproduced an economically productive condition of pseudo-pacified ‘orderly disorder’.
    • The ‘management of aging’ and the dark side of modernity

      Powell, Jason; Coventry University (NOVA Publishers, 2014)
      This book presents a theoretical analysis based on a critical reading of the work of Michel Foucault. It identifies the inter-relationship between managers and older people in terms of power, surveillance and normalization.
    • Managing Risk Online

      McGarry, Amanda; Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (BACP, 2020-11-27)
      This article considers the professional considerations in working with clients at risk of suicide in an online therapeutic environment.
    • Manhattan masquerade: Sexuality and spectacle in the world of Questin Crisp

      Bendall, Mark J.; University of Chester (Chester Academic Press, 2009-12-18)
      This book chapter discusses Crisp's parade of camp, his use of language, his use of androgyny, and his symbiotic interaction with urban space (especially New York) to sustain individuality and achieve, in his view, ordinariness.
    • Marginally male, centre stage and spot-lit

      Bendall, Mark J.; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015-09-01)
      The chapter interrogates the dissonance between what Quentin Crisp is and what he says,using theories such as Butler's notion of gender trouble to discuss the parade of camp; wit as weapon and the negotiation of an urban environment as flaneur as an elderly white male, marginal in an already marginal culture.
    • Mass culture, subcultures and multiculturalism: How theory can help us understand cycling practice

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (2013-06-11)
      In recent years we have become accustomed to speaking of cycling cultures, but frequently without really examining what we really mean by ‘culture’ in this context. This lecture explores what insights into cycling practices can be gained from the work of social scientists who have concentrated on the topic of culture in their work. On closer examination, we can see how issues of power, legitimacy, inclusion and conflict have been central to the study of popular cultures and the presentation is designed to show how these themes can help us better to understand, and therefore respond to, the problems of advocacy. In particular, the lecture addresses how shared practices and common cultures relate to the process of social change and the formation of social movements. Herbert Blumer (1939) classically defined social movements as “collective enterprises to establish a new order of life. They have their inception in the condition of unrest, and derive their motive power on one hand from dissatisfaction with the current form of life, and on the other hand, from wishes and hopes for a new scheme or system of living”. Asserting that the work of cycle advocacy is an attempt to establish a new order of mobile life where the cycle is no longer subordinate to the car, the lecture poses the central question of whether there is, or can be, a collective enterprise with a shared culture among the myriad of different cycling practices. Using insights from multicultural feminism, it points towards the possibility of building of alliances between groups while maintaining their diversity, showing that it is possible to work actively for change without compromising differences and even conflicts of interests between a variety of different groups.
    • Mass Indebtedness and the Luxury of Payment Means

      Horsley, Mark; Lloyd, Anthony; University of Chester; University of Teesside (Routledge, 2020-01-08)
      Without the remarkable explosion of the credit industry since the early 1990s it’s almost inconceivable that late capitalism, in its neoliberal mode, could have maintained the vibrant and multifaceted consumer markets of the last few decades. Its capacity to create payment means by attaching contractual claims to prospective futures has allowed capitalism to transcend the decline of its material productivity, sustaining consumption against the upward concentration of wealth. In this chapter we consider both the source and the implications of that transcendence, tracing it from the rarefied confines of the financial industry into the lives of consumers to explore the implications of distributing payment means as a kind of ‘systemic luxury’ running counter to the material productivity of prevailing systems and processes.
    • The matrix of 'trust', 'governmentality', and 'authority'

      Powell, Jason; Coventry University (Sacha and Diamond Academic Publishers, 2014)
      This paper sets out to examine the relationship between trust and professional power in the context of Foucauldian social theory. Understood in its micro-political terms and conceived as impacting on individual identity and agency at a number of levels: intrapersonal, interpersonal, organisational and macro levels. The paper also explores the concepts of governmentality and authority in social theory and the relevance for understanding helping professions in contemporary society. This is an original paper employing a Foucauldian analysis of trust and relationship to health and social care policy and professional autonomy.
    • Media Representations and Mental Disorder

      Harrison, Katherine; University of Chester (Policy Press, 2014-10-22)
      An encyclopaedia entry explaining the role of media representations in producing discourses of mental disorder.
    • Media waves and moral panicking: The case of the FIFA World Cup 2010

      Francis, Suzanne; Emser, Monique; University of Chester; University of KwaZulu-Natal (Department of Political Sciences, University of Pretoria, 2014-11)
      As with previous international sporting events, the threat of human trafficking quickly became part of public consciousness during the lead up to the World Cup. Out of 350 articles covering human trafficking in South African newspapers between 2006 and 2010, 82 (or 24 per cent) directly linked this sporting event with human trafficking. We claim that media hypes based on constructed moral panics might be recycled in similar scenarios to that displayed during the FIFA World Cup, demonstrating the staying power of such media hypes and the utility of moral panics.
    • Medicalisation, harm and victimisation

      Taylor, Paul J.; University of Chester (Policy Press, 2016-06-29)
      This chapter documents the possible deleterious effects of medicalisation
    • Mental Distress

      Taylor, Paul J.; University of Chester (Policy Press, 2014-10-22)
      This chapter critically evaluates the concept of mental distress. Within the domains of criminal justice and mental health care, critical debate concerning 'care' versus 'control' and 'therapy' versus 'security' is now commonplace. Indeed, the 'hybridisation' of these areas is now a familiar theme. This unique and topical text provides an array of expert analyses from key contributors in the field that explore the interface between criminal justice and mental health. Using concise yet robust definitions of key terms and concepts, it consolidates scholarly analysis of theory, policy and practice. Readers are provided with practical debates, in addition to the theoretical and ideological concerns surrounding the risk assessment, treatment, control and risk management in a cross-disciplinary context. Included in this book is recommended further reading and an index of legislation, making it an ideal resource for students at undergraduate and postgraduate level, together with researchers and practitioners in the field.
    • Mental Health Chaplains: Practitioners’ perspectives on their value, purpose and function in the UK National Health Service

      Gubi, Peter M.; Smart, Harry; University of Chester; Lincolnshire Partnership Foundation Trust (Taylor & Francis, 2016-04-15)
      There is limited research into the value, purpose and function of Mental Health (MH) Chaplains. Yet, they are employed within National Health Service Trusts in the UK. Eight MH Chaplains were interviewed to explore how they see their value, purpose and function. The data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The data reveal the relational and spiritual/existential accompaniment nature of their work, which is of transformative value, and which requires MH Chaplains to be able to offer ‘hospitality’ and to work at relational depth which is akin to working with the spiritual dimension of clients within counselling. Other roles include: religious care; offering a visible presence; running groups; training; advocacy; connecting with other services; community liaison; committee work; and staff support.
    • Mental Wellbeing and Boosting Resilience to Mitigate the Adverse Consequences of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Critical Narrative Review

      Beckstein, Amoneeta; Chollier, Marie; Kaur, Sangeeta; Ghimire, Ananta R.; Fort Lewis College; University of Chester; GHU Psychiatry and Neurosciences, Paris; Emerging Journey Asia; Uniglobe College (SAGE Publications, 2022-05-28)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc globally. Besides devastating physical health consequences, the mental health consequences are dire as well and are predicted to have a long-term impact for some individuals and communities and society as a whole. Specific keywords were entered into various popular databases at three points in time (June 2020, April 2021, and February 2022). Articles about COVID-19 that focused on mental health and/or discussed improving resilience/coping were reviewed by the authors. A total of 119 publications were included. The pandemic is certainly a chronic stressor for many people, and some may be traumatized in the aftermath which may lead to stress-related disorders. The psychological impacts of this stress and trauma are reported and findings presented around three key themes: mental health impact, impact in the workplace, and improving resilience. In addition, particularly vulnerable populations are discussed and some of the violence and inequities they might face. Resilience literature offers keys to promoting positive mental wellbeing during and after the pandemic. Being able to effectively respond to the heterogeneity of specific situations while building resilience is addressed. Prevention, preparedness, Psychological First Aid training, and trauma informed practice can all contribute to building resilience and promoting peri/post-traumatic growth at all levels of society. This narrative review provides an overview of the literature on mental health and resilience in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors propose that, through the use of the accumulated empirical knowledge on resilience, we can mitigate many of the most damaging outcomes. Implications for mental health professionals, policy suggestions, and future research directions are explored.
    • The Missing Link: Relational Exploration in Working with Suicide

      Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (Regent's University, London, 2018-09-01)
      Empirical research has driven the agenda around suicide risk assessment for many years leading to mental health services and allied professionals, including counsellors and psychotherapists, relying more heavily on risk factor-based questionnaires as the primary mechanism for identifying suicide potential. Research also suggests however, that the efficacy of such risk questionnaires is, at best, questionable and does not really provide a reliable insight into the likelihood of harm. This article argues the position that while factor-based information can be contextually helpful, the only way in which a deeper understanding of the meaning of, and potential for, suicide can be achieved is through the therapeutic discourse. Suicide exploration, it is asserted, provides not only greater insight into the process of suicide for the client, but also contributes to a context where the client may be enabled to support themselves effectively at times of suicidal crisis.
    • Mobility, impairment and empowerment: Subverting normalising discourses

      Ogden, Cassandra A.; Cox, Peter; University of Chester (2013-11-23)
      Deriving our understandings from a Foucauldian perspective, we argue that the mobile subject is not a natural, pre-social being. Rather, power relations structure our ability to choose and the choices we can make. One of the ways in which these paper relations are manifest is through the micro-politics of normalising discourses. Our concern in this study is to disrupt the normalising and naturalising discourses of mobility in order to reveal the impacts these have on the differently able body. First, the paper utilises fictional reverse narratives, combining the methods of Miner’s influential 1956 article “Body ritual among the Nacirema” (American Anthropologist 58: 3), with more recent work on the creation of “ethnographic fictions”. These narratives are designed to invert and subvert conventional assumptions about the processes of travel and the experiential dimension of quotidian mobility. The paper then explores the ways to which they serve to highlight the degree to which ableism underpins and permeates majority conceptualisation of travel processes. Through these narratives, space is made in which to unpack power relations and to consider the hegemony of the ‘normal’ body in mobility studies. Secondly, the paper applies this analysis to some wider issues in the verbal and visual languages associated with sustainable mobility models in current use, to consider the degree to which these are compatible with a socially sustainable and inclusive modelling of future mobility.
    • Modernist Sociology in a Postmodern World?

      Shipman, Jessica; Powell, Jason; University of Leeds; University of Chester (Emerald, 2005-10-14)
      This article looks at the problems Sociology has in theorising modern discourses in the light of the rise and consolidation of Postmodernism. The paper begins with an historical sketch of the emergence of Enlightenment and how its values helped to engender intellectual curiosity amongst the precursors of modernist sociological theorising. Indeed, the paper analyses how Sociology faces up to enlightenment thought and legacy via a critical analysis of the modern‐postmodern debate: its historiography, pathologies, and futurology. At the same time, there has been a huge escalation of neo‐Nietzschean theorists under the label of ‘postmodernist’ who have castigated the enlightenment to the dustbin of the history of ideas, that its metanarratives of ‘progress’ and ‘freedom’ have failed and that western rationality is exhausted (Lyotard, 1984). Subsequently, the paper assesses to what extent the values of the ‘project of modernity’ have to be abandoned, and whether, in turn, sociology can offer the epistemic stretching of postmodern narratives.
    • Modernity, communicative action and reconstruction of rationality

      Powell, Jason; Coventry University (SciPress Ltd, 2014)
      Associated with the Frankfurt School, Jurgen Habermas's work focuses on the modern foundations of social theory and epistemology, the analysis of advanced capitalistic societies and democracy, the rule of law in a critical social-evolutionary context, and contemporary politics, particularly German politics. Habermas's theoretical system is devoted to revealing the possibility of reason, emancipation, and rational-critical communication latent in modern institutions and in the human capacity to deliberate and pursue rational interests. Habermas is known for his work on the concept of modernity, particularly with respect to the discussions of rationalization originally set forth by Max Weber. He has been influenced by American pragmatism and action theory. This paper sets out to explore the problems and possibilities of communicative action and the reconstruction of rationality which Habermas claims was lost in postmodern genre.
    • A moment of love? Embodied experiences of relational depth in transactional analysis psychotherapy

      Gubi, Peter; Swales, Emma (University of Chester, 2020-10)
      This research project explores the question: ‘Can moments of relational depth be understood as a moment of love?’ The aims of the research were: to determine whether Transactional Analysis (TA) psychotherapists have experienced moments of relational depth; to explore their embodied and spiritual experience of this phenomenon, and to investigate participants’ interpretations of this experience. The research has sought to understand if these moments of intense, embodied attunement in therapy can be interpreted as moments of love. The study uses Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to explore the embodied experience of moments of relational depth in transactional analysis psychotherapy, by exploring the felt experience, understandings and conceptualisations of visceral experiences of moments of profound, intense connection in the therapeutic relationship. Thoughts, feelings and experiences of love in therapy are also explored. Semi-structured interviews of nine experienced Transactional Analysis psychotherapists are analysed and 5 superordinate and 26 subordinate themes are identified. The study found that TA psychotherapists do experience moments of embodied relational depth, and that this moment of relational depth can be described and understood as a moment of love. The participants were able to describe significant and similar physical and spiritual sensations that identified the experience. This phenomenon is also explored and understood as a moment of interpersonal physical synchrony. The participants interpreted this experience as being related to early infant-parent interactions, and as a transmission between themselves and their clients. All the participants described feeling love in the therapeutic relationship, and there were descriptions of the types of love that can occur in therapy. A definition of therapeutic love is also offered. The research data showed that for the participants in the study, therapeutic love is a fundamental aspect of therapy, both as a quality of the therapeutic relationship, and as a moment of embodied attunement. Therefore, the research suggests that training and supervision processes need to support trainee and qualified psychotherapists to explore and understand these phenomena. Identifying moments of embodied attunement requires an awareness of our internal experience. This suggests that a focus on the body and body awareness is an essential component of counselling and psychotherapy training courses. The integration of body psychotherapy into mainstream counselling and psychotherapy training will enable therapists to be open to experiences of embodied attunement in therapy. In addition, ongoing personal therapy for practitioners serves as an additional resource to underpin the safe provision of this profound therapeutic work.