• Becoming an Urban Cycling Space

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (University of Chester Press, 2022-01-24)
      Peter Cox shows how the rapid transformations of many city spaces during the covid-19 pandemic has dramatically altered both perceptions of the spaces in which cyclists ride the city and the possibilities of becoming an urban cyclist. This chapter first looks back in a wider historic context to show the double process of cyclists adapting to existing European cities and how, in turn, cyclists’ presence has changed the cities themselves. It then examines some of the adaptations produced in response to the pandemic and the ways in which this has made cities appear different spaces for cycling. Finally, it examines some of the emergent policy frameworks produced during this time and their implications for future relations between cyclists and other forms of urban mobility.
    • ‘The Berwyn Way’: A Qualitative Study of the Rehabilitative Model at HMP Berwyn

      Hughes, Caroline; Gorden, Caroline; Prescott, Joanne A. (University of ChesterWrexham Glyndŵr University, 2021-07)
      Typified predominantly as ‘agencies of disempowerment and deprivation’, traditional prisons represent the antithesis of a rehabilitative setting (De Viggiani, 2007a, p.115). As such, the aim of this qualitative study was to explore the physical, psychological, and social implications of HMP Berwyn’s rehabilitative model (The Berwyn Way) from the perspective of prison residents and operational staff. As a single-site project, Berwyn was of particular interest because of its recent introduction to the UK prison estate. Opening in February 2017, Berwyn, a North Walian establishment, housing up to 2106 adult males, opened with an ambitious rehabilitative agenda which promised to normalise the prison setting by focusing on rehabilitative cultures and values, improved spatial design, therapeutic staff-resident relationships and a person-first lexicon which aimed to replace traditional prison terminology with inclusive alternatives. These are but some of the approaches listed under the ‘Berwyn Way’, and in addressing the many others, this thesis discusses the wider implications of Berwyn’s approach, and does so, with accounts from a sample of 20 prison residents and 20 operational staff, using semi-structured interviews. To capture further nuances, triangulation was utilised and included ethnographic observations and detailed fieldnotes. Thematic analysis of the triangulated dataset generated four themes: The Berwyn Way; Lifting the liminal veil between the outside and inside; Managing behaviour, and finally, Actions speak louder than words: rethinking prison language, relationships and interactions. Findings from the study did not support the expectation that Berwyn’s rehabilitative model would be broadly accepted, and instead there was some resistance to rehabilitative change, both from a resident and staff perspective. From a rehabilitative standpoint, there were however areas of notable best-practice, with certain operational areas encapsulating the essence of Berwyn’s rehabilitative model with consistent professional practice, acceptance to Berwyn’s overarching vision and a willingness to challenge the orthodox narrative of punitive imprisonment. The thesis concludes with observations surrounding the implications of the study for rehabilitative penal practice within prisons in England and Wales, and recommendations for future research.
    • Bicycle design history and systems

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (Routledge, 2017-02-02)
      This chapter focuses on the ways in which bicycle design connects with a range of factors; how external forces may shape reinterpretations of bicycle design, and how bicycle design, in turn, may be used to try to shape the external world. Two historical cases are explored to show how bicycles, as design objects, are entangled with practices and identities: Germany in the 1920s and 1930s and England in the 1960s and 1970s. In the first case, design is used to reproduce and reinforce a dominant political ideology through reinterpretation rather than innovation. Here the bicycle allows new connections to be made between state and citizen. In the second case, design innovation is employed to challenge dominant ideologies of mobility: bicycles are used to connect citizens to new mobility practices. Both cases illustrate the relations between design and politics and both have implications for inclusion and access aspects of social justice. Both studies make use of close reading of manufacturers’ literature but place it more strongly in a political/cultural context to understand the relationship between the design objects and wider society.
    • Biking and Tourism

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (2016-02-24)
      Keynote presentation at Cycling Forum, organized by Institute of Parks and Recreation, held at the Urban Redevelopment Authority, Singapore.
    • The Bio‐Medical Model and Ageing: Towards an Anti‐Reductionist Model?

      Powell, Jason; Owen, Tim; University of Chester; UCLan (Emerald, 2005-09-10)
      Anti‐reductionist social theory is a relatively ‘new’ but methodically eclectic body of theory which analyses the complexity of the tripartite theory, policy and practice.
    • Book review of Bruce D. Epperson (2014) Bicycles in American Highway Planning. The critical years of policy-making 1969-1991. Jefferson, NC: McFarland

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (2015-12)
      Book review of Bruce D. Epperson (2014) Bicycles in American Highway Planning. The critical years of policy-making 1969-1991. Jefferson, NC: McFarland
    • Book review: Quest for speed

      Cox, Peter; University Of Chester (Manchester University Press, 2013-12-01)
      This is a book review of Quest for Speed, a book which brings together a wealth of data on the emergence of cycling racing and, in particular, on the relationship between sport and technological innovation.
    • Book Reviews

      Gutelius, Beth; Gibson, Janet; Zunino Singh, Dhan; Gold, Steven J.; Portmann, Alexandra; Cox, Peter; Volti, Rudi; Drummond-Cole, Adrian; Spalding, Steven D. (Berghahn Books, 2017-12-01)
      Matthew Heins, The Globalization of American Infrastructure: The Shipping Container and Freight Transportation (New York: Routledge, 2016), 222 pp., $145 (hardback)Lesley Murray and Susan Robertson, eds., Intergenerational Mobilities: Relationality, Age and Lifecourse (London: Routledge, 2017), 194 pp., 14 illustrations, $145 (hardback)Sebastián Ureta, Assembling Policy: Transantiago, Human Devices, and the Dream of a World-Class Society (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015), 224 pp., 22 illustrations, $39 (hardback)Yuk Wah Chan, David Haines, and Jonathan H. X. Lee, eds., The Age of Asian Migration: Continuity, Diversity, and Susceptibility, vol. 1 (Newcastle on Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2014), 450 pp., £54.99Robert Henke and Eric Nicholson, eds., Transnational Mobilities in Early Modern Theater (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014) 320 pp., 22 illustrations, $117 (hardback)Ruth Oldenziel and Helmuth Trischler, eds., Cycling and Recycling: Histories of Sustainable Practices (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2016), 256 pp., 18 illustrations, £67 (hardback)Margo T. Oge, Driving the Future: Combating Climate Change with Cleaner, Smarter Cars (New York: Arcade, 2015), xv + 351 pp., $25.99 (hardback)Thomas Birtchnell, Satya Savitzky, and John Urry, eds., Cargomobilities: Moving Materials in a Global Age (New York: Routledge, 2015), 236 pp., 16 illustrations, $148 (hardback)Jacques Lob and Jean-Marc Rochette, Snowpiercer 1: The Escape, trans. Virginie Sélavy (London: Titan Comics, 2014), 110 pp., $19 (hardback)
    • Breaking up with Jesus: a phenomenological exploration of the experience of deconversion from an Evangelical Christian faith to Atheism

      Lee, Karen A.; Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2019-06-10)
      This study examines the experience of deconversion from an Evangelical Christian faith to Atheism in the UK. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants and the data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The resulting superordinate themes emerged: Process of Deconversion; Post Deconversion Issues; What Helped and Did Not Help. The findings are supportive of similar research conducted on deconversion but are from the UK, rather than from a largely American, perspective. The underlying reason for deconversion is found to be cognitive dissonance and, as such, deconversion is a rational and intellectual process. Helping professionals need to convey a non-judgemental attitude, being understanding, sympathetic, supportive and kind.
    • Bridging the Gap: Developing an Adapted Model of Pluralistic Counselling and Psychotherapy for Boys (Aged 11-16 Years) Who Present with Specific Learning Difficulties

      Reeves, Andrew; Gubi, Peter; Tebble, Gary (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2019-09-30)
      Objective: Young people who present with specific learning difficulties face many challenges and barriers when accessing effective, adjusted and helpful therapeutic intervention and mental health support. The objective of this research was to develop and produce a theoretical model of adapted pluralistic therapy and to address the practice and research gap, through using this therapeutic intervention and the use of therapeutic feedback with boys in psychotherapy. Design: The philosophical underpinning of the study was grounded in a pluralistic and social constructionist stance, which dovetailed and guided the selected systematic case study design (Cooper & Dryden, 2016; Widdowson, 2011).A concurrent mixed methods design was implemented, with a concurrent embedded strategy and an integrative method used for combining the data sets (Iwakabe & Gazzola, 2009; Creswell, 2009). A dual role paradigm of therapist/researcher, client-participant was adopted and embedded within a multiple case study approach, which utilised a grounded theory analysis (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). The dual role was ethical and professionally managed through evaluating the ethical risks of researching with own clients, exploring issues of informed consent including the use of parental consent, the use of rolefluency, strong boundaries, working with levels of self-disclosure, protecting children and avoiding harm, managing confidentiality, outlining benefits for participating in the research and through ongoing clinical and research supervision. Findings: A theoretical framework established from the grounded theory process, indicated that an adapted pluralistic approach had been approved and implemented. This included the development of collaboration and shared understanding through a meta-therapeutic communicative approach (shared-decision making), where therapeutic focus, activities and concepts were also established, in order instigate a reduction of psychological distress and mental health concern. Alongside the pluralistic framework, the use of therapeutic teaching and the emergence of a therapeutic-educational stance was identified as an essential feature of the process. The theoretical model identified consisted of various elements of therapeutic practice, but was centred on four distinct pillars; therapeutic foundation and the creation of a collaborative and pedagogical culture, the development of construction and learning, the development of assimilation and expression and the emergence of therapeutic change and development through the awareness of therapeutic insight. Four key pathways were also highlighted throughout the grounded theory process, which included the empowerment pathway, the engagement pathway, the expression pathway and the enhancement pathway, all of which give the therapeutic process direction and movement. The adapted pluralistic model of practice resulted in a reduction in participant’s psychological distress relating to their presenting issues, with quantitative findings suggesting that both therapeutic reliability change and clinical change was present for most of the participants. Implications: The study has noteworthy relevance for both the psychological professions and the allied fields, including the educational setting. It is also particularly relevant for any professionals working with boys who present with specific learning difficulties and are in the special educational needs grouping, who may be willing to adopt a more pluralistic and adaptive approach.
    • British Military Veterans and the Criminal Justice System in the United Kingdom: Situating the Self in Veteran Research

      Mottershead, Richard (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2019-11)
      The 21st Century has seen the continuation of armed conflict, exposing military personnel to the rigours of warfare and the challenges of transition back to a civilian identity. There has been a renewed realisation that there exists a sub-group within the criminal justice system (CJS) of veterans and whilst the exact figures are debated, their presence is not. This thesis seeks to capture the perspectives and experiences of veterans who are identified as exoffenders and those having been employed in the CJS as practitioners. The super-structuralist concept of the CJS collectively represent services of a ‘total institution’ that have shared similarities and differences to life within the ‘total institution’ of the Armed Forces. The life stories of the participants indicated that whilst one veteran life story trajectory (veteran practitioner) appeared to be able to adapt during the transition to a civilian identity successfully, there was evidence that the other veteran life story trajectory (veteran exoffender) found themselves segregated and isolated from a familiar veteran identity with few resources to survive the experience unscathed. This exploratory qualitative study provides emancipatory evidence that the process of entering the CJS as offenders often fails to address the origins of their criminal behaviour or from the wider social context that creates a cyclical response. The veteran practitioners appear to hold a crucial insight into the issues and seek to progress the CJS’s need to expand its knowledge base on the identification, diversion and management of veteran offenders. The study was theoretically informed through the use of reflexivity to articulate the internal and external dialogue of what is known and how it is known in understanding the lived experiences of 17 participants. Life stories were collected from in-depth interviews across the United Kingdom. The life stories were analysed thematically, providing insight and understanding through the elicitation of narratives derived from the contours of meaning from the participants’ (veterans) experiences and enunciating the two separate life story trajectories into the CJS. The findings of this study indicate the participants need to belong and explores how their veteran identity instilled in them both a source of strength and a feeling of anguish, as their new lives could not offer the same security and sense of belonging. The negative consequences of being identified as an offender often resulted in the emergence of stigma and associated shame upon themselves and their families. The life stories demonstrated disparities between the attempted empowering philosophies of the veteran practitioners and the practices imposed generally by the CJS. There were numerous examples of how the veterans’ prior exposure to the institution of the Armed Forces had shaped their experiences and engagement with the institutions of the CJS. Both sub-groups of veterans constructed positive ownership of their veteran identity which at times served to counterbalance their negative experiences of transition from military to a civilian identity. These constructions of their experiences highlight the vulnerability of this sub-group within the CJS and the failure of the system and wider society to address the consequences of military service on some veterans. This research raises the issue of the ‘fallout’ from the recruitment of youth from communities where established socio-economic deprivation has created fertile recruitment grounds for the Armed Forces. The analysis identifies a pragmatic need to address the gaps within the research literature as well as multi-agency working, in order to expand veteran peer support schemes. The voice of the veteran has been overlooked within the positivist research approach, this study seeks to capture the viewpoint of the veterans through reflexive exploratory research undertaken by a veteran researcher to understand the phenomena. Researching the experiences of veterans’ experiences of the CJS presented ethical and methodological challenges. The study has provided new knowledge and understanding that can be disseminated and used to improve current practices and policies.
    • Building a case for accessing service provision in child and adolescent mental health assessments

      O'Reilly, Michelle; Kiyimba, Nikki; Lester, Jessica N. (Sage, 2019-04-29)
      In everyday conversations, people put forward versions of events and provide supporting evidence to build a credible case. In environments where there are potentially competing versions, case-building may take a more systematic format. Specifically, we conducted a rhetorical analysis to consider how in child mental health settings, families work to present a credible ‘doctorable’ reason for attendance. Data consisted of video-recordings of 28 families undergoing mental health assessments. Our findings point to eight rhetorical devices utilised in this environment to build a case. The devices functioned rhetorically to add credibility and authenticate the case being built, which was relevant as the only resource available to families claiming the presence of a mental health difficulty in the child were their spoken words. In other words, the ‘problem’ was something constructed through talk and therefore the kinds of resources used were seminal in decision-making.
    • Building a voice of influence: Supporting social science doctoral students with disabilities

      Taylor, Paul; Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester
      This chapter draws together experience from two supervisors on the subject of supporting social science doctoral students with disabilities. Our aims here are to illuminate the structural obstacles that students may encounter, and how supervisors might assist their students in navigating the terrain of ‘poor listeners’, unsubstantiated criticism, and views that are expressed that serve to suppress the voice and influence of the doctoral scholar. It is not our intention here to render the doctoral student as a powerless individual whose identity is one of deficit, on the contrary; rather in identifying structural and disciplinary barriers, supervisors, and their students may better prepare from what they may experience.
    • Care and trust: A new understanding

      Powell, Jason; Chen, Sheying; University of Chester; Pace University (Open Access Text, 2017-12-14)
      The paper is a critical review of the problems and implications of trust and in managing diversity in the British community care system. It is a system in need of strong diversity management in the light of the world economic downturn in recent years. Despite raft of policies on leadership in social care in the UK, the structural issues for why the needs of diverse groups are not met are difficult to understand at particular levels of analysis. The central problem has been lack of ‘trust’. The paper detangles the implications of different forms of trust in order to understand care relations in health contexts.
    • Cargo bikes: Distributing consumer goods

      Cox, Peter; Rzewnicki, Randy; University of Chester ; European Cyclists’ Federation (University of Chester Press, 2015-06-01)
      This book chapter considers the role of human powered vehicles: bicycles and tricycles, in this mundane distribution of consumer goods.
    • A case for taking the dual role of counsellor-researcher in qualitative research

      Fleet, Doreen; DasGupta, Mari; Reeves, Andrew; Burton, Amy; University of Staffordshire; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-08-03)
      There is ongoing debate about whether the challenges of practice-based research in counselling, with clients’ discourses providing the raw data, can be overcome. This article begins by considering the argument of whether taking a dual role of counsellor-researcher within case study research is a legitimate qualitative approach. A case example using sand-tray in short-term therapy with adults from a pluralistic perspective is provided to demonstrate how the challenges of the dual role can be managed to produce effective research findings. It is suggested that this approach closes the gap between research and practice to produce findings that are highly relevant to the counselling context. The ethical considerations of taking a dual role of counsellor-researcher are considered, and opportunities and challenges when adopting this approach are identified.
    • Cashing in on curiosity and spectacle: The forensic patient and news media

      Morley, Sharon; Taylor, Paul J.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-05-24)
      Health and social care professionals are gatekeepers to, and custodians of, confidential service user information. In the United Kingdom (UK), police investigations have unveiled cases of payments being made to public service officials by journalists in return for service user information. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate such cases in the context of high security forensic care. This paper provides a discussion drawing upon two UK-based case studies of prosecutions of public service workers relating to the sale of confidential information. The analysis presented here illuminates upon the salient and connected issues at work that have led to the transgression of legal obligations and professional responsibilities/principles of confidentiality. A fuller reading of the context in which these transgressions occur, and motivations that exist, may well serve to inform policy, training, guidance or vigilance in relation to the preserving of service user information in the future.
    • Celebrity ambassador/celebrity endorsement – takes a licking but keeps on ticking

      Proctor, Tony; Kitchen, Philip J. (Informa UK Limited, 2018-01-25)
    • Chain reaction: interviewing interviewers. Positionality and qualitative research

      Pratesi, Alessandro; Runswich-Cole, Katherine; Manchester Metropolitan University (2010-07)
      NA
    • #Cheshirehunger: Understanding Emergency Food Provision in West Cheshire

      Spencer, Alec; Ogden, Cassandra A.; Battarbee, Lynda; West Cheshire Foodbank, University of Chester, Trussell Trust (2015-03-01)
      A report exploring the use of foodbanks and the reasons behind their use, within the West-Cheshire region.