• The IFP Campaign: Indlovu ayisindwa kawbaphambili!

      Francis, Suzanne; University of Chester; University of KwaZulu-Natal (Jacana, 2010)
      The paper explores the alternative vision adopted by the Inkatha Freedom Party in their 2009 campaign. It focused on core supporters, local democratic branch structures and processes, a re-assertion of core values as central, and a re-casting of public policy to meet the needs of a heterogeneous society. Most importantly, it was a campaign that, win or lose, they fought alone without an ally or an impending coalition, and they fought it as a coherent party for the first time since 1994. The IFP, in the campaign, offered an alternative vision of ethics, etiquette and respect in government which was to speak to well educated, illiterate, wealthy and impoverished voters alike across the ideological spectrum. This was a new vision of integrity and public service that would pull South Africa back from the ‘brink of a crisis of governance’ and was rooted in the IFP discourse of etiquette and respect of customary good manners in a method of politics that spoke directly to political behaviour and transcended ideological divisions. Framed in the spirit of ubuntu-botho and the discourse of self-help, the IFP were to offer this alternative vision of as their method of governance. Unlike other parties, the IFP campaign set itself apart by its very political culture and not simply in its ideological and policy positions.
    • Political violence and conflict transformation: The African National Congress - Inkatha Freedom Party peace process in KwaZulu-Natal.

      Francis, Suzanne; University of Chester; University of KwaZulu-Natal (Gandhi Peace Foundation, 2010)
      For almost two decades, an unofficial civil war ravaged the Province of KwaZulu-Natal and parts of the Reef in the Province of Gauteng in what became known as black-on-black violence. It is estimated that approximately 20,000 people died, tens of thousands more were injured, and hundreds of thousands were displaced, rendered homeless and transformed into political refugees as a consequence of a conflict involving the African National Congress (ANC) and the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP). In this paper I examine the national institutional attempts at peace making that included the ANC and the IFP and I show why they failed to transform the ANC-IFP conflict in KwaZulu-Natal. I claim that the failure of these processes lay in a flawed understanding of the root causes of political violence which included a misunderstanding of the strategy of the ANC. I show how conflict has subsequently been transformed in KwaZulu-Natal, through a party initiated process that included hiding each other’s secrets. The implications of this include the institution of a culture of peace in the province, but one that is threatened by the specific nature of the process that was followed.