• Data aggregation in wireless sensor networks with minimum delay and minimum use of energy: A comparative study

      Qayyum, Bushra; Saeed, Mohammed; Roberts, Jason A.; University of Chester ; Al Khawarizmi University College ; University of Chester (British Computer Society, 2015)
      The prime objective of deploying large- scale wireless sensor networks is to collect information from to control systems associated with these networks. Wireless sensor networks are widely used in application domains such as security and inspection, environmental monitoring, warfare, and other situations especially where immediate responses are required such as disasters and medical emergency. Whenever there is a growth there are challenges and to cope with these challenges strategies and solutions must be developed. This paper discusses the recently addressed issues of data aggregation through presenting a comparative study of different research work done on minimizing delay in different structures of wireless sensor networks. Finally we introduce our proposed method to minimize both delay and power consumption using a tree based clustering scheme with partial data aggregation.
    • Data-driven selection and parameter estimation for DNA methylation mathematical models

      Larson, Karen; Zagkos, Loukas; Mc Auley, Mark T.; Roberts, Jason A.; Kavallaris, Nikos I.; Matzavinos, Anastasios; Brown University; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2019-01-10)
      Epigenetics is coming to the fore as a key process which underpins health. In particular emerging experimental evidence has associated alterations to DNA methylation status with healthspan and aging. Mammalian DNA methylation status is maintained by an intricate array of biochemical and molecular processes. It can be argued changes to these fundamental cellular processes ultimately drive the formation of aberrant DNA methylation patterns, which are a hallmark of diseases, such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease. In recent years mathematical models have been used as e ective tools to help advance our understanding of the dynamics which underpin DNA methylation. In this paper we present linear and nonlinear models which encapsulate the dynamics of the molecular mechanisms which de ne DNA methylation. Applying a recently developed Bayesian algorithm for parameter estimation and model selection, we are able to estimate distributions of parameters which include nominal parameter values. Using limited noisy observations, the method also identifed which methylation model the observations originated from, signaling that our method has practical applications in identifying what models best match the biological data for DNA methylation.
    • Delay differential equations: Detection of small solutions

      Ford, Neville J.; Lumb, Patricia M. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education)University College Chester, 2004-04)
      This thesis concerns the development of a method for the detection of small solutions to delay differential equations. The detection of small solutions is important because their presence has significant influence on the analytical prop¬erties of an equation. However, to date, analytical methods are of only limited practical use. Therefore this thesis focuses on the development of a reliable new method, based on finite order approximations of the underlying infinite dimen¬sional problem, which can detect small solutions. Decisions (concerning the existence, or otherwise, of small solutions) based on our visualisation technique require an understanding of the underlying methodol¬ogy behind our approach. Removing this need would be attractive. The method we have developed can be automated, and at the end of the thesis we present a prototype Matlab code for the automatic detection of small solutions to delay differential equations.
    • Detailed error analysis for a fractional Adams method

      Diethelm, Kai; Ford, Neville J.; Freed, Alan D. (Springer, 2004-05)
      This preprint discusses a method for a numerical solution of a nonlinear fractional differential equation, which can be seen as a generalisation of the Adams–Bashforth–Moulton scheme.
    • Detailed error analysis for a fractional adams method with graded meshes

      Liu, Yanzhi; Roberts, Jason A.; Yan, Yubin; Lvliang University; University of Chester; (Springer, 2017-09-21)
      We consider a fractional Adams method for solving the nonlinear fractional differential equation $\, ^{C}_{0}D^{\alpha}_{t} y(t) = f(t, y(t)), \, \alpha >0$, equipped with the initial conditions $y^{(k)} (0) = y_{0}^{(k)}, k=0, 1, \dots, \lceil \alpha \rceil -1$. Here $\alpha$ may be an arbitrary positive number and $ \lceil \alpha \rceil$ denotes the smallest integer no less than $\alpha$ and the differential operator is the Caputo derivative. Under the assumption $\, ^{C}_{0}D^{\alpha}_{t} y \in C^{2}[0, T]$, Diethelm et al. \cite[Theorem 3.2]{dieforfre} introduced a fractional Adams method with the uniform meshes $t_{n}= T (n/N), n=0, 1, 2, \dots, N$ and proved that this method has the optimal convergence order uniformly in $t_{n}$, that is $O(N^{-2})$ if $\alpha > 1$ and $O(N^{-1-\alpha})$ if $\alpha \leq 1$. They also showed that if $\, ^{C}_{0}D^{\alpha}_{t} y(t) \notin C^{2}[0, T]$, the optimal convergence order of this method cannot be obtained with the uniform meshes. However, it is well known that for $y \in C^{m} [0, T]$ for some $m \in \mathbb{N}$ and $ 0 < \alpha 1$, we show that the optimal convergence order of this method can be recovered uniformly in $t_{n}$ even if $\, ^{C}_{0}D^{\alpha}_{t} y$ behaves as $t^{\sigma}, 0< \sigma <1$. Numerical examples are given to show that the numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.
    • Determining control parameters for dendritic cell-cytotoxic T lymphocyte interaction

      Ludewig, Burkhard; Krebs, Philippe; Junt, Tobias; Metters, Helen; Ford, Neville J.; Anderson, Roy M.; Bocharov, Gennady; University of Zürich ; University of Zürich ; University of Zürich ; University of Zürich ; University College Chester ; Imperial College, University of London ; Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences (WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2004-08-05)
      Dendritic cells (DC) are potent immunostimulatory cells facilitating antigen transport to lymphoid tissues and providing efficient stimulation of T cells. A series of experimental studies in mice demonstrated that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) can be efficiently induced by adoptive transfer of antigen-presenting DC. However, the success of DC-based immunotherapeutic treatment of human cancer, for example, is still limited because the details of the regulation and kinetics of the DC-CTL interaction are not yet completely understood. Using a combination of experimental mouse studies, mathematical modeling, and nonlinear parameter estimation, we analyzed the population dynamics of DC-induced CTL responses. The model integrates a predator-prey-type interaction of DC and CTL with the non-linear compartmental dynamics of T cells. We found that T cell receptor avidity, the half-life of DC, and the rate of CTL-mediated DC-elimination are the major control parameters for optimal DC-induced CTL responses. For induction of high avidity CTL, the number of adoptively transferred DC was of minor importance once a minimal threshold of approximately 200 cells per spleen had been reached. Taken together, our study indicates that the availability of high avidity T cells in the recipient in combination with the optimal application regimen is of prime importance for successful DC-based immunotherapy.
    • Developing A High-performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Determination of Loratadine and its Metabolite Desloratadine in Human Plasma.

      Sebaiy, Mahmoud M; Ziedan, Noha I (2019-11-24)
      Allergic diseases are considered among the major burdons of public health with increased prevalence globally. Histamine H1-receptor antagonists are the foremost commonly used drugs in the treatment of allergic disorders. Our target drug is one of this class, loratadine and its biometabolite desloratadine which is also a non sedating H1 receptor antagonist with anti-histaminic action of 2.5 to 4 times greater than loratadine. To develop and validate a novel isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for rapid and simultaneous separation and determination of loratadine and its metabolite, desloratadine in human plasma. The drug extraction method from plasma was based on protein precipitation technique. The separation was carried out on a Thermo Scientific BDS Hypersil C18 column (5µm, 250 x 4.60 mm) using a mobile phase of MeOH : 0.025M KH2PO4 adjusted to pH 3.50 using orthophosphoric acid (85 : 15, v/v) at ambient temperature. The flow rate was maintained at 1 mL/min and maximum absorption was measured using PDA detector at 248 nm. The retention times of loratadine and desloratadine in plasma samples were recorded to be 4.10 and 5.08 minutes respectively, indicating a short analysis time. Limits of detection were found to be 1.80 and 1.97 ng/mL for loratadine and desloratadine, respectively, showing a high degree of method sensitivity. The method was then validated according to FDA guidelines for the determination of the two analytes in human plasma. The results obtained indicate that the proposed method is rapid, sensitive in the nanogram range, accurate, selective, robust and reproducible compared to other reported methods. [Abstract copyright: Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.net.]
    • The diffusion-driven instability and complexity for a single-handed discrete Fisher equation

      Yan, Yubin; Zhang, Guang; Zhang, Ruixuan; University of Chester; Tianjin University of Commerce (Elsevier, 2019-12-19)
      For a reaction diffusion system, it is well known that the diffusion coefficient of the inhibitor must be bigger than that of the activator when the Turing instability is considered. However, the diffusion-driven instability/Turing instability for a single-handed discrete Fisher equation with the Neumann boundary conditions may occur and a series of 2-periodic patterns have been observed. Motivated by these pattern formations, the existence of 2-periodic solutions is established. Naturally, the periodic double and the chaos phenomenon should be considered. To this end, a simplest two elements system will be further discussed, the flip bifurcation theorem will be obtained by computing the center manifold, and the bifurcation diagrams will be simulated by using the shooting method. It proves that the Turing instability and the complexity of dynamical behaviors can be completely driven by the diffusion term. Additionally, those effective methods of numerical simulations are valid for experiments of other patterns, thus, are also beneficial for some application scientists.
    • Discontinuous Galerkin time stepping method for solving linear space fractional partial differential equations

      Liu, Yanmei; Yan, Yubin; Khan, Monzorul; LuLiang University; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2017-01-23)
      In this paper, we consider the discontinuous Galerkin time stepping method for solving the linear space fractional partial differential equations. The space fractional derivatives are defined by using Riesz fractional derivative. The space variable is discretized by means of a Galerkin finite element method and the time variable is discretized by the discontinuous Galerkin method. The approximate solution will be sought as a piecewise polynomial function in $t$ of degree at most $q-1, q \geq 1$, which is not necessarily continuous at the nodes of the defining partition. The error estimates in the fully discrete case are obtained and the numerical examples are given.
    • A discrete mutualism model: analysis and exploration of a financial application

      Roberts, Jason A.; Kavallaris, Nikos I.; Rowntree, Andrew P.; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2019-09-16)
      We perform a stability analysis on a discrete analogue of a known, continuous model of mutualism. We illustrate how the introduction of delays affects the asymptotic stability of the system’s positive nontrivial equilibrium point. In the second part of the paper we explore the insights that the model can provide when it is used in relation to interacting financial markets. We also note the limitations of such an approach.
    • Distributed order equations as boundary value problems

      Ford, Neville J.; Morgado, Maria L.; University of Chester ; University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro (Elsevier, 2012-01-20)
      This preprint discusses the existence and uniqueness of solutions and proposes a numerical method for their approximation in the case where the initial conditions are not known and, instead, some Caputo-type conditions are given away from the origin.
    • DOMestic Energy Systems and Technologies InCubator (DOMESTIC) and indoor air quality of the built environment

      Li, Jinghua; Khalid, Yousaf; Phillips, Gavin J.; University of Chester
      Oral presentation at RMetS Students and Early Career Scientists Conference 2020 on research project DOMESTIC (DOMestic Energy Systems and Technologies InCubator), which aims to build a facility for the demonstration of domestic technologies and design methodologies (i.e. air quality, energy efficiency).
    • Double Bordered Constructions of Self-Dual Codes from Group Rings over Frobenius Rings

      Gildea, Joe; Kaya, Abidin; Taylor, Rhian; Tylyshchak, Alexander; University of Chester; Sampoerna University; Uzhgorod State University
      In this work, we describe a double bordered construction of self-dual codes from group rings. We show that this construction is effective for groups of order 2p where p is odd, over the rings F2 + uF2 and F4 + uF4. We demonstrate the importance of this new construction by finding many new binary self-dual codes of lengths 64, 68 and 80; the new codes and their corresponding weight enumerators are listed in several tables
    • A Dufort-Frankel Difference Scheme for Two-Dimensional Sine-Gordon Equation

      Liang, Zongqi; Yan, Yubin; Cai, Guorong; University of Chester (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2014-10-29)
      A standard Crank-Nicolson finite-difference scheme and a Dufort-Frankel finite-difference scheme are introduced to solve two-dimensional damped and undamped sine-Gordon equations. The stability and convergence of the numerical methods are considered. To avoid solving the nonlinear system, the predictor-corrector techniques are applied in the numerical methods. Numerical examples are given to show that the numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.
    • Edge-based nonlinear diffusion for finite element approximations of convection–diffusion equations and its relation to algebraic flux-correction schemes

      Barrenechea, Gabriel; Burman, Erik; Karakatsani, Fotini; University of Strathclyde; University College London; University of Chester (Springer, 2016-05-07)
      For the case of approximation of convection–diffusion equations using piecewise affine continuous finite elements a new edge-based nonlinear diffusion operator is proposed that makes the scheme satisfy a discrete maximum principle. The diffusion operator is shown to be Lipschitz continuous and linearity preserving. Using these properties we provide a full stability and error analysis, which, in the diffusion dominated regime, shows existence, uniqueness and optimal convergence. Then the algebraic flux correction method is recalled and we show that the present method can be interpreted as an algebraic flux correction method for a particular definition of the flux limiters. The performance of the method is illustrated on some numerical test cases in two space dimensions.
    • Error estimates of high-order numerical methods for solving time fractional partial differential equations

      Li, Zhiqiang; Yan, Yubin; Luliang University; Shanghai University; University of Chester (De Gruyter, 2018-07-12)
      Error estimates of some high-order numerical methods for solving time fractional partial differential equations are studied in this paper. We first provide the detailed error estimate of a high-order numerical method proposed recently by Li et al. \cite{liwudin} for solving time fractional partial differential equation. We prove that this method has the convergence order $O(\tau^{3- \alpha})$ for all $\alpha \in (0, 1)$ when the first and second derivatives of the solution are vanish at $t=0$, where $\tau$ is the time step size and $\alpha$ is the fractional order in the Caputo sense. We then introduce a new time discretization method for solving time fractional partial differential equations, which has no requirements for the initial values as imposed in Li et al. \cite{liwudin}. We show that this new method also has the convergence order $O(\tau^{3- \alpha})$ for all $\alpha \in (0, 1)$. The proofs of the error estimates are based on the energy method developed recently by Lv and Xu \cite{lvxu}. We also consider the space discretization by using the finite element method. Error estimates with convergence order $O(\tau^{3- \alpha} + h^2)$ are proved in the fully discrete case, where $h$ is the space step size. Numerical examples in both one- and two-dimensional cases are given to show that the numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.
    • Error estimates of a high order numerical method for solving linear fractional differential equations

      Li, Zhiqiang; Yan, Yubin; Ford, Neville J.; Luliang University; University of Chester (Elsevier, IMACS, 2016-04-29)
      In this paper, we first introduce an alternative proof of the error estimates of the numerical methods for solving linear fractional differential equations proposed in Diethelm [6] where a first-degree compound quadrature formula was used to approximate the Hadamard finite-part integral and the convergence order of the proposed numerical method is O(∆t 2−α ), 0 < α < 1, where α is the order of the fractional derivative and ∆t is the step size. We then use the similar idea to prove the error estimates of a high order numerical method for solving linear fractional differential equations proposed in Yan et al. [37], where a second-degree compound quadrature formula was used to approximate the Hadamard finite-part integral and we show that the convergence order of the numerical method is O(∆t 3−α ), 0 < α < 1. The numerical examples are given to show that the numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.
    • Existence and regularity of solution for a Stochastic CahnHilliard / Allen-Cahn equation with unbounded noise diffusion

      Antonopoulou, Dimitra; Karali, Georgia D.; Millet, Annie; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2015-10-24)
      The Cahn-Hilliard/Allen-Cahn equation with noise is a simplified mean field model of stochastic microscopic dynamics associated with adsorption and desorption-spin flip mechanisms in the context of surface processes. For such an equation we consider a multiplicative space-time white noise with diffusion coefficient of linear growth. Applying technics from semigroup theory, we prove local existence and uniqueness in dimensions d = 1,2,3. Moreover, when the diffusion coefficient satisfies a sub-linear growth condition of order α bounded by 1 3, which is the inverse of the polynomial order of the nonlinearity used, we prove for d = 1 global existence of solution. Path regularity of stochastic solution, depending on that of the initial condition, is obtained a.s. up to the explosion time. The path regularity is identical to that proved for the stochastic Cahn-Hilliard equation in the case of bounded noise diffusion. Our results are also valid for the stochastic Cahn-Hilliard equation with unbounded noise diffusion, for which previous results were established only in the framework of a bounded diffusion coefficient. As expected from the theory of parabolic operators in the sense of Petrovsk˘ıı, the bi-Laplacian operator seems to be dominant in the combined model.
    • Existence of time periodic solutions for a class of non-resonant discrete wave equations

      Zhang, Guang; Feng, Wenying; Yan, Yubin; University of Chester (Springer, 2015-04-17)
      In this paper, a class of discrete wave equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions are obtained by using the center-difference method. For any positive integers m and T, when the existence of time mT-periodic solutions is considered, a strongly indefinite discrete system needs to be established. By using a variant generalized weak linking theorem, a non-resonant superlinear (or superquadratic) result is obtained and the Ambrosetti-Rabinowitz condition is improved. Such a method cannot be used for the corresponding continuous wave equations or the continuous Hamiltonian systems; however, it is valid for some general discrete Hamiltonian systems.
    • Existence theory for a class of evolutionary equations with time-lag, studied via integral equation formulations

      Baker, Christopher T. H.; Lumb, Patricia M.; University of Chester (University of Chester, 2006)
      In discussions of certain neutral delay differential equations in Hale’s form, the relationship of the original problem with an integrated form (an integral equation) proves to be helpful in considering existence and uniqueness of a solution and sensitivity to initial data. Although the theory is generally based on the assumption that a solution is continuous, natural solutions of neutral delay differential equations of the type considered may be discontinuous. This difficulty is resolved by relating the discontinuous solution to its restrictions on appropriate (half-open) subintervals where they are continuous and can be regarded as solutions of related integral equations. Existence and unicity theories then follow. Furthermore, it is seen that the discontinuous solutions can be regarded as solutions in the sense of Caratheodory (where this concept is adapted from the theory of ordinary differential equations, recast as integral equations).