• Ultra-brief non-expert-delivered defusion and acceptance exercises for food cravings: A partial replication study

      Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Nicholls, Wendy; Williamson, Sian; Poonia, Jivone; Hochard, Kevin D.; University of Chester (SAGE, 2017-03-10)
      Food cravings are a common barrier to losing weight. This paper presents a randomised comparison of non-expert group-delivered ultra-brief defusion and acceptance interventions against a distraction control. Sixty-three participants were asked to carry a bag of chocolates for a week whilst trying to resist the temptation to eat them. A behavioural rebound measure was administered. Each intervention out-performed control in respect of consumption, but not cravings. These techniques may have a place in the clinical management of food cravings. We provide tentative evidence that the mechanism of action is through decreased reactivity to cravings, not through reduced frequency of cravings.
    • Undermining position effects in choices from arrays, with implications for police lineups

      Palmer, Matthew; Sauer, James; Holt, Glenys; University of Tasmania; University of Chester (American Psychological Association, 2017-03)
      Choices from arrays are often characterized by position effects, such as edge-aversion. We investigated position effects when participants attempted to pick a suspect from an array similar to a police photo lineup. A reanalysis of data from 2 large-scale field studies showed that choices made under realistic conditions—closely matching eyewitness identification decisions in police investigations—displayed edge-aversion and bias to choose from the top row (Study 1). In a series of experiments (Studies 2a–2c and 3), participants guessing the location of a suspect exhibited edge-aversion regardless of whether the lineup was constructed to maximize the chances of the suspect being picked, to ensure the suspect did not stand out, or randomly. Participants favored top locations only when the lineup was constructed to maximize the chances of the suspect being picked. In Studies 4 and 5, position effects disappeared when (a) response options were presented in an array with no obvious center, edges, or corners, and (b) instructions stated that the suspect was placed randomly. These findings show that position effects are influenced by a combination of task instructions and array shape. Randomizing the location of the suspect and modifying the shape of the lineup array may reduce misidentification.
    • Understanding self-respect and its relationship to self-esteem

      Clucas, Claudine; University of Chester (Sage, 2019-10-21)
      The concept of self-respect has received little attention in the psychological literature and is not clearly distinguished from self-esteem. The present research sought to empirically investigate the bases of self-respect by manipulating adherence to morals together with interpersonal appraisals, or task-related competence, in hypothetical scenarios (Studies 1a and 1b) and a situation participants relived (Studies 2 and 3). Participants’ levels of state self-respect and self-esteem were measured. Studies 1-3 found main effects of adherence to morals on self-respect, with self-respect mediating the effect of adherence to morals on self-esteem, but little support for competence and interpersonal appraisals directly influencing self-respect. Self-respect uniquely contributed to anticipated/felt self-esteem alongside competence or interpersonal appraisals. The pattern of results supports the conceptualisation of self-respect as a component of self-esteem associated with morally principled conduct, distinct from performance and social self-esteem. The findings have implications for our understanding of self-esteem and moral behaviour.
    • The unidirectional relationship of nightmares on self-harmful thoughts and behaviors

      Hochard, Kevin D.; Heym, Nadja; Townsend, Ellen; University of Chester ; Nottingham Trent University ; University of Nottingham (American Psychological Association, 2015-03-01)
      Understanding the direction of the predictive relationship between nightmares and suicidal behaviors is important to model its underlying mechanisms. We examine the direction of this relationship and the mediating role of negative affect. A fixed interval diary study obtained pre-sleep and post-sleep measures of affect, nightmares, and self-harmful thoughts and behaviors (SHTBs) from 72 university students (88.9% female). The results show predictive utility of nightmares on SHTBs - indicating a four-fold increased risk of SHTBs. Additionally, results support the suggestion of a unidirectional predictive influence (of nightmares on likelihood of SHTBs but not vice versa). Moreover, post-sleep negative affect partially mediated the relationship between nightmares and post-sleep SHTBs. This empirically validates assumptions of directionality for future models.
    • Universal BRCA1/BRCA2 testing for ovarian cancer patients is welcomed, but with care: How women and staff contextualise experiences of expanded access

      Shipman, Hannah; Flynn, Samantha; MacDonald-Smith, Carey; Brenton, James; Crawford, Robin; Tischkowitz, Marc; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J. (2017-05-24)
      Decreasing costs of genetic testing and advances in treatment for women with cancer with germline BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations have heralded more inclusive genetic testing programs. The Genetic Testing in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (GTEOC) Study, investigates the feasibility and acceptability of offering genetic testing to all women recently diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (universal genetic testing or UGT). Study participants and staff were interviewed to: (i) assess the impact of UGT (ii) integrate patients’ and staff perspectives in the development of new UGT programs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve GTEOC Study participants and five members of staff involved in recruiting them. The transcripts were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. There are two super-ordinate themes: motivations and influences around offers of genetic testing and impacts of genetic testing in ovarian cancer patients. A major finding is that genetic testing is contextualized within the broader experiences of the women; the impact of UGT was minimized in comparison with the ovarian cancer diagnosis. Women who consent to UGT are motivated by altruism and by their relatives’ influence, whilst those who decline are often considered overwhelmed or fearful. Those without a genetic mutation are usually reassured by this result, whilst those with a genetic mutation must negotiate new uncertainties and responsibilities towards their families. Our findings suggest that UGT in this context is generally acceptable to women. However, the period shortly after diagnosis is a sensitive time and some women are emotionally overburdened. UGT is considered a ‘family affair’ and staff must acknowledge this.
    • Unmet needs in young adults with a parent with chronic illness: a mixed method investigation and measure development study.

      Nicholls, Wendy; Patterson, Pandora; McDonald, Fiona; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J. (Wiley, 2016-05-10)
      Rationale: Given the high number of young adults caring for a family member, and the potential for adverse psychosocial outcomes, there is a need for a screening tool, with clinical utility, to identify those most vulnerable to poor outcomes and to aid targeted interventions. Objectives: (i) To determine whether current knowledge from cancer literature regarding young carers is generalisable to chronic conditions and, therefore, whether an existing screening tool could be adapted for this population. (ii) To develop a measure of unmet needs in this population and conduct initial psychometric analysis. Design: This was mixed-methods: interviews in study one informed measure development in study two. Inclusion criteria were: having a parent with a chronic condition, and being aged 16-24 years. In study 1, an interpretative phenomenological analysis was conducted on interviews from seven young adults (age range 17-19 years). Study 2 explored factor structure, reliability and validity of the Offspring Chronic Illness Needs Inventory (OCINI). Participants were 73 females and 34 males (mean ages 18.22, SD = 1.16; 18.65, SD = 1.25). Main Outcome Measures: OCINI, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale, and the Adult Carers Quality of Life Scale. Results: Interviews communicated that the impact of their parent’s condition went unacknowledged and resulted in psychosocial, support and informational needs. An exploratory principal axis analysis of the OCINI yielded five factors. Significant and positive correlations were found between unmet needs and stress, anxiety, and depression, and inversely with quality of life. Conclusions: The scale has applications in clinical settings where these young people, who are at risk of negative psychological outcomes, may be assessed and unmet needs targeted appropriately.
    • Unmet psychosocial needs and their psychological impact in haematological cancer survivors

      Swash, Brooke; Bramwell, Ros; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; University of Chester (Wiley, 2015-04-28)
    • Unmet psychosocial needs in haematological cancer: A systematic review

      Swash, Brooke; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Bramwell, Ros; University of Chester (Springer Verlag, 2014-01-25)
      A systematic review of key online databases and psycho-oncology journals was conducted to identify papers that formally assessed unmet psychosocial needs in adults with a diagnosis of haematological cancer.
    • The Unmet Psychosocial Needs of Haematological Cancer Patients and their Impact upon Psychological Wellbeing

      Swash, Brooke (University of Chester, 2015-01)
      Unmet psychosocial needs indicate a desire for additional support in cancer patients, having a direct clinical utility in directing the provision of supportive care. There is evidence in wider cancer groups that unmet needs relate to psychological wellbeing but this relationship has yet to be fully explored and factors that may explain or moderate this relationship yet to be examined. There has been little investigation of type or prevalence of unmet need in haematological cancer patients, however, haematological cancers are noteworthy for their high levels of associated distress. Understanding causality of distress is key to the effective implementation of supportive care services. This thesis aimed to highlight the unmet needs most relevant to haematological cancer patients and to explore their impact upon psychological wellbeing. This thesis comprises four interconnected research studies: a systematic review exploring existing knowledge of unmet needs; a qualitative exploration of patient experiences of unmet needs and their impact; a quantitative questionnaire study of unmet need and psychological wellbeing in newly diagnosed haematological cancer patients, placing a special emphasis on the difference between active treatment and watch and wait regimes; and, a second quantitative questionnaire study that explores unmet need, psychological wellbeing, and psychological flexibility as a potential moderator in their relationship in a sample of haematological cancer survivors. This thesis demonstrates a relationship between unmet need and psychological wellbeing in haematological cancer patients. Fear of recurrence, concerns about loved ones, being able to do the things you used to, and a need for information were all found to be of relevance. The qualitative study highlighted that patients feel that, as haematology patients, they are distinct from other cancer patients which impacts upon the perceived acceptability of support services and specific barriers to the accessing of support services are presented. Significant correlations between unmet need and key psychological outcomes such as anxiety, depression and quality of life were observed in both quantitative studies. In addition, the concept of psychological flexibility was found to moderate the relationship between unmet need and psychological wellbeing in haematological cancer survivors. This work has clear implications for both future research and clinical practice. Unmet needs assessment has the potential to be used as a screening tool for overall psychological wellbeing, a way to stratify and understand the specific causes of distress and poor quality of life for this patient group. In the UK, on-going support for cancer patients diminishes at the end of treatment, these findings suggest that further support is needed in order to meet the psychological needs of cancer survivors. Further research is needed to further explore the role of psychological flexibility in cancer-related distress: interventions that target psychological flexibility have the potential to improve both unmet need and distress.
    • Unmet psychosocial supportive care needs and psychological distress in haematological cancer survivors: The moderating role of psychological flexibility.

      Swash, Brooke; Bramwell, Ros; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; University of Chester; University of Cambridge; University of Chester; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2017-02-17)
      Background The period immediately after the end of cancer treatment is a time when supportive care for the cancer patient decreases; this is known to increase risk of psychological distress and poor wellbeing. While there is broad recognition that unmet psychological and supportive care needs correlate with psychological wellbeing, little is understood about the factors that influence this relationship. This study explores the role of psychological flexibility, with a particular focus on its potential moderating role between unmet needs and psychological distress in haematological cancer survivors. Materials and Method Haematological cancer survivors were recruited for this cross-sectional study through two major UK blood cancer charities. Participants (n=91) were all over the age of 16 and had been diagnosed with any sub-type of haematological cancer more than 18 months previously. Participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing unmet psychological and supportive care needs (SCNS SF34), anxiety and depression (HADS), quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) and psychological flexibility (AAQ II). Results High levels of both unmet need and distress were present in the sample, indicating on-going care needs for these cancer survivors. Statistically significant correlations between unmet needs, psychological flexibility and all outcome variables (anxiety, depression, quality of life) were found. Using regression analysis based on Hayes’ methodology (Hayes, 2013), psychological flexibility was found to act as a moderator between unmet need and distress in four out of 15 models; specifically, the statistical relationship between need and distress emerged only when levels of psychological flexibility were at average level or above. Discussion Haematological cancer survivors have on-going supportive care needs that persist well beyond the end of active treatment. Unmet needs can, in turn, increase levels of anxiety and depression, and reduce quality of life in this patient group. The understanding offered by our data that psychological flexibility plays a moderating relationship between need and psychological distress creates opportunities for the development of theoretically-informed interventions to reduce both unmet need and distress in cancer patients. As such, these findings support the growing emphasis on Acceptance and Commitment based interventions for cancer patients.
    • The use of a positive mood induction video-clip to target eating behaviour in people with bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder: An experimental study

      Cardi, Valentina; Leppanen, Jenni; Leslie, Monica; Esposito, Mirko; Treasure, Janet; King's College London; University College London
      Recent theoretical models and empirical research have indicated that momentary negative affect increases the likelihood of binge eating episodes for individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. However, relatively little research has explored the potential for positive mood to serve a protective effect in reducing the likelihood of overeating behaviour in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. The current study included 30 women with bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder in a within-subjects crossover design. Following exposure to a video designed to induce food craving, we found that a positive mood vodcast was associated with significantly lower levels of negative mood and food consumption in a taste test meal, when compared to a neutral vodcast (p = .002). These findings support a role for decreasing negative mood in reducing the likelihood of binge eating behaviour in women with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.
    • User perceptions of process–outcome linkages in pupil peer counselling for bullying services in the UK

      Boulton, Michael J.; Trueman, Mark; Rotenberg, Ken J.; University of Chester ; Keele University ; Keele University (Routledge, 2007-07-24)
      50 users of pupil peer counselling for bullying services rated their most helpful and their least helpful experiences of these services on five counselling process variables.
    • Using Drug Development Methodology to Improve Survivorship and Supportive Care Intervention Trials.

      Howells, Lesley; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Blagden, Sarah P.; Maggie's Centres, London; University of Chester; University of Oxford (Wiley, 2019-05-20)
    • Validation of the Urdu version of the Measure of Criminal Social Identity within a sample of Pakistani incarcerated delinquents

      Shagufta, Sonia; Dhingra, Katie; Debowska, Agata; Kola-Palmer, Derrol; University of Huddersfield; Leeds Beckett University; University of Chester (Emerald, 2016-06-03)
      Purpose: The aim was to examine the dimensionality, composite reliability, and incremental validity of the Measure of Criminal Social Identity (MCSI) in a sample of Pakistani incarcerated delinquents (N = 315) following translation of the measure into Urdu. Design/methodology/approach: Four alternative factor models, with uncorrelated measurement error terms, were specified and tested using confirmatory factor analysis and bifactor modelling techniques. Findings: Results indicated that a three factor model provided a better fit to the data than the alternative models tested. The reliability of the scale was established using composite reliability. Furthermore, structural equation modelling revealed that the three MCSI factors were differentially related with external variables, indicating that the MCSI measures substantially different domains. Implications: Implications for theory and future research are discussed. Originality/Value: The results add valuable evidence as to the cross-cultural applicability of the MCSI.
    • The value of self-respect for moral and social behaviour: Development of a trait self-respect measure

      Clucas, Claudine; Wilkinson, Heather; University of Chester (2017-05-05)
      Objective: Research into self-respect is scarce, possibly because self-respect and self-esteem are often treated as interchangeable in popular culture. However, there is evidence that self-respect is a component of global self-esteem that is attached to moral, principled and honourable behaviour, highlighting its unique role in predicting moral behaviour and well-being. The paper reports on the development of the trait self-respect scale (SRS) to stimulate research into this concept. Design: Following pilot work to develop the items, cross-sectional survey and lab-based data were collected to validate the SRS. Methods: Seven convenience adult samples (total N=841) completed the SRS online or in person alongside other validated scales. One sample (N=115) also underwent lab-based tasks measuring moral self-concept and cheating. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a one-factor structure. The SRS showed good internal consistency (α>.8 in all samples), convergent and discriminant validity. It correlated significantly with self-esteem (r=.40-.61), and with agreeableness, Machiavellianism, positive norm, moral identity internalisation and symbolisation (N=121), moral-based self-esteem, self-control, number of moral trait adjectives recalled in self-related processing (N=115) and religious status (N=230), adjusting for self-esteem. It did not correlate with amount of social comparison, or with competence and social self-esteem, adjusting for self-regard. Moreover, self-respect significantly predicted forms of pro-relationship behaviour, pro-social behaviour (N=114), cheating (self-reported and observed) and well-being (N=81) over and above self-esteem. Conclusion: Findings support the need to consider trait self-respect in investigations of well-being and moral and social functioning, and contribute to debates on the value of self-esteem.
    • The variable influence of confession inconsistencies: How factual errors (but not contradictions) reduce belief in suspect guilt

      Holt, Glenys A.; Palmer, Matthew A.; University of Chester; University of Tasmania
      Wrongful conviction statistics suggest that jurors pay little heed to the quality of confession evidence when making verdict decisions. However, recent research indicates that confession inconsistencies may sometimes reduce perception of suspect guilt. Drawing on theoretical frameworks of attribution theory, correspondence bias, and the story model of juror decision-making, we investigated how judgments about likely guilt are affected by different types of inconsistencies: self-contradictions (Experiment 1) and factual errors (Experiment 2). Crucially, judgments of likely guilt of the suspect were reduced by factual errors in confession evidence, but not by contradictions. Mediation analyses suggest that this effect of factual errors on judgments of guilt is underpinned by the extent to which mock-jurors generated a plausible, alternative explanation for why the suspect confessed. These results indicate that not all confession inconsistencies are treated equally; factual errors might cause suspicion about the veracity of the confession, but contradictions do not.
    • Victim and peer group responses to different forms of aggression among primary school children

      Tapper, Katy; Boulton, Michael J.; Keele University ; University College Chester (Wiley, 2005-01-18)
      This article discusses a study which used a wireless microphone and hidden camera to record victim and peer responses to primary school children's physical, verbal, indirect, and relational forms of aggression. The results showed that the most frequent consequences of aggression were victim retaliation or withdrawal, and peer support.
    • Victim, perpetrator, and offense characteristics in filicide and filicide-suicide

      Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield ; Manchester Metropolitan University (Elsevier, 2015-01-07)
      The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of most recent studies of parental and stepparental filicide. A detailed review of the literature revealed the importance of certain demographic, environmental, and psychosocial factors in the commission of child homicide. Our findings indicate that filicides perpetrated by genetic parents and stepparents differ considerably in terms of underlying motivational factors. Data in the literature suggest that biological parents are more likely to choose methods of killing which produce quick and painless death, whereas stepparents frequently kill their wards by beating. Research results demonstrate the victims of maternal filicides to be significantly younger than the victims of paternal filicides. Additionally, filicide-suicide is most often associated with parental psychopathology. Genetic fathers are at the greatest risk of death by suicide after the commission of familicide. These findings are discussed in relation to theoretical frameworks explaining the occurrence of child murder. Further, limitations of reviewed studies and directions for future research are presented.
    • Video-mediated behavior in gorillas (G. g. gorilla): A stage in the development of self-recognition in a juvenile male?

      Murray, Lindsay; University of Chester (American Psychological Association, 2020-03-12)
      The anomalous position of gorillas (G. g. gorilla) in the capacity for self-recognition remains puzzling. The standard measure of self-recognition is Gallup’s (1970) mark test that assesses an individual’s ability to recognize its altered image in a mirror following the application of paint marks to visually inaccessible areas. Here, the results of a small-scale pilot study are presented, utilizing video playback through a television monitor, to examine behavioural differences indicative of developing self-recognition. The behaviors of four Western lowland gorillas at Bristol Zoo, UK were observed while watching a TV screen during five conditions: blank screen, white noise interference, footage of unfamiliar gorillas, self previously recorded, and self-live. Differences were predicted in the frequency of the gorillas’ observed behaviors when viewing each of the conditions: specifically, that there would be more visual inspection, contingent body and facial movements, and self-exploration in the self-recorded and self-live conditions compared to the other conditions. These predictions were partially supported. No agonistic or fear responses were observed and self-exploration was only seen in the self-live condition. During live playback, contingency-checking movements and self-exploration of the mouth were observed, particularly in the youngest gorilla, providing important video evidence of a close parallel to the mouth exploratory behavior witnessed in self-recognizing chimpanzees. On the basis of these preliminary findings of differentiated spontaneous behaviors, a tentative framework is proposed for categorizing gorillas according to levels of developing self-recognition along a continuum.
    • ‘We do it for the team’ - Student athletes’ initiation practices and their impact on group cohesion.

      Lafferty, Moira E.; Wakefield, Caroline; Brown, Hollie; University of Chester, Liverpool Hope University, Napier University (Taylor & Francis, 2016-01-05)
      Hazing, or inappropriate initiation activities, are a well-documented occurrence within university sport team societies. This study examined the occurrence of initiation activities in relation to team cohesion. 154 participants completed the Group Environment Questionnaire and the Team Cohesion Questionnaire in relation to initiation activities at their institution. Results revealed that athletes were more aware of appropriate than inappropriate initiation activities, with males being aware of a higher occurrence of inappropriate activities than females. Results were also analysed by sport type, revealing that interactive team sport players recorded higher hazing scores than co-acting players. With regard to cohesion, no significant relationship was found between hazing and cohesion suggesting the notion that initiations enhance cohesion in sport is untrue.