• Raiding parties of male spider monkeys: Insights into human warfare?

      Aureli, Filippo; Schaffner, Colleen; Verpooten, Jan; Slater, Kathy; Ramos-Fernandez, Gabriel; Liverpool John Moores University ; University of Chester ; Liverpool John Moores University ; University of Chester ; Unidad Oaxaca (Wiley, 2006-05-09)
      This article discusses the first witnessed cases of raiding parties of male spider monkeys.
    • Reachability does not explain the middle preference: a comment on Bar-Hillel (2015)

      Rodway, Paul; Schepman, Astrid; Thoma, Volker; University of Chester; University of Chester; University of East London (Sage, 2016-03-28)
      Choosing an object from an array of similar objects is a task that people complete frequently throughout their lives (e.g. choosing a can of soup from many cans of soup). Research has also demonstrated that items in the middle of an array or scene are looked at more often and are more likely to be chosen. This middle preference is surprisingly robust and widespread, having been found in a wide range of perceptual-motor tasks. In a recent review of the literature Bar-Hillel (2015) proposes, among other things, that the middle preference is largely explained by the middle item being easier to reach, either physically or mentally. We specifically evaluate Bar-Hillel’s reachability explanation for choice in non-interactive situations in light of evidence showing an effect of item valence on such choices. This leads us to conclude that the center-stage heuristic account is a more plausible explanation of the middle preference.
    • Recruiting cancer survivors into research studies using online methods: a secondary analysis from an international cancer survivorship cohort study.

      Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Pendrous, Rosina; Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Swash, Brooke; University of Chester (ecancer Global Foundation, 2019-12-12)
      Recruiting participants into cancer survivorship research remains a significant challenge. Few studies have tested and compared the relative use of non-clinical online recruitment methods, especially in samples of adult cancer survivors. This paper reports on the feasibility of recruiting a representative cohort of cancer survivors using online social media. Two-hundred participants with a cancer diagnosis within the past 12 months were recruited via social media (Facebook, Twitter, Reddit) into a longitudinal questionnaire study. Different methods of online recruitment proved to be more effective than others over time. Paid Facebook boosting, Reddit posts, and Twitter adverts placed by existing cancer charities proved most helpful in reaching our recruitment target (contributing 27%, 22% and 32% respectively). Recruiting online achieved a more demographically and clinically representative sample for our study: our sample was younger, less heteronormative, including those with a range of clinical diagnoses, primary and recurrence illness, and patients who had both completed and were still receiving treatment. This was certainly not a quick method of sample recruitment but that could have been optimised by focussing only on the three most effective methods describe earlier. Whilst we found that online recruitment is significantly lower cost than traditional recruitment methods, and can reduce some biases, there still remains the potential for some biases (e.g. excluding much older participants) and ethical/methodological issues (e.g. excluding those without access to the internet). We outline our recruitment strategy, retention rates, and a cost breakdown in order to guide other researchers considering such methods for future research in cancer survivorship.
    • Refining the blank lineup procedure: How should we instruct eyewitnesses?

      Kucina, Talira; Sauer, James. D.; Holt, Glenys; Brewer, Neil; Palmer, Matthew A.; University of Tasmania; University of Chester; Flinders University
      Presenting a blank lineup—containing only fillers—to witnesses prior to showing a real lineup might be useful for screening out those who pick from the blank lineup as unreliable witnesses. We show that the effectiveness of this procedure varies depending on instructions given to witnesses. Participants (N = 462) viewed a simulated crime and attempted to identify the perpetrator from a lineup approximately one week later. Rejecting a blank lineup was associated with greater identification accuracy and greater diagnosticity of suspect identifications, but only when witnesses were instructed prior to the blank lineup that they would view a series of lineups; the procedure was ineffective for screening when witnesses were advised they would view two lineups or received no instruction. These results highlight the importance of instructions used in the blank lineup procedure, and the need for better understanding of how to interpret choosing patterns in this paradigm. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    • Registered nurses’ experiences of communicating respect to patients: influences and challenges

      Clucas, Claudine; Chapman, Hazel M.; Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (SAGE Publications, 2019-04-04)
      Background: Respectful care is central to ethical codes of practice and optimal patient care, but little is known on influences on and challenges in communicating respect. Research question: What are the intra- and inter-personal influences on nurses’ communication of respect? Research design and participants: Semi-structured interviews with 12 hospital-based United Kingdom registered nurses were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore their experiences of communicating respect to patients and associated influences. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Institutional ethics board and National Health Service Trust. Findings: Three interconnected superordinate themes were identified: ‘private self: personal attitudes’, ‘outward self: showing respect’ and ‘reputational self: being perceived as respectful’. Respectful communication involved a complex set of influences, including attitudes of respect towards patients, needs and goals, beliefs around the nature of respectful communication, skills and influencing sociocultural factors. A tension between the outward self as intended and perceived presented challenges for nurses’ reputational self as respectful, with negative implications for patient care. Discussion: The study offers an in-depth understanding of intra- and interpersonal influences on communicating respect, and sheds light on challenges involved, helping provide practical insights to support respectful care.
    • Registered Replication Report: Schooler and Engstler-Schooler (1990)

      Alogna, V. K., Attaya, M. K., Aucoin, P., Bahník, Š., Birch, S., Birt, A. R., Bornstein, B. H., Bouwmeester, S., Brandimonte, M. A., Brown, C., Buswell, K., Carlson, C., Carlson, M., Chu, S., Cislak, A., Colarusso, M., Colloff, M. F., Dellapaolera, K. S., Delvenne, J.-F., Di Domenico, A., Drummond, A., Echterhoff, G., Edlund, J. E., Eggleston, C. M., Fairfield, B., Franco, G., Gabbert, F., Gamblin, B. W., Garry, M., Gentry, R., Gilbert, E. A., Greenberg, D. L., Halberstadt, J., Hall, L., Hancock, P. J. B., Hirsch, D., Holt, G., Jackson, J. C., Jong, J., Kehn, A., Koch, C., Kopietz, R., Körner, U., Kunar, M. A., Lai, C. K., Langton, S. R. H., Leite, F. P., Mammarella, N., Marsh, J. E., McConnaughy, K. A., McCoy, S., McIntyre, A. H., Meissner, C. A., Michael, R. B., Mitchell, A. A., Mugayar-Baldocchi, M., Musselman, R., Ng, C., Nichols, A. L., Nunez, N. L., Palmer, M. A., Pappagianopoulos, J. E., Petro, M. S., Poirier, C. R., Portch, E., Rainsford, M., Rancourt, A., Romig, C., Rubínová, E., Sanson, M., Satchell, L., Sauer, J. D., Schweitzer, K., Shaheed, J., Skelton, F., Sullivan, G. A., Susa, K. J., Swanner, J. K., Thompson, W. B., Todaro, R., Ulatowska, J., Valentine, T., Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L., Vranka, M., Wade, K. A., Was, C. A., Weatherford, D., Wiseman, K., Zaksaite, T., Zuj, D. V., Zwaan, R. A. (SAGE Publications, 2014-09-17)
      Trying to remember something now typically improves your ability to remember it later. However, after watching a video of a simulated bank robbery, participants who verbally described the robber were 25% worse at identifying the robber in a lineup than were participants who instead listed U.S. states and capitals—this has been termed the “verbal overshadowing” effect (Schooler & Engstler-Schooler, 1990). More recent studies suggested that this effect might be substantially smaller than first reported. Given uncertainty about the effect size, the influence of this finding in the memory literature, and its practical importance for police procedures, we conducted two collections of preregistered direct replications (RRR1 and RRR2) that differed only in the order of the description task and a filler task. In RRR1, when the description task immediately followed the robbery, participants who provided a description were 4% less likely to select the robber than were those in the control condition. In RRR2, when the description was delayed by 20 min, they were 16% less likely to select the robber. These findings reveal a robust verbal overshadowing effect that is strongly influenced by the relative timing of the tasks. The discussion considers further implications of these replications for our understanding of verbal overshadowing.
    • The relation between trust beliefs and loneliness during early childhood, middle childhood, and adulthood

      Rotenberg, Ken J.; Addis, Nick; Betts, Lucy R.; Corrigan, Amanda; Fox, Claire L.; Hobson, Zoe; Rennison, Sarah; Trueman, Mark; Boulton, Michael J.; Keele University ; Keele University ; Nottingham Trent University ; Keele University ; Keele University ; Keele University ; Keele University ; Keele University ; University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-06-28)
      This article discusses four studies which examined the relation between trust and loneliness.
    • Relationships between unmet needs, depression and anxiety in non-advanced cancer patients

      Ferrari, Martina; Ripamonti, Carla I; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Miccinesi, Guido; University of Chester; Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano, Italy; ISPO Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Florence, Italy (Wichtig Publishing, 2018-04-16)
      Introduction: In oncology settings, less attention is given to patients’ unmet need and to existential and emotional distress, compared to physical symptoms. We aimed to evaluate correlations between unmet needs and emotional distress (self-reported anxiety and depression) in a consecutive cohort of cancer patients. The influence of socio- demographic and clinical factors was also considered. Methods: Three hundred cancer patients recruited from an out-patient Supportive Care Unit of a Comprehensive Cancer Centre completed the Need Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ) and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS). Unmet needs covered five distinct domains (informational, care/assistance, relational, psycho-emotional and material). Results: After removal of missing data, we analysed data from 258 patients. Need for better information on future health concerns (42%), better services from the hospital (43%), and to speak with individuals in the same condition (31%) were the most frequently reported as unmet. Based on the ESAS, 27.2% and 17.5% of patients respectively had a score of anxiety or depression > 3 and needed further examination for psychological distress. Female patients had significantly higher scores for anxiety (p<.001) and depression (p=.008) compared to males. Unmet needs were significantly correlated with both anxiety (rs=.283) and depression (rs=.284). Previous referral to a psychologist was significantly associated with depression scores (p=.015). Results were confirmed by multiple regression analysis. Conclusions: Screening for unmet needs whilst also considering socio-demographic and clinical factors, allows early identification of cancer patients with emotional distress. Doing so will enable optimal management of psychological patient-reported outcomes in oncology settings.
    • The relevance of technology to the nature, prevalence and impact of adolescent dating violence and abuse: A research synthesis.

      Stonard, Karlie E.; Bowen, Erica; Lawrence, Tony R.; Price, Shelley A.; Coventry University, Coventry University, Coventry University, University of Chester (Elsevier, 2014-06-21)
      While an established literature has documented the nature and prevalence of traditional forms of Adolescent Dating Violence and Abuse (ADVA), less research has investigated the relevance of Electronic Communication Technology (ECT) such as mobile phones and communication tools via the Internet to ADVA and to psychological/emotional abuse and monitoring or controlling behaviors in particular. This paper reviews the literature on the nature, prevalence and impact of ADVA andwhatwill be termed Technology Assisted Adolescent Dating Violence and Abuse (TAADVA). The review revealed a broad range of prevalence estimates for physical, psychological/emotional, and sexual dating violence in addition to abuse experienced or performed via ECT. Inconsistencies in prevalence reports are likely to be due to the various measures and methods used to investigate this phenomenon, however; this leads to difficulties when attempting to make accurate comparisons and generalizations. Limited research was found to have explored the impact of TAADVA compared to that of traditional ADVA. Nevertheless, ADVA and TAADVA were prevalent in a substantial number of adolescent romantic relationships in these studies. It is suggested that ECT provides a new avenue for ADVA rather than representing a new, unique form of abuse. Further research is needed to explore the nature, prevalence, and impact of ECT use for both abusive and non-abusive purposes within adolescent dating relationships, in addition to whether this creates new victims or perpetrators of such abuse. Implications of the findings of the review are discussed.
    • The repertoire and intentionality of gestural communication in wild chimpanzees.

      Roberts, Anna I.; Vick, Sarah-Jane; Roberts, Sam G. B.; University of Chester; Budongo Conservation Field Station; University of Stirling (Springer, 2014-09-03)
      A growing body of evidence suggests that human language may have emerged primarily in the gestural rather than vocal domain, and that studying gestural communication in great apes is crucial to understanding language evolution. Although manual and bodily gestures are considered distinct at a neural level, there has been very limited consideration of potential differences at a behavioural level. In this study, we conducted naturalistic observations of adult wild East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in order to establish a repertoire of gestures, and examine intentionality of gesture production, use and comprehension, comparing across manual and bodily gestures. At the population level, 120 distinct gesture types were identified, consisting of 65 manual gestures and 55 bodily gestures. Both bodily and manual gestures were used intentionally and effectively to attain specific goals, by signallers who were sensitive to recipient attention. However, manual gestures differed from bodily gestures in terms of communicative persistence, indicating a qualitatively different form of behavioural flexibility in achieving goals. Both repertoire size and frequency of manual gesturing were more affiliative than bodily gestures, while bodily gestures were more antagonistic. These results indicate that manual gestures may have played a significant role in the emergence of increased flexibility in great ape communication and social bonding
    • Resistant to the message: Are pupils unreceptive to teachers’ anti-bullying initiatives and if so why?

      Boulton, Michael J.; Boulton, Richard; University of Chester ; Independent Researcher (Taylor & Francis, 2012)
      This article discusses a study of 227 8–11 -year-old junior school pupils and their response to teachers’ anti-bullying lessons.
    • Respect in final-year student nurse–patient encounters – an interpretative phenomenological analysis

      Clucas, Claudine; Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2014-05-21)
      Very little is known regarding health-care professionals’ understanding and experiences of respect towards patients. The study aimed to explore student nurses’ understanding and experiences of respect in their encounters with patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight final-year student nurses with practice placements across different health-care trusts in the UK. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Three super-ordinate themes were identified: understanding of what it means to show respect, negotiating role expectations and personal attitudes in practice, and barriers related to the performance of the nursing role. The factors identified should be investigated further and addressed as they are likely to influence patients’ experiences of feeling respected in nurse–patient interactions and subsequently their well-being and health-related behaviours.
    • Right-ear precedence and vocal emotion contagion: The role of the left hemisphere

      Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Cornmell, Louise; Smith, Bethany; Lauren de Sa, Sabrina; Borwick, Ciara; Belfon-Thompson, Elisha; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2017-08-02)
      Much evidence suggests that the processing of emotions is lateralized to the right hemisphere of the brain. However, under some circumstances the left hemisphere might play a role, particularly for positive emotions and emotional experiences. We explored whether emotion contagion was right-lateralized, lateralized valence-specifically, or potentially left-lateralized. In two experiments, right-handed female listeners rated to what extent emotionally intoned pseudo-sentences evoked target emotions in them. These sound stimuli had a 7 ms ear lead in the left or right channel, leading to stronger stimulation of the contralateral hemisphere. In both experiments, the results revealed that right ear lead stimuli received subtly but significantly higher evocation scores, suggesting a left hemisphere dominance for emotion contagion. A control experiment using an emotion identification task showed no effect of ear lead. The findings are discussed in relation to prior findings that have linked the processing of emotional prosody to left-hemisphere brain regions that regulate emotions, control orofacial musculature, are involved in affective empathy processing areas, or have an affinity for processing emotions socially. Future work is needed to eliminate alternative interpretations and understand the mechanisms involved. Our novel binaural asynchrony method may be useful in future work in auditory laterality.
    • Right-lateralized unconscious, but not conscious, processing of affective environmental sounds

      Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Pritchard, Hayley; Department of Psychology, University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2015-10-29)
      Much research on the laterality of affective auditory stimuli features emotional speech. However, environmental sounds can also carry affective information, but their lateralized processing for affect has been studied much less. We studied this in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1 we explored whether the detection of affective environmental sounds (from International Affective Digital Sounds) that appeared in auditory scenes was lateralized. While we found that negative targets were detected more rapidly, detection latencies were the same on the left and right. In Experiment 2 we examined whether conscious appraisal of the stimulus was needed for lateralization patterns to emerge, and asked participants to rate the stimuli's pleasantness in a dichotic listening test. This showed that when positive/negative environmental sounds were in the attended to-be-rated channel, ratings were the same regardless of laterality. However, when participants rated neutral stimuli and the unattended channel was positive/negative, the valence of the unattended channel affected the neutral ratings more strongly with left ear (right hemisphere, RH) processing of the affective sound. We link our findings to previous work that suggests that the RH may specialize in the unconscious processing of emotion via subcortical routes.
    • The role of psychopathy and exposure to violence in rape myth acceptance

      Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Kola, Susanna; Meller-Prunska, Alexandra; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield ; Manchester Metropolitan University ; University of Huddersfield ; Polish Prison Service (SAGE, 2014-10-09)
      The main aim of the present study was to specify and test a structural model to examine the relationships between four psychopathy dimensions (Interpersonal Manipulation, Callous Affect, Erratic Lifestyle, and Antisocial Behavior), childhood exposure to violence, and rape myth acceptance while controlling for gender, age, sample type (prisoner vs. non-prisoner), and relationship status. Participants were a sample of non-offending adults (n = 319) recruited from the University of Security in Poznan, and a sample of prisoners (n = 129) incarcerated in Stargard Szczecinski Prison. Results indicated that the model provided a good fit for the data, and that Callous Affect and childhood exposure to violence had a significant positive effect on attitudes toward rape and rape victims. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed.
    • The role of psychopathy factors in reactive aggression within a sample of prisoners

      Debowska, Agata; Zeyrek Rios, Emek Y.; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield (Emerald, 2014-11-11)
      Purpose - The main objective of this paper is to examine the role of four psychopathy factors (Interpersonal Manipulation, Callous Affect, Erratic Lifestyle, and Antisocial Behaviour) and the length of incarceration in reactive aggression. The predictive effect of dissatisfaction with peer relations, childhood experiences of violence, and criminal friends on reactive forms of aggressive acts is also explored. Design/methodology/approach – One hundred and twenty nine (N = 129) male prisoners incarcerated in Stargard Szczecinski Prison were recruited for the study. Cross-sectional design using self-report questionnaire of retrospective and prospective nature was utilised. Findings – Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that only one psychopathy facet, Interpersonal Manipulation, forms a significant association with reactive aggression. Another accurate correlate of reactive aggression was the length of incarceration. Originality/value – The results of the present study indicate that the commonly suggested two-factor models of psychopathy may be misguided. Future studies examining the effect of psychopathy facets on aggression should consider Interpersonal Manipulation and Callous Affect as separate dimensions. Additionally, this study is the first to demonstrate that reactive aggression may be exacerbated during incarceration.
    • The role of relationship attachment in psychological adjustment to cancer in patients and caregivers: A systematic review of the literature

      Nicholls, Wendy; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Bramwell, Ros; University of Wolverhampton ; University of Chester ; University of Chester; Department of Psychology; University of Wolverhampton; Wolverhampton UK; Department of Psychology; University of Chester; Chester UK; Department of Psychology; University of Chester; Chester UK (Wiley, 2014-08-25)
      The objective of this works is to report the results of a systematic review to evaluate the role of attachment in adjustment to cancer for patients and those close to them.
    • Safeguarding children who are exposed to Abuse Linked to Faith or Belief

      Oakley, Lisa; University of Chester, StepsSA, Thirtyone:eight, Victoria Climbie Foundation (John Wiley & Sons, 2019-02-18)
      Cases of child abuse linked to faith or belief (CALFB) continue to be documented. However, there is limited research and understanding of CALFB. Further, there is a lack of clarity of definition. These factors then impact upon effective practice. Recognising this, the National Working Group for CALFB called for research on which to develop evidence-based practice. This paper reports on key findings from a mixed-method online survey which was completed by 1361 participants from a range of practitioner and community groups. The participants identified the importance of policy and multiagency working in this area, but they acknowledged the complexity and challenges associated with developing and implementing good practice. Recommendations from the study include a review of relevant policy to evaluate its application to CALFB, the development of faith literacy training for frontline practitioners and the creation of a space in which statutory, faith and community groups can dialogue.
    • “Safer homes”: An evaluation of a reorganization to deal with domestic Burglary within a UK police force

      Warren, Jeremy J.; Hogard, Elaine; Ellis, Roger; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2007-07-25)
      This paper describes an evaluation of an initiative to improve performance regarding domestic burglary in a police force in the North of England. The force was not performing well in respect of domestic burglary detections and was required to make considerable changes in order to improve levels of performance. The force undertook substantial organizational restructuring to implement the scheme. The evaluation focussed on the process, outcomes and stakeholder views of the initiative. The changes had a significant effect on burglary detection rates, a moderate effect on numbers of incidents and partnership working at practitioner level, but little effect on relationships with partner agencies at a strategic level.
    • School peer counselling for bullying services as a source of social support: A study with secondary school pupils

      Boulton, Michael J.; University College Chester (Routledge, 2005)
      99 school pupils were interviewed to ascertain their views of the peer counselling for bullying service in their own school, with a focus on the issue of social support for bullying-related problems, were conducted. Three themes were addressed: willingness to use the service relative to other potential sources of support; preferred gender and age of peer counsellor; and disclosure of using the service to friends.