• ‘Haematological cancers, they’re a funny bunch’: A qualitative study of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma patient experiences of unmet supportive care needs.

      Swash, Brooke; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Bramwell, Ros; University of Chester; University of Cambridge (SAGE, 2016-07-28)
      Despite high levels of psychological distress, there is a scarcity of research on unmet supportive care needs in haematological cancer patients. This qualitative study used an in-depth interpretative phenomenological approach to investigate the needs reported by six Non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients and explored how these needs consequently shaped the patient experience. Emergent themes included: concerns for family, information needs and the need for psychological support. Participants reported feeling different to other cancer patients. Lack of understanding of their diagnosis by friends and family, and access to relevant support services, are notable unmet needs that differ from previous findings.
    • Helping school students deal with peer provocations and avoid hostile attribution bias with a co-operative cross-age teaching intervention: A pilot study

      Boulton, Michael J.; Boulton, Louise; University of Chester (Wiley, 2017)
      Cross-age tutoring and co-operative group work have been shown to help student tutors and tutees acquire academic and non-academic skills and knowledge. A novel intervention (Cross-Age Teaching Zone, CATZ) that combined them was tested for its effects on student tutors’ thinking skills associated with (i) dealing pro-socially with peer provocations and (ii) avoiding hostile attribution bias. Small co-operative groups of 11 and 15 year old students (n= 228) designed a CATZ lesson on these themes and delivered it to younger students. The CATZ tutors, but not matched controls (n = 189), showed significant improvements on both outcome measures. Participants aged 9 to 15 years (n = 469) were also asked about: (1) their willingness to act as CATZ tutors/tutees, (2) how effective they think such CATZ activities would be, (3) how much they valued autonomy in how they might deliver CATZ, and (4) their relative preference for being taught by older students versus teachers. Overall, participants expressed positive views of CATZ. This evidence for the effectiveness and social validity of CATZ support its more widespread use in schools to help students learn patterns of thinking that can help them avoid aggressive and conflict behavior.
    • The high prevalence of pre-existing mental health complaints in clients attending Saint Mary’s Sexual Assault Referral Centre: implications for initial management and engagement with the Independent Sexual Violence Advisor Service at the Centre

      Manning, Daisy; Majeed-Ariss, Rabiya; Mattison, Michelle L. A.; White, Catherine; University of Manchester Medical School; Saint Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2018-12-05)
      Background: The Saint Mary’s Sexual Assault Referral Centre has a unique service delivery model whereby it provides an integrated physical and psychological support services to clients, women men and children, living in Greater Manchester. The service is available to those who have reported rape or sexual assault, whether this is recent or historic. Clients living in surrounding areas of Cheshire are provided with forensic and medical services at Saint Mary’s Centre, with follow-up care provided locally, as appropriate. Aims: The primary objective was to identify the prevalence of self-reported pre-existing mental health complaints amongst adult clients who attended Saint Mary’s Centre for a forensic medical examination. The secondary objective was to consider levels of engagement with the Centre’s Independent Sexual Violence Advisor service by comparing clients who reported a mental health complaint to clients who did not. Method: One-hundred and eighty sets of client’s notes from 2016 were retrospectively analysed. Client inclusion criteria were that they were (a) over the age of 18 years when attending the Centre, (b) had attended for a forensic medical examination. Results: 69% of clients analysed reported a pre-existing mental health complaint. The time taken for clients to present to Saint Mary’s Centre following a reported assault tended to be later for the clients with self-reported mental health problems than those without. However, there was no difference in the long-term engagement with the Centre’s Independent Sexual Violence Advisor service at the Centre between the two groups. Conclusion: Prevalence of self-reported pre-existing mental health complaints is extremely high in clients presenting at Saint Mary’s Centre as compared to national and regional prevalence rates for mental health complaints in the general population. The vulnerability of this client group should be considered when they attend a SARC and support provided should be appropriate and accessible to their needs. Staff should have adequate training and supervision to be able to respond in this way.
    • High stakes lies: Police and non-police accuracy in detecting deception

      Wright Whelan, Clea; Wagstaff, Graham; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M.; University of Chester ; University of Liverpool ; University of Liverpool (Taylor & Francis, 2014-06-26)
      To date, the majority of investigations in to accuracy in detecting deception have used low stakes lies as stimulus materials, and findings from these studies suggest that people are generally poor at detecting deception. The research presented here utilised real life, high stakes lies as stimulus materials, to investigate the accuracy of police and non-police observers in detecting deception. It was hypothesised that both police and non-police observers would achieve above chance levels of accuracy in detecting deception, that police officers would be more accurate at detecting deception than non-police observers, that confidence in veracity judgements would be positively related to accuracy, and that consensus judgements would predict veracity. 107 observers (70 police officers and 37 non-police participants) watched 36 videos of people lying or telling the truth in an extremely high stakes, real life situation. Police observers achieved mean accuracy in detecting deception of 72%, non-police observers achieved 68% mean accuracy, and confidence in veracity judgements were positively related to accuracy. Consensus judgements correctly predicted veracity in 92% of cases.
    • High-stakes lies: Verbal and nonverbal cues to deception in public appeals for help with missing or murdered relatives

      Wright Whelan, Clea; Wagstaff, Graham; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M.; University of Liverpool (Taylor & Francis, 2013-09-23)
      Low ecological validity is a common limitation in deception studies. The present study investigated the real life, high stake context of public appeals for help with missing or murdered relatives. Behaviours which discriminated between honest and deceptive appeals included some previously identified in research on high stakes lies (deceptive appeals contained more equivocal language, gaze aversion, head shaking, and speech errors), and a number of previously unidentified behaviours (honest appeals contained more references to norms of emotion/behaviour, more expressions of hope of finding the missing relative alive, more expressions of positive emotion towards the relative, more expressions of concern/pain, and an avoidance of brutal language). Case by case analyses yielded 78% correct classifications. Implications are discussed with reference to the importance of using ecologically valid data in deception studies, the context specific nature of some deceptive behaviours, and social interactionist, and individual behavioural profile, accounts of cues to deception.
    • How can Respectfulness in Medical Professionals be Increased? A Complex but Important Question.

      Clucas, Claudine; St Claire, Lindsay; University of Chester; University of Bristol (Springer Verlag, 2016-12-14)
      Respectfulness is demanded of doctors and predicts more positive patient health-related outcomes but research is scarce on ways to promote it. This study explores two ways to conceptualize unconditional respect from medical students, defined as respect paid to people on the basis of their humanity, in order to inform strategies to increase it. Unconditional respect conceptualized as an attitude suggests that unconditional respect and conditional respect are additive, whereas unconditional respect conceptualized as a personality trait suggests that people who are high on unconditional respect afford equal respect to all humans regardless of their merits. One-hundred and eighty one medical students completed an unconditional respect measure then read a description of a respect-worthy or a non-respect-worthy man and indicated their respect towards him. The study found a main effect for unconditional respect and a main effect for target respect-worthiness but no interaction between the two when respect paid to the target was assessed, supporting the attitude-based conceptualization. This suggests that unconditional respect can be increased through relevant interventions aimed at increasing the relative salience to doctors of the human worth of individuals. Interventions to increase unconditional respect are discussed.
    • How downplaying or exaggerating crime severity in a confession affects perceived guilt

      Holt, G. A.; Palmer, M. A.; University of Chester; University of Tasmania
      This study investigated how judgments of guilt are influenced by factual errors in confessions that either amplified or downplayed the severity of the crime. Participants read a confession statement and a police report. Information in the confession statement either was consistent with the facts of the crime in the police report, the suspect admitted to a worse crime than described in the police report, or the suspect admitted to a lesser crime than described in the police report. Mediation analyses showed that, compared to consistent confessions, both types of directional errors reduced judgments of guilt. Inconsistencies that made the suspect look better—but not those that made the suspect look worse—also increased judgments of guilt via a direct effect. Confessions that contain errors that appear to exaggerate the severity of the crime prompt no higher judgments of suspect guilt than confessions that are consistent with the facts of the crime. However, errors in confessions that are perceived to downplay the severity of the crime can prompt an increased perception of suspect guilt, when compared to a consistent confession.
    • The Hummingbird Project: A Positive Psychology Intervention for Secondary School Students

      Platt, Ian Andrew; Kannangara, Chathurika; Tytherleigh, Michelle; Carson, Jerome; University of Chester; University of Bolton
      Mental health in schools has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) in secondary schools have been shown to improve mental health outcomes for students. Previous PPIs have tended to be delivered by trained Psychology specialists or have tended to focus on a single aspect of Positive Psychology such as Mindfulness. The current study involved 2 phases. Phase 1 was a pilot PPI, delivered by current university students in Psychology, which educated secondary school students (N = 90) in a variety of Positive Psychology concepts. Phase 2 involved delivering the PPI to secondary school students (N = 1,054). This PPI, the Hummingbird Project, led to improvements in student well-being, as measured by the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5). The intervention also led to improvements in student resilience, as measured by the Bolton Uni-Stride Scale (BUSS), and hope, as measured by the Children’s Hope Scale (CHS). Results are discussed in the context of their implications for the future of psychological intervention in secondary school settings.
    • ‘I call it the hero complex’ – Critical considerations of power and privilege and seeking to be an agent of change in qualitative researchers’ experiences.

      Oakley, Lisa; Fenge, Lee-Ann; Taylor, Bethan; University of Chester, Bournemouth University, My CWA
      There is a relative paucity of studies specifically exploring the experiences of qualitative researchers undertaking research in socially sensitive areas or with marginalised groups. This paper reports some of the findings of a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews to explore the experiences of ten participant researchers. The findings of this study suggest that participant researchers are cognisant of issues of power and privilege in conducting their research. They also illustrate the motivation to enact change via the research findings. However, they demonstrate the complexities of power, privilege and change in the research process and how these concepts can be related to researcher guilt. The study shows that experience can act as a buffer in the qualitative research process but that further work in researcher resilience is required. Participant researchers suggest the need for more honest and open discussions around foundational principles of qualitative research. They suggest further development of cross institutional spaces for these discussions to take place. However, the paper also illustrates the necessity to consider issues of power, privilege and research as social change at individual, institutional and systemic levels,
    • Ignorance is bliss? Exploring paranormal beliefs, coping and happiness in a UK and Singaporean sample

      Lasikiewicz, Nicola; University of Chester (2014-08)
      Previous research has indicated that belief in unusual phenomena and superstitious thinking may increase in times of stress (Keinan 1994; 2002). Further, believers in the paranormal often display avoidant coping strategies with little to no problem solving. These findings may, therefore, reflect a specific coping mechanism for stressful situations. However, little research has explored the possible interaction between the perception of stress and coping style on belief and further, an assessment of perceived happiness. Consequently, the current study aimed to explore possible associations between perceived stress and happiness, coping and paranormal belief. Further, these relationships were explored and compared in a sample of Western (UK) and South East Asian (Singapore) participants. Ninety-two male and female participants aged between 19 and 61 years (mean age=36.56 ± 11.74 years) from the UK and 145 male and female participants aged between 18 and 57 years (mean age=23.03 ± 5.51 years) from Singapore completed an online battery of psychological measures assessing paranormal belief (Revised Paranormal Belief Scale; Tobacyk, 1988), superstitious thinking (Superstitions Questionnaire; Zebb & Moore, 2003), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale, Cohen, 1994), coping (Ways of Coping Revised, Lazarus & Folkman, 1985) and happiness (Oxford Happiness Questionnaire; Hills & Argyle, 2002). Participants were predominantly students recruited using convenience sampling. Data were analysed using a series of backwards enter multiple regression analyses to determine the predictors of paranormal belief. For all participants, level of education (a higher score being indicative of a lower educational qualification), happiness and coping were significant predictors of global paranormal belief (R2=.22, F(6, 225)=10.787; p<.01). Specifically, a lower level of education (β=.20; p<.00) greater happiness (β=.16; p<.05) and coping in the form of low problem solving (β=-.16; p<.05) and greater positive reappraisal (β=.24; p<.00) were associated with greater belief. Further, a lower level of education (β=.13; p<.05) and coping (low problem solving (β=-.18; p<.05) and high distancing (β=.31; p<.00) were associated with significantly greater superstitious thinking (R2=.21, F(7, 224)=8.239; p<.01). In terms of crosscultural differences, paranormal belief was significantly greater in Singaporeans but no significant differences in happiness and perceived stress between the two nations were noted. In terms of predicting belief, level of education was a significant predictor of both global paranormal belief (β=.36; p<.00) and superstitious thinking (β=.25; p<.05) for participants in the UK (R2=.16, F(3, 85)=5.345; p<.01 and R2=.12, F(2, 86)=5.776; p<.01 respectively). For Singaporeans, greater happiness (β=.23; p<.00) significantly predicted greater paranormal belief in addition to low problem solving (β=-.19; p<.05), high avoidance (β=.21; p<.05) and greater distancing (β=.34; p<.00) coping strategies (R2=.22, F(5, 137)=7.832; p<.01). Further, the combination of high perceived stress and low problem solving was also a significant predictor of superstitious thinking in Singaporeans (R2=.27, F(5, 137)=9.919; p<.00; β=-.19; p<.00). The findings support the suggestion that belief in the paranormal may reflect a specific pattern of coping characterised by greater propensity for distancing and avoidance with low problem solving. Further, the combination of high stress and low problem solving may increase the propensity for belief and superstitious thinking, particularly in a South East Asian population. Further research is required to determine whether this apparent coping mechanism is protective or maladaptive in the long run and whether cultural differences may mediate this effect.
    • The impact of a parenting guidance programme for mothers with an ethnic minority background

      Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Clucas, Claudine; Sherr, Lorraine; University of Oslo ; University of Oslo ; University College London ; University College London (de Gruyter, 2014-09-16)
      The current mixed-method study investigates the effects of a culturally adapted version of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) with 135 mothers – 29 ethnic Pakistani mothers residing in Norway attending Urdu-language groups and a comparison group of 105 Norwegian mothers attending Norwegian-language groups. All mothers completed questionnaires on parenting and psychosocial health before and after attending the ICDP programme. In-depth interviews with a subgroup of 12 ethnic Pakistani mothers and 8 ethnic Norwegian mothers were analysed using thematic analysis. Before the ICDP programme, the Urdu-speaking mothers spent more time with the child, scored higher on distant child management and reported poorer mental health. Most changes over time were similar but significant for the Norwegian-speaking group only, which might imply that the minority mothers were in the process of change. In the interviews, the Urdu-speaking mothers’ emphasized enhanced communication and regulation, enhanced family relationships and life quality, whereas the Norwegian-speaking group told about increased consciousness and empowerment, and a more positive focus.
    • The Impact of Sensitive Research on the Researcher: Preparedness and Positionality

      Fenge, Lee Ann; Oakley, Lisa, Kathryn, Jusin & Mor Kinmond, Humphreys & Dioum; Taylor, Bethan; Beer, Sean; Bournemouth University, University of Chester, Cheshire without Abuse, Bournemouth University
      There is currently limited research exploring the impact of undertaking sensitive or challenging research on the researcher, although some textbooks explore researcher preparedness. This article presents a discussion of the findings from a research project which engaged with the seldom heard voices of researchers themselves. The aim was to explore researchers’ experiences of undertaking research on sensitive topics, or with marginalized groups, as this can expose researchers to emotionally disturbing situations throughout data collection and analysis, which can be psychologically challenging. Although ethical codes of practice include discussion around protection of both the researcher and the participant, in practice, the ethics approval process rarely considers the impact of the proposed research on the researcher. Their experiences are therefore seldom acknowledged or heard, resulting in potential distress for the researcher. Semi- structured interviews were undertaken with social science researchers from a range of discipline backgrounds and at different points in their research careers (n = 10). This article explores two themes emerging from the data: preparedness and positionality. It considers what these themes mean in terms of supporting researchers who encounter challenging research data, and issues related to supporting researcher reflexivity and the requirements for institutional support offered to researchers will also be considered.
    • Implicit knowledge and memory for musical stimuli in musicians and non-musicians.

      Thorpe, Lisa; Cousins, Margaret; Bramwell, Ros; University of Chester (Sage, 2019-03-21)
      The phoneme monitoring task used by Bigand, Tillmann, Poulin, D’Adamo and Madurell (2001) is a musical priming paradigm that demonstrates that both musicians and non-musicians have gained implicit understanding of prevalent harmonic structures. Little research has focused on implicit music learning in musicians and non-musicians. This current study aimed to investigate whether the phoneme monitoring task would identify any implicit memory differences between musicians and non-musicians. It focuses on both implicit knowledge of musical structure and implicit memory for specific musical sequences. Thirty-two musicians and non-musicians (19 female and 13 male) were asked to listen to a seven-chord sequence and decide as quickly as possible whether the final chord ended on the syllable /di/ or /du/. Overall, musicians were faster at the task, though non-musicians made more gains through the blocks of trials. Implicit memory for musical sequence was evident in both musicians and non-musicians. Both groups of participants reacted quicker to sequences that they had heard more than once but showed no explicit knowledge of the familiar sequences.
    • In search of scope: A response to Ruiz et al. (2020)

      Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J; Pendrous, Rosina; Hochard, Kevin D; University of Chester
      Deliberate and explicit replication attempts are becoming more common across the behavioral sciences. Whilst replicability has been recognized as a core feature of science for decades (if not centuries), the directness of today’s replication work requires us to consider carefully how we communicate our research and how we conceptualize our theories in light of differing findings. This paper uses a concrete example to make a number of suggestions for how we, as a scientific community, ought to engage with replication attempts. Within Relational Frame Theory (RFT) there is a growing body of applied research on the effective use of metaphors to increase tolerance of aversive states. We conducted a replication of an earlier experimental analogue study (2020, this journal) and failed to find the specified effect. Ruiz et al. (2020, also this journal) have recently published a critical response in which they list a number of differences between our two studies which might account for the negative findings. We will use this series of three papers as our exemplum. We also take the opportunity to acknowledge some points of critique provided by Ruiz et al., and to set the record straight with respect to the differences between the original study and our replication attempt. We hope this discussion might help the CBS community to develop a coherent approach to the very current issue of replication.
    • In the face of adversity: Resiliency in winter sport athletes

      Brown, Hollie; Lafferty, Moira E.; Triggs, Carmel; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2015-02-07)
      Objectives.- To explore winter sports athletes' experiences of adversity within their sporting careers. Methods.- Data were collected from semi structured interviews with seven British elite winter sports athletes (mean age =23.1 years, SD =2.4), representing a range of winter sport disciplines. Results.- Twelve general dimensions emerged, serving to support the pioneering conceptual model of sport resilience, and emphasizing the role previous experiences of adversity have on the acquisition of resilient qualities. Conclusions.- The findings from this study have the potential to inform applied sport psychology practice. Specifically regarding the development of a ‘resiliency package’, which could aim to protect athletes from maladaptive and/or dysfunctional responses to adversity, and encourage adaptive and resilient reintegration.
    • The Influence of Oxytocin on Eating Behaviours and Stress in Women with Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder

      Leslie, Monica; Leppanen, Jenni; Paloyelis, Yannis; Treasure, Janet; King's College London (Elsevier, 2018-12-21)
      The current study aimed to test the influence of oxytocin on palatable food intake, 24-hour caloric consumption, and stress in women with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. We recruited 25 women with DSM-5 bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder, and 27 weight-matched comparison women without history of an eating disorder. We employed a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design in which each participant attended the lab for two experimental sessions, receiving a divided dose of 64IU intranasal oxytocin in one session and equivalent volume of placebo nasal spray in the opposite session. The order of administration was pseudo-randomised across participants. We hypothesised that a divided dose of 64IU intranasal oxytocin administration would reduce subjective hunger, the immediate consumption of palatable food, 24-hour calorie consumption, and the incidence of binge eating when compared to placebo. We also hypothesised that oxytocin administration would be associated with lower levels of stress and salivary cortisol, and that there would be an interaction with participant group such that oxytocin would reduce eating behaviour and stress to a greater degree in women with bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder, compared to women without history of an eating disorder. We did not find a significant effect of oxytocin on any of the measurements of eating behaviour, subjective stress, or salivary cortisol. We recommend that future studies test the dose-response effect of oxytocin on eating behaviours and stress in human populations with eating disorders to further clarify the moderating factors for oxytocin’s effect on eating.
    • The Influence of Oxytocin on Risk-Taking in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task Among Women with Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder

      Leslie, Monica; Leppanen, Jenni; Paloyelis, Yannis; Nazar, Bruno; Treasure, Janet; King's College London; Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
      Previous theoretical models of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) have implicated cross-domain risk-taking behaviour as a significant maintenance factor in both disorders. The current study sought to test this hypothesis by administering the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) to 25 women with BN or BED and 27 healthy comparison women without history of an eating disorder. Furthermore, we tested the effect of a divided dose of 64IU oxytocin on risk-taking behaviour in the BART. Contrary to our hypothesis, women with BN or BED did not exhibit baseline differences in performance on the BART in the placebo condition (t = 1.42, df = 50, p = .161, d = 0.39). Oxytocin did not have a main effect on performance in the BART (F = 0.01, df = 1, p = .907, η2partial < .001); however, there was an interaction such that participants in the BN/BED participant group, compared to the healthy comparison group, demonstrated safer behaviour on the BART specifically in the oxytocin condition, but not in the placebo condition (F = 4.29, df = 1, p = .044, η2partial = .082). These findings cast doubt on the common assumption that individuals with BN and BED exhibit greater risk-taking behaviour in all domains and add to evidence that oxytocin plays a functional role in modulating behaviours which entail trade-offs between reward approach and risk in humans. We recommend that future dose-response studies further investigate the effect of oxytocin on reward approach behaviour in women with recurrent binge eating behaviour and the clinical significance of this effect.
    • Initial validation of the general attitudes towards Artificial Intelligence Scale

      Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; University of Chester
      A new General Attitudes towards Artificial Intelligence Scale (GAAIS) was developed. The scale underwent initial statistical validation via Exploratory Factor Analysis, which identified positive and negative subscales. Both subscales captured emotions in line with their valence. In addition, the positive subscale reflected societal and personal utility, whereas the negative subscale reflected concerns. The scale showed good psychometric indices and convergent and discriminant validity against existing measures. To cross-validate general attitudes with attitudes towards specific instances of AI applications, summaries of tasks accomplished by specific applications of Artificial Intelligence were sourced from newspaper articles. These were rated for comfortableness and perceived capability. Comfortableness with specific applications was a strong predictor of general attitudes as measured by the GAAIS, but perceived capability was a weaker predictor. Participants viewed AI applications involving big data (e.g. astronomy, law, pharmacology) positively, but viewed applications for tasks involving human judgement, (e.g. medical treatment, psychological counselling) negatively. Applications with a strong ethical dimension led to stronger discomfort than their rated capabilities would predict. The survey data suggested that people held mixed views of AI. The initially validated two-factor GAAIS to measure General Attitudes towards Artificial Intelligence is included in the Appendix.
    • Initial validation of the mindful eating scale

      Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Nicholls, Wendy; Joy, Jayne; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; University of Wolverhampton ; University of Wolverhampton ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (2013-06-10)
      Self-report scales for mindfulness are now widely used in applied settings, and have made a contribution to research, for instance in demonstrating mediation effects. To date there are no convincing data as to whether mindfulness skills generalise fully across life domains, and so some researchers have developed mindfulness scales for particular domains of behaviour. We present the development of a self-report scale to measure mindfulness with respect to eating behaviours.
    • The Integrated Psychosocial Model of Criminal Social Identity (IPM-CSI)

      Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield, Leeds Beckett University, University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-04-22)
      The integrated psychosocial model of criminal social identity attempts to synthesize, distil, and extend our knowledge and understanding of why people develop criminal social identity, with a particular focus on the psychological and social factors involved. We suggest that the development of criminal social identity results from a complex interplay between four important groups of psychosocial factors: (1) an identity crisis which results in weak bonds with society, peer rejection, and is associated with poor parental attachment and supervision; (2) exposure to a criminal/antisocial environment in the form of associations with criminal friends before, during, and/or after incarceration; (3) a need for identification with a criminal group in order to protect one’s self-esteem; and (4) the moderating role of personality traits in the relationship between criminal/antisocial environment and the development of criminal social identity. The model produces testable hypotheses and points to potential opportunities for intervention and prevention. Directions for future research are discussed.