• Affective theory of mind inferences contextually influence the recognition of emotional facial expressions

      Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Schepman, Astrid; Haigh, Matthew; McHugh, Rhian; Stewart, Andrew; University of Chester; Northumbria University; University of Manchester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-03-14)
      The recognition of emotional facial expressions is often subject to contextual influence, particularly when the face and the context convey similar emotions. We investigated whether spontaneous, incidental affective theory of mind inferences made while reading vignettes describing social situations would produce context effects on the identification of same-valenced emotions (Experiment 1) as well as differently-valenced emotions (Experiment 2) conveyed by subsequently presented faces. Crucially, we found an effect of context on reaction times in both experiments while, in line with previous work, we found evidence for a context effect on accuracy only in Experiment 1. This demonstrates that affective theory of mind inferences made at the pragmatic level of a text can automatically, contextually influence the perceptual processing of emotional facial expressions in a separate task even when those emotions are of a distinctive valence. Thus, our novel findings suggest that language acts as a contextual influence to the recognition of emotional facial expressions for both same and different valences.
    • Associations between adults' recalled childhood bullying victimization, current social anxiety, coping, and self-blame: Evidence for moderation and indirect effects

      Boulton, Michael J.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2012-02-01)
      This article discusses a study of 582 students aged 23+ years at two universities in the UK which tested for associations between adults' recall of four common subtypes of childhood bullying victimization and their current social anxiety. It also provided the first test of whether coping moderated those associations, if they were indirect effects through self-blame, and if sex differences existed.
    • Associations between being bullied, perceptions of safety in classroom and playground, and relationship with teacher among primary school pupils

      Boulton, Michael J.; Duke, Elizabeth; Holman, Gemma; Laxton, Eleanor; Nicholas, Beth; Spells, Ruth; Williams, Emma; Woodmansey, Helen; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2009)
      This study examined three main issues among 364 primary school children: (1) self‐reported levels of perceived safety in classroom and playground, and relationship with teacher, (2) associations between perceived safety in the two contexts and peer reported levels of being bullied, and (3) if relationship with teacher moderated the associations between peer reported levels of being bullied and perceived safety in classroom and playground.
    • The effect of male incarceration on rape myth acceptance: Application of propensity score matching technique

      Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; DeLisi, Matthew; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield ; Manchester Metropolitan University ; Iowa State University (Taylor & Francis, 2016-03-17)
      The aim is to assess the effect of imprisonment on rape myth acceptance. The research used a sample of male prisoners incarcerated for non-sexual crimes (n = 98) and a sample of males drawn from the general population (n = 160). Simple linear regression did not indicate a significant effect of incarceration on rape myth acceptance. After controlling for background covariates using propensity score matching, analysis revealed a positive significant effect of incarceration on rape myth acceptance. Although further research is required, results indicate that being subject to incarceration has a significant positive effect on stereotypical thinking about rape.
    • Exploring health visiting professionals' evaluations of early parent-infant interactions

      Elmer, Jessica R. S.; O'Shaughnessey, Ruth; Bramwell, Ros; Dickson, Joanne M.; Tavistock & Portman NHS Foundation Trust, Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust, University of Chester, Edith Cowan University (Taylor & Francis, 2019-07-07)
      Abstract Objective: To examine the accuracy of Health Visitors (HVs) evaluations of the quality of parent-infant interactions. Background: HVs have been identified as key professionals in the early identification of difficulties in parent-infant interactions. The aim of this study was to explore how accurately HVs, Family Health Nurses (FHNs) and Community Nursery Nurses (CNNs) evaluate early parent-infant interactions. Method: A sample of 56 HVs, 4 FHNs and 14 CNN recruited from two National Health Service (NHS) Trusts, viewed video footage of six parent-infant interactions which had been categorised as ‘sensitive’, ‘mixed’, and ‘problematic’ using the CARE-Index. Participants evaluated the quality of the parent-infant interactions shown in these videos using the Parent-Infant Interaction Rating Questionnaire (PIIRQ). Results: On average, participants correctly rated the problematic videos as lowest in quality, the mixed as higher in quality than the problematic videos, and the sensitive videos as highest in quality. Interestingly, within the problematic category participants rated the ‘unresponsive’ pattern of interaction as significantly lower in quality than the ‘controlling’ interaction. Conclusions: The findings suggest participants were relatively accurate in their evaluations of parent-infant interactions. However, they indicate that participants were more likely to be concerned about unresponsive, as opposed to controlling, interactive behaviours. Recommendations for further research include exploration of potential differences in how health-visiting professionals evaluate particular patterns of parent-infant interactions.
    • Gender differences in psychosocial predictors of attitudes towards reporting child sexual abuse

      Humphries, Rachel L.; Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Mattison, Michelle L. A.; University of Chester, University of Huddersfield, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities (Taylor & Francis, 2016-05-02)
      There is a dearth of research investigating psychosocial correlates of attitudes towards reporting child sexual abuse (CSA) in males and females, and a lack of such studies drawing on participants from the UK. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to examine gender differences in social and psychological predictors of attitudes towards reporting CSA. Participants drawn from the UK general population were recruited via an opportunistic sampling method. Cross-sectional design using self-report questionnaire was utilized. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that social support, masculinity, and age form significant associations with attitudes towards reporting CSA in females (total variance explained by the model was 25%). In the male sample, the only significant predictor of attitudes towards reporting CSA was interpersonal manipulation (total variance explained by the model was 9%). This study provides an important insight into psychosocial barriers/facilitators to reporting CSA. Such knowledge is crucial for the early detection and prevention of abuse.
    • Gender, social background and sexual attitudes among Chinese students

      Higgins, Louise; Sun, Chun Hui; University of Chester ; Beijing Normal University (Taylor & Francis, 2007-01)
      This article discusses current attitudes to sexual behaviour and marriage amongst 1100 university students from different parts of China.
    • High stakes lies: Police and non-police accuracy in detecting deception

      Wright Whelan, Clea; Wagstaff, Graham; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M.; University of Chester ; University of Liverpool ; University of Liverpool (Taylor & Francis, 2014-06-26)
      To date, the majority of investigations in to accuracy in detecting deception have used low stakes lies as stimulus materials, and findings from these studies suggest that people are generally poor at detecting deception. The research presented here utilised real life, high stakes lies as stimulus materials, to investigate the accuracy of police and non-police observers in detecting deception. It was hypothesised that both police and non-police observers would achieve above chance levels of accuracy in detecting deception, that police officers would be more accurate at detecting deception than non-police observers, that confidence in veracity judgements would be positively related to accuracy, and that consensus judgements would predict veracity. 107 observers (70 police officers and 37 non-police participants) watched 36 videos of people lying or telling the truth in an extremely high stakes, real life situation. Police observers achieved mean accuracy in detecting deception of 72%, non-police observers achieved 68% mean accuracy, and confidence in veracity judgements were positively related to accuracy. Consensus judgements correctly predicted veracity in 92% of cases.
    • High-stakes lies: Verbal and nonverbal cues to deception in public appeals for help with missing or murdered relatives

      Wright Whelan, Clea; Wagstaff, Graham; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M.; University of Liverpool (Taylor & Francis, 2013-09-23)
      Low ecological validity is a common limitation in deception studies. The present study investigated the real life, high stake context of public appeals for help with missing or murdered relatives. Behaviours which discriminated between honest and deceptive appeals included some previously identified in research on high stakes lies (deceptive appeals contained more equivocal language, gaze aversion, head shaking, and speech errors), and a number of previously unidentified behaviours (honest appeals contained more references to norms of emotion/behaviour, more expressions of hope of finding the missing relative alive, more expressions of positive emotion towards the relative, more expressions of concern/pain, and an avoidance of brutal language). Case by case analyses yielded 78% correct classifications. Implications are discussed with reference to the importance of using ecologically valid data in deception studies, the context specific nature of some deceptive behaviours, and social interactionist, and individual behavioural profile, accounts of cues to deception.
    • The Integrated Psychosocial Model of Criminal Social Identity (IPM-CSI)

      Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Debowska, Agata; University of Huddersfield, Leeds Beckett University, University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-04-22)
      The integrated psychosocial model of criminal social identity attempts to synthesize, distil, and extend our knowledge and understanding of why people develop criminal social identity, with a particular focus on the psychological and social factors involved. We suggest that the development of criminal social identity results from a complex interplay between four important groups of psychosocial factors: (1) an identity crisis which results in weak bonds with society, peer rejection, and is associated with poor parental attachment and supervision; (2) exposure to a criminal/antisocial environment in the form of associations with criminal friends before, during, and/or after incarceration; (3) a need for identification with a criminal group in order to protect one’s self-esteem; and (4) the moderating role of personality traits in the relationship between criminal/antisocial environment and the development of criminal social identity. The model produces testable hypotheses and points to potential opportunities for intervention and prevention. Directions for future research are discussed.
    • A leftward bias for the arrangement of consumer items that differ in attractiveness

      Rodway, Paul; Schepman, Astrid; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2020-06-24)
      People are frequently biased to use left side information more than right side information to inform their perceptual judgements. This research examined whether the leftward bias also applied to preferences for the arrangement of everyday consumer items. Pairs of consumer items were created where one item was more attractive than the other item. Using a two-alternative forced choice task, Experiment 1 found a robust preference for arrangements with the more attractive consumer item on the left side rather than the right side of a pair. Experiment 2 reversed the judgement decision, with participants asked to choose the arrangement they least preferred, and a bias for arrangements with the more attractive item on the right side emerged. Experiment 3 failed to find an effect of the ‘attractive left’ preference on participants’ purchasing intentions. The preference for attractive left arrangements has implications for the display of consumer products and for the aesthetic arrangement of objects in general. The findings are discussed in relation to hemispheric asymmetries in processing and the role of left to right scanning.
    • A leftward perceptual asymmetry when judging the attractiveness of visual patterns

      Rodway, Paul; Schepman, Astrid; Crossley, Becky; Lee, Jennifer; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-04-15)
      Perceptual judgements concerning the magnitude of a stimulus feature are typically influenced more by the left side of the stimulus than by the right side. This research examined whether the leftward bias also applies to judgements of the attractiveness of abstract visual patterns. Across four experiments participants chose between two versions of a stimulus which either had an attractive left side or an attractive right side. Experiments 1 and 2 presented artworks and experiments 3 and 4 presented wallpaper designs. In each experiment participants showed a significant bias to choose the stimulus with an attractive left side more than the stimulus with an attractive right side. The leftward bias emerged at age 10/11, was not caused by a systematic asymmetry in the perception of colourfulness or complexity, and was stronger when the difference in attractiveness between the left and right sides was larger. The results are relevant to the aesthetics of product and packaging design and show that leftward biases extend to the perceptual judgement of everyday items. Possible causes of the leftward bias for attractiveness judgements are discussed and it is suggested that the size of the bias may not be a measure of the degree of hemispheric specialisation.
    • A longitudinal study exploring the relationships between occupational stressors, non-work stressors, and work performance

      Edwards, Julian A.; Guppy, Andrew; Cockerton, Tracey; University of Portsmouth ; University of Chester ; Middlesex University (Taylor & Francis, 2007-04)
      This article examines the causal relationship between work, non-work stressors, and work performance.
    • Piloting a brief relational operant training program: Analyses of response latencies and intelligence

      McLoughlin, Shane; Tyndall, Ian; Pereira, Antonina; University of Chester; University of Chichester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-08-06)
      Previous research suggests that training relational operant responding using the SMART (Strengthening Mental Abilities with Relational Training) program over several months can result in improved performance on cognitive intelligence tests. This study aimed to investigate whether engaging in a 3-week relational training program would improve (i) scores and (ii) reaction times on a standardised intelligence test, and (iii) to pilot a new multiple exemplar training procedure targeting complex analogical operant responding (SMARTA; SMART for Analogy). We administered the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT-2) to eight adults across four time points. Control: Time 1–4: No intervention. Experimental: Time 1–2: No intervention. Time 2–3: SMART relational operant training. Time 3–4: SMARTA analogical relational operant training. Experimental participants demonstrated greater improvements in terms of both (i) response latencies and (ii) response fluencies on the Verbal Knowledge subscale of the KBIT-2.
    • Police officers’ and Registered Intermediaries’ use of drawing during investigative interviews with vulnerable witnesses

      Dando, Coral J.; Mattison, Michelle L. A.; University of Chester; University of Westminster (Taylor & Francis, 2019-09-19)
      Attempts to enhance episodic retrieval focus largely on verbal strategies which do not always address the limited or impaired free recall ability of vulnerable witnesses. Asking a witness to draw while recalling episodic information has long been deemed an effective method of improving communication and cognitive performance. Thus far, research has revealed these effects within laboratory settings but with scarce attention paid to real-life interview practice. In this paper, we explore police officers’ and Registered Intermediaries’ use of drawing during investigative interviews with vulnerable witnesses. A sample of specialist practitioners (n=85), comprising of vulnerable witness interviewing police officers (n=50) and Registered Intermediaries (n=35) completed a self-report questionnaire. As expected, frequent use of drawing was reported by both practitioner groups, and there was a positive correlation between reported use and perceived effectiveness. There were similarities between groups in reported techniques employed when using drawing, but some differences were apparent and these were attributed to the differing functions in police and Registered Intermediary roles. Overall, a consensus between empirical research and practice is evident, but these findings warrant further exploration in order to establish whether such practice is wide-spread.
    • Resistant to the message: Are pupils unreceptive to teachers’ anti-bullying initiatives and if so why?

      Boulton, Michael J.; Boulton, Richard; University of Chester ; Independent Researcher (Taylor & Francis, 2012)
      This article discusses a study of 227 8–11 -year-old junior school pupils and their response to teachers’ anti-bullying lessons.
    • Respect in final-year student nurse–patient encounters – an interpretative phenomenological analysis

      Clucas, Claudine; Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2014-05-21)
      Very little is known regarding health-care professionals’ understanding and experiences of respect towards patients. The study aimed to explore student nurses’ understanding and experiences of respect in their encounters with patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight final-year student nurses with practice placements across different health-care trusts in the UK. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Three super-ordinate themes were identified: understanding of what it means to show respect, negotiating role expectations and personal attitudes in practice, and barriers related to the performance of the nursing role. The factors identified should be investigated further and addressed as they are likely to influence patients’ experiences of feeling respected in nurse–patient interactions and subsequently their well-being and health-related behaviours.
    • Right-ear precedence and vocal emotion contagion: The role of the left hemisphere

      Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Cornmell, Louise; Smith, Bethany; Lauren de Sa, Sabrina; Borwick, Ciara; Belfon-Thompson, Elisha; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2017-08-02)
      Much evidence suggests that the processing of emotions is lateralized to the right hemisphere of the brain. However, under some circumstances the left hemisphere might play a role, particularly for positive emotions and emotional experiences. We explored whether emotion contagion was right-lateralized, lateralized valence-specifically, or potentially left-lateralized. In two experiments, right-handed female listeners rated to what extent emotionally intoned pseudo-sentences evoked target emotions in them. These sound stimuli had a 7 ms ear lead in the left or right channel, leading to stronger stimulation of the contralateral hemisphere. In both experiments, the results revealed that right ear lead stimuli received subtly but significantly higher evocation scores, suggesting a left hemisphere dominance for emotion contagion. A control experiment using an emotion identification task showed no effect of ear lead. The findings are discussed in relation to prior findings that have linked the processing of emotional prosody to left-hemisphere brain regions that regulate emotions, control orofacial musculature, are involved in affective empathy processing areas, or have an affinity for processing emotions socially. Future work is needed to eliminate alternative interpretations and understand the mechanisms involved. Our novel binaural asynchrony method may be useful in future work in auditory laterality.
    • Right-lateralized unconscious, but not conscious, processing of affective environmental sounds

      Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Pritchard, Hayley; Department of Psychology, University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2015-10-29)
      Much research on the laterality of affective auditory stimuli features emotional speech. However, environmental sounds can also carry affective information, but their lateralized processing for affect has been studied much less. We studied this in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1 we explored whether the detection of affective environmental sounds (from International Affective Digital Sounds) that appeared in auditory scenes was lateralized. While we found that negative targets were detected more rapidly, detection latencies were the same on the left and right. In Experiment 2 we examined whether conscious appraisal of the stimulus was needed for lateralization patterns to emerge, and asked participants to rate the stimuli's pleasantness in a dichotic listening test. This showed that when positive/negative environmental sounds were in the attended to-be-rated channel, ratings were the same regardless of laterality. However, when participants rated neutral stimuli and the unattended channel was positive/negative, the valence of the unattended channel affected the neutral ratings more strongly with left ear (right hemisphere, RH) processing of the affective sound. We link our findings to previous work that suggests that the RH may specialize in the unconscious processing of emotion via subcortical routes.
    • Sexuality in the Therapeutic Relationship: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the Experiences of Gay Therapists

      Porter, James; Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Chadwick, Darren; University of Wolverhampton; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2014-10-17)
      Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) clients have reported experiencing heterosexist/homophobic attitudes from heterosexual therapists, but this has seldom been discussed for gay therapists. Such experiences could impact the therapeutic process and a gay therapist’s willingness to self-disclose their sexuality. Self- disclosure of sexuality can be therapeutically beneficial for LGBTQ or heterosexual clients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven gay male therapists and analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Five themes emerged: affinity for work- ing with LGBTQ clients, heterosexual males’ resistance to the therapeutic process, the impact of homophobia within the therapeu- tic relationship, empathy through shared humanity, and utilizing therapist sexuality as a tool within the therapeutic relationship.