• Attitudes to marriage and sexual behaviors: A survey of gender and culture differences in China and United Kingdom

      Higgins, Louise; Zheng, Mo; Liu, Yali; Sun, Chun Hui; Chester College of Higher Education ; University of California ; Beijing Normal University ; Beijing Normal University (Springer, 2002-02)
      This article discusses a study which examined gender and cultural differences in China and the UK in terms of attitudes to marriage and sexual behaviours.
    • Cancer patients’ respect experiences in relation to perceived communication behaviours from hospital staff: analysis of the 2012-2013 National Cancer Patient Experience Survey

      Clucas, Claudine; University of Chester (Springer, 2015-10-05)
      Purpose: Respect experiences are poorly understood despite respect being central to professionalism in healthcare and patient well-being, and needed for optimal patient care. This study explores which patient-perceived communication behaviours from hospital staff contribute most to cancer patients’ respect experiences and account for variation in their experience by socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: Secondary analysis of data from the 2012-2013 National Cancer Patient Experience Survey of 45191 patients with a primary cancer diagnosis treated in English National Health Service trusts providing adult acute cancer services who provided data on experienced respect and dignity. Results: Both autonomy-supportive and caring/emotionally sensitive behaviours were associated with reported respect, although the latter showed stronger associations and accounted for most differences in reports of respect between patient groups. Differences in respect were found by gender, race/ethnicity, age, the presence of long-standing conditions, treatment response, time since first treated for cancer (p<.001), employment and type of cancer (p<.05). Conclusions: The study questions the tendency to conceptualise respect primarily in terms of autonomy-supportive behaviours and shows the relative contribution of autonomy-supportive and caring/emotionally sensitive behaviours in explaining disparities in respect experiences. More attention should be paid to affective communication behaviours from hospital staff to reduce disparities in respect experiences.
    • Complex Sociality of Wild Chimpanzees Can Emerge from Laterality of Manual Gestures.

      Roberts, Anna I.; Murray, Lindsay; Roberts, Sam G. B. (Springer, 2019-06-24)
      Humans are strongly lateralized for manual gestures at both individual and population levels. In contrast, the laterality bias in primates is less strong, leading some to suggest that lateralization evolved after the Pan and Homo lineages diverged. However, laterality in humans is also context-dependent, suggesting that observed differences in lateralization between primates and humans may be related to external factors such as the complexity of the social environment. Here we address this question in wild chimpanzees and examine the extent to which the laterality of manual gestures is associated with social complexity. Right-handed gestures were more strongly associated with goal-directed communication such as repair through elaboration in response to communication failure than left-handed gestures. Right-handed gestures occurred in evolutionarily urgent contexts such as in interactions with central individuals in the network, including grooming reciprocity and mating, whereas left-handed gestures occurred in less-urgent contexts, such as travel and play. Right-handed gestures occurred in smaller parties and in the absence of social competition relative to left-handed gestures. Right-handed gestures increased the rate of activities indicating high physiological arousal in the recipient, whereas left-handed gestures reduced it. This shows that right- and left-handed gestures differ in cognitive and social complexity, with right-handed gestures facilitating more complex interactions in simpler social settings, whereas left-handed gestures facilitate more rewarding interactions in complex social settings. Differences in laterality between other primates and humans are likely to be driven by differences in the complexity of both the cognitive skills underpinning social interactions and the social environment.
    • Cross sectional relations among trust beliefs, psychological maladjustment and social relations during childhood: Are very high as well as very low trusting children at risk?

      Rotenberg, Ken J.; Boulton, Michael J.; Fox, Claire L.; Keele University ; University College Chester ; Keele University (Springer, 2005)
    • Development and usability testing of a web-based psychosocial intervention for women living with metastatic breast cancer: Finding My Way-Advanced

      Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda; Butow, Phyllis; Turner, Jane; Girgis, Afaf; Schofield, Penelope; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J; Kaambwa, Billingsley; Kemp, Emma; Flinders University; Flinders Medical Centre; Sydney University; University of Queensland; University of New South Wales; Swinburne University of Technology; University of Chester
      Purpose: Women living with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) face significant distress and unmet needs, yet few resources have been developed for this population. The current study aimed to develop and evaluate the usability of Finding My Way-Advanced (FMW-A), a web-based self-guided psychosocial program for women with MBC. Methods: FMW-A was co-designed through (a) adapting an efficacious online program for people with curatively treated cancer, and (b) receiving iterative rounds of input and feedback from a multidisciplinary co-design team including consumers, clinicians and academics. A think-aloud protocol was then implemented to test the usability of the resulting 6-module prototype, with women living with MBC accessing up to three modules with an interviewer sitting along-side. Participants were recruited until saturation of themes occurred. Data were analysed thematically. Results: Participants (n=8) were, on average, 65.3 years old, mostly partnered (n=5), retired (n=6), post-secondary school educated (n=6), with non-dependent children (n=7). Feedback fell into 6 themes. Positive feedback about FMW-A summarised the supportive and informative nature of the programme, supplemented by comments about broadly relatable content. However, one size clearly did not fit all: within themes, diverging experiences emerged regarding navigability, worksheets and layout. Participants noted that having/making time for the intervention would be important to program engagement. Conclusions: Usability testing indicated participants found content helpful and relatable, and identified significant pragmatic improvements to be made prior to further testing. Implications for cancer survivors: The development of FMW-A represents an important step in providing acceptable resources to support women living with MBC.
    • Embraces and grooming in captive spider monkeys

      Schaffner, Colleen; Aureli, Filippo; University of Chester ; Liverpool John Moores University (Springer, 2005-10)
    • Examining the relationship between autism traits and sleep duration as predictors of suicidality

      Hochard, Kevin D.; Pendrous, Rosina; Mari, Tyler; Flynn, Samantha; University of Chester; University of Warwick
      Short sleep duration is a known risk factor for suicidality in the general population, yet it is unclear how short sleep interacts with autism traits in predicting suicidality. In this cross-sectional online study, a general population sample (N = 650) completed measures assessing autism traits, suicidal ideation, and sleep duration. Moderated hierarchical regressions demonstrated that higher autism traits and shorter sleep were independent predictors of increased suicide ideation. However, sleep duration did not significantly moderate the autism trait to suicide ideation relationship. Future work should explore this relationship longitudinally using objective measures before intervention work to increase sleep duration in those with elevated autism traits be consider.
    • Investigating resting brain perfusion abnormalities and disease target-engagement by intranasal oxytocin in women with bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder and healthy controls

      Martins, Daniel; Leslie, Monica; Rodan, Sarah; Zelaya, Fernando; Treasure, Janet; Paloyelis, Yannis; King's College London; University College London (Springer, 2020-06-08)
      Advances in the treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (BN/BED) have been marred by our limited understanding of the underpinning neurobiology. Here we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to map resting perfusion abnormalities in women with BN/BED compared to healthy controls and investigate if intranasal oxytocin (OT), proposed as a potential treatment, can restore perfusion in disorder-related brain circuits. Twenty-four women with BN/BED and 23 healthy women participated in a randomised, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. We used arterial spin labelling MRI to measure rCBF and the effects of an acute dose of intranasal OT (40IU) or placebo over 18-26 minutes post-dosing, as we have previously shown robust OT-induced changes in resting rCBF in men in a similar time-window (15-36 min post-dosing). We tested for effects of treatment, diagnosis and their interaction on extracted rCBF values in anatomical regions-of-interest previously implicated in BN/BED by other neuroimaging modalities, and conducted exploratory whole-brain analyses to investigate previously unidentified brain regions. We demonstrated that women with BN/BED presented increased resting rCBF in the medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, anterior cingulate gyrus, posterior insula and middle/inferior temporal gyri bilaterally. Hyperperfusion in these areas specifically correlated with eating symptoms severity in patients. Our data did not support a normalizing effect of intranasal OT on perfusion abnormalities in these patients, at least for the specific dose (40 IU) and post-dosing interval (18-26 minutes) examined. Our findings enhance our understanding of resting brain abnormalities in BN/BED and identify resting rCBF as a non-invasive potential biomarker for disease-related changes and treatment monitoring. They also highlight the need for a comprehensive investigation of intranasal OT pharmacodynamics in women before we can fully ascertain its therapeutic value in disorders affecting predominantly this gender, such as BN/BED.
    • Longitudinal associations between social skills problems and different types of peer victimization

      Fox, Claire L.; Boulton, Michael J.; Keele University ; University of Chester (Springer, 2006-06)
      This article discusses a study in which 449 children aged 9 to 11 years completed an inventory to assess the bidirectional longitudinal associations between three different types of victimization and submissive/nonassertive social behaviour.
    • Managing relationship decay: Network, gender and contextual effects.

      Roberts, Sam G. B.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; University of Chester; University of Oxford (Springer, 2015-10-21)
      Relationships are central to human life strategies and have crucial fitness consequences. Yet, at the same time, they incur significant maintenance costs that are rarely considered in either social psychological or evolutionary studies. Although many social psychological studies have explored their dynamics, these studies have typically focused on a small number of emotionally intense ties, whereas social networks in fact consist of a large number of ties that serve a variety of different functions. In this study, we examined how entire active personal networks changed over 18 months across a major life transition. Family relationships and friendships differed strikingly in this respect. The decline in friendship quality was mitigated by increased effort invested in the relationship, but with a striking gender difference: relationship decline was prevented most by increased contact frequency (talking together) for females but by doing more activities together in the case of males.
    • Modifying self-blame, self-esteem, and disclosure through a cooperative cross-age teaching intervention for bullying among adolescents

      Boulton, Michael J.; Boulton, Louise; University of Chester (Springer, 2017-05-17)
      Bullying is common among school students, and some victims hold self-blaming attributions, exhibit low self-esteem, and do not seek social support. A wait-list control pre/post-test experimental design, with random allocation, was used to assess the effects of a novel cross-age teaching of social issues intervention (CATS) on the latter three variables among peer-identified victims of bullying (N = 41, mean age = 14.5 years). In small co-operative groups of classmates, participants designed and delivered a lesson to younger students that informed them that bullies not victims are in the wrong, victims have no reason to feel bad about themselves and that seeking help can be beneficial. CATS led to a significant improvement on all three dependent variables with mostly large effect sizes, these positive effects were even stronger with a bigger dose of intervention (six versus four hours), and changes in self-blame, and separately changes in self-esteem, mediated the positive effect of the intervention on help-seeking. The theoretical and practical implications of these results were discussed, especially in terms of supporting a highly vulnerable sub-group of adolescents.
    • Online information and support needs of women with advanced breast cancer: A qualitative analysis

      Kemp, Emma; Koczwara, Bogda; Butow, Phyllis N.; Turner, Jane; Girgis, Afaf; Schofield, Penelope; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Levesque, Janelle V.; Spence, Danielle; Vatandoust, Sina; et al. (Springer, 2018-04-24)
      Purpose: Women with advanced breast cancer (ABC) face significant adjustment challenges, yet few resources provide them with information and support, and attendance barriers can preclude access to face to face psychosocial support. This paper reports on two qualitative studies examining (i) whether information and support-seeking preferences of women with ABC could be addressed in an online intervention, and (ii) how an existing intervention for patients with early stage cancer could be adapted for women with ABC. Methods: Women with ABC participated in telephone interviews about their information and support- seeking preferences (N = 21) and evaluated an online intervention focused on early-stage cancer (N = 15). Interviews were transcribed and underwent thematic analysis using the framework method to identify salient themes. Results: Participants most commonly sought medical, lifestyle-related, and practical information/support; however, when presented with an online intervention, participants most commonly gave positive feedback on content on coping with emotional distress. Difficulty finding information and barriers to using common sources of information/support including health professionals, family and friends, and peers were reported; however, some women also reported not wanting information or support. All participants evaluating the existing intervention gave positive feedback on various components, with results suggesting an online intervention could be an effective means of providing information/support to women with ABC, given improved specificity/relevance to ABC and increased tailoring to individuals circumstances and preferences. Conclusions: Adaptation of an existing online intervention for early stage cancer appears a promising avenue to address the information and support needs of women with ABC.
    • Perceived Parenting Styles Fail to Mediate Between Anxiety and Attachment Styles in Adult Siblings of Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

      O’Neill, Linda P.; Murray, Lindsay; University of Chester (Springer, 2016-07-14)
      Adult siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities often experience higher levels of anxiety than individuals in the general population. The present study tested whether perceived parenting could mediate the relationship between attachment styles and anxiety in the sibling group compared to a control group. Little association was found between perceived parenting and attachment styles or anxiety for the siblings but there were robust and expected findings for the control. Adult attachment-related-anxiety was a significant unique predictor of anxiety in the sibling group but there was no mediational role for perceived parenting. Conversely, the majority of parenting styles significantly mediated the relationship between attachment and anxiety in the control. Implications for the atypical findings in the sibling group are discussed.
    • Predicting children’s liking of school from their peer relationships

      Boulton, Michael J.; Don, Jacqui; Boulton, Louise; University of Chester (Springer, 2011-05-01)
      Thhis article discussed a study which tested if four measures of peer relationships (peer acceptance, presence/absence of best friend, number of friends, and perceived peer support) could predict school liking concurrently and longitudinally across a 6 month period, and if gender moderated any of those associations.
    • Psychological flexibility correlates with patient-reported outcomes independent of clinical or sociodemographic characteristics

      Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Storey, Lesley (Springer, 2015-12-17)
      Purpose: The evidence for the effectiveness of psychological interventions for cancer patients is currently unclear. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), which increases individual’s levels of psychological flexibility, may be more effective than other frameworks of psychological intervention, but good quality research is needed to inform adoption and implementation. This study explored the correlation between psychological flexibility and patient reported outcomes to assess the viability of this intervention for cancer survivors. Methods: Recruitment was co-ordinated through a regional cancer centre. 129 respondents completed a cross-sectional postal questionnaire. They were of mixed gender, diagnosis and cancer stage; a mean 61 years old; and a mean 207 days post-diagnosis. Self-report questionnaires assessed psychological flexibility, mood, anxiety, depression, stress, quality of life and benefit finding. Results: Psychological flexibility was a strong and consistent correlate of outcome; effects were maintained even when potentially confounding clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were controlled. Conclusions: Psychological flexibility can be modified through ACT-based interventions. Given the strong correlational evidence found in this study, it seems that such interventions might be useful for cancer survivors. High quality and well-designed controlled trials are now needed to establish effectiveness.
    • The repertoire and intentionality of gestural communication in wild chimpanzees.

      Roberts, Anna I.; Vick, Sarah-Jane; Roberts, Sam G. B.; University of Chester; Budongo Conservation Field Station; University of Stirling (Springer, 2014-09-03)
      A growing body of evidence suggests that human language may have emerged primarily in the gestural rather than vocal domain, and that studying gestural communication in great apes is crucial to understanding language evolution. Although manual and bodily gestures are considered distinct at a neural level, there has been very limited consideration of potential differences at a behavioural level. In this study, we conducted naturalistic observations of adult wild East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in order to establish a repertoire of gestures, and examine intentionality of gesture production, use and comprehension, comparing across manual and bodily gestures. At the population level, 120 distinct gesture types were identified, consisting of 65 manual gestures and 55 bodily gestures. Both bodily and manual gestures were used intentionally and effectively to attain specific goals, by signallers who were sensitive to recipient attention. However, manual gestures differed from bodily gestures in terms of communicative persistence, indicating a qualitatively different form of behavioural flexibility in achieving goals. Both repertoire size and frequency of manual gesturing were more affiliative than bodily gestures, while bodily gestures were more antagonistic. These results indicate that manual gestures may have played a significant role in the emergence of increased flexibility in great ape communication and social bonding
    • Smartphone use and work related wellbeing

      See, Angela; Lasikiewicz, Nicola (Springer, 2015-06-22)
      While the smartphone allows employees to connect with work “anytime and anywhere”, the demands to carry out work related tasks outside work hours may translate into extra demands on employees and incur negative outcomes such as work related fatigue. Alternatively, smartphone use may help to distract the employee from work issues or recover from the demands of work, though activities such as music and games. With Singapore having the highest smartphone penetration rate per capita (90% of the population) in the world, this study aimed to explore associations between both work related and personal smartphone use in non-work time and work related rumination, fatigue, and job stress in full-time employed Singaporean adults. Sixty-seven male and female working adults (mean age 36.5years, SD=9.35) from a diverse range of occupations completed online measures of work related and personal smartphone use during non-work hours and work related rumination, detachment, fatigue and recovery. The results indicated that smartphone use significantly decreased with increasing age. Further, work related smartphone use was significantly, positively correlated with personal use, problem-solving pondering but also work demand. Personal smartphone use also significantly, positively correlated with problem-solving pondering. Psychological detachment was the best predictor of personal smartphone use. The findings suggest that work related smartphone use in non-work time may facilitate work performance through problem solving, whilst personal use may promote psychological detachment from work. However, the link between work related smartphone use and job demand may signal risk. More research is required in a smartphone dense population such as Singapore to clarify these relationships.
    • Social network analysis of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) group in captivity following the integration of a new adult member

      Diaz, Sergio; Murray, Lindsay Elaine; Roberts, Sam; Rodway, Paul; University of Chester; Liverpool John Moores University
      Management of primates in captivity often presents the challenge of introducing new individuals into a group, and research investigating the stability of the social network in the medium-term after the introduction can help inform management decisions. We investigated the behavior of a group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed at Chester Zoo, UK over 12 months (divided into three periods of four months) following the introduction of a new adult female. We recorded grooming, proximity, other affiliative behaviors and agonistic behaviors and used Social Network Analysis to investigate the stability, reciprocity and structure of the group, to examine the effect of rearing history on grooming network position and the role of sex in agonistic behavior. Both the grooming and agonistic networks correlated across all three periods, while affiliative networks correlated only between periods two and three. Males had significantly higher out-degree centrality in agonistic behaviors than females, indicating that they carried out agonistic behaviors more often than females. There was no significant difference in centrality between hand-reared and mother-reared chimpanzees. Overall, the group structure was stable and cohesive during the first year after the introduction of the new female, suggesting that this change did not destabilize the group. Our findings highlight the utility of Social Network Analysis in the study of primate sociality in captivity, and how it can be used to better understand primate behavior following the integration of new individuals.
    • Towards a Translational Approach to Food Addiction: Implications for Bulimia Nervosa

      Leslie, Monica; Lambert, Ellen; Treasure, Janet; King's College London
      Purpose of review: In recent years, the food addiction hypothesis of loss-of-control eating has gained traction in the field of eating disorders. In particular, the neural process of food addiction plays a dominant role in the recently formulated “addictive appetite” model of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Nonetheless, several components of the food addiction hypothesis, including the presence of withdrawal and tolerance effects, as well as the proposition that some foods possess “addicting” properties, remain highly controversial. In response, the current review synthesises existing evidence for withdrawal and tolerance effects in people with bulimia nervosa. Recent findings: The recent development of a validated tool to measure withdrawal from highly processed foods will aid in measuring withdrawal symptoms and testing hypotheses related to withdrawal in the context of food addiction. We subsequently describe preclinical and human evidence for a central insulin- and dopamine-mediated pathway by which recurrent loss-of-control binge eating is maintained in bulimia nervosa. Summary: Evidence in populations with bulimia nervosa and loss-of-control eating provides preliminary support for the role of food addiction in the maintenance of bulimia nervosa. Future longitudinal research is needed to develop a clearer profile of illness progression and to clarify the extent to which dysregulation in glucose metabolism contributes to food craving and symptom maintenance in bulimia nervosa.