• Activating and Guiding the Engagement of Seniors with online social networking: Experimental findings from the AGES 2.0 project

      Morton, Thomas; Wilson, Neil; Haslam, Catherine; Birney, Megan E.; Kingston, Rosemary; McCloskey, Lauren-Grace; University of Exeter; University of Queensland (SAGE, 2016-08-16)
      Objectives: Guided by theoretical and empirical work attesting to the health benefits of social connections, we tested whether internet connectivity, and training in its use for social purposes, can support the well-being of older adults receiving care. Methods: Participants (N = 76) were randomly assigned to receive 3 months training versus care-as-usual. Cognitive and mental health were assessed before and after the intervention. Results: Results show significant cognitive improvements across time in the training, but not control, group. This effect was mediated through a combination of increased social activity, improved self-competence, and maintained personal identity strength. Indirect effects on mental health outcomes via these processes were also observed. Discussion: These findings suggest that internet access and training can support the self and social connectedness of vulnerable older adults and to contribute positively to well-being.
    • Drawing the answers: Sketching to support free and probed recall by child witnesses and victims with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

      Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Dando, Coral J.; Ormerod, Thomas C.; University of Chester (SAGE, 2016-11-14)
      The success of witness interviews in the criminal justice system depends on the accuracy of information obtained, which is a function of both amount and quality of information. Attempts to enhance witness retrieval such as mental reinstatement of context have been designed with typically developed adults in mind. In this paper, the relative benefits of mental and sketch reinstatement mnemonics are explored with both typically developing children and children with autism. Children watched a crime event video, and their retrieval of event information was examined in free and probed recall phases of a cognitive interview. As expected, typically developing children recalled more correct information of all types than children with autism during free and probed recall phases. Sketching during free recall was more beneficial for both groups in both phases in reducing the amount of incorrect items, but the relative effect of sketching on enhancing retrieval accuracy was greater for children with autism. The results indicate the benefits of choosing retrieval mnemonics that are sensitive to the specific impairments of autistic individuals, and suggest that retrieval accuracy during interviews can be enhanced, in some cases to the same level as that of typically developing individuals.
    • ‘Haematological cancers, they’re a funny bunch’: A qualitative study of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma patient experiences of unmet supportive care needs.

      Swash, Brooke; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Bramwell, Ros; University of Chester; University of Cambridge (SAGE, 2016-07-28)
      Despite high levels of psychological distress, there is a scarcity of research on unmet supportive care needs in haematological cancer patients. This qualitative study used an in-depth interpretative phenomenological approach to investigate the needs reported by six Non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients and explored how these needs consequently shaped the patient experience. Emergent themes included: concerns for family, information needs and the need for psychological support. Participants reported feeling different to other cancer patients. Lack of understanding of their diagnosis by friends and family, and access to relevant support services, are notable unmet needs that differ from previous findings.
    • Measuring deviant sexual interest in Adolescents using the emotional Stroop task.

      Price, Shelley A.; Beech, Anthony R.; Mitchell, Ian J.; Humphreys, Glyn W.; University of Chester, University of Birmingham, University of Birmingham, Oxford University (SAGE, 2014-10)
      Adolescent sexual abusers are a heterogeneous group of offenders that often receive generic assessment and treatment services that are modeled on research findings from adult sex offender samples. The emotional Stroop task has been used to measure deviant sexual interest in adult samples. The purpose of the present study was to test whether the emotional Stroop task could also be used to assess deviant sexual interest in adolescent samples. Three groups of adolescents (a) sexual abusers (n = 24); (b) offending controls (n = 21); and (c) nonoffending controls (n = 21) completed two emotional Stroop tasks related to deviant sexual interest and tests of executive function. Adolescent sexual abusers were significantly slower to color-name some word stimuli than both adolescent offending controls and adolescent nonoffending controls. However, the task was unable to differentiate between the groups on most of the Stroop word categories. Very little research has been conducted with adolescent offender samples and the emotional Stroop task. Reaction time (RT) and Stroop bias outcome data for adolescent samples appear to be more unsystematic and weaker than has been observed in previous adult data. Based on potential difficulties with reading and development, the emotional Stroop task may not be a task suitable for measuring deviant sexual interest in adolescent samples.
    • Mothers and Fathers Attending the International Child Development Programme in Norway

      Clucas, Claudine; Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; Sherr, Lorraine; von Tetzchner, Stephen; University of Chester; University of Oslo; University College London (SAGE, 2014-08-19)
      Fathers are understudied in parent training studies. This study investigates whether mothers and fathers benefit equally from participating in the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) implemented as a community-wide programme in Norway in their parenting behaviour, perceived child difficulties and their psychosocial health. The questionnaire study used a pre-post design comparing 105 mothers and 36 fathers who attended a regular ICDP course. Results showed that the mothers and fathers differed on parenting behaviours prior to the course but showed similar changes, including on emotional and regulative aspects of parenting and autonomy supportive behaviours. However, only the mothers perceived a decrease in their child’s difficulties after the course while the fathers showed a greater increase in behaviours assumed to support the child’s meaning-making and in self-efficacy, and a greater decrease in anxiety after the course. ICDP courses appear to be a useful tool for supporting both mothers and fathers in their parenting role.
    • Predictors of individual differences in emerging adult theory of mind

      Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Kirkham, Julie A.; University of Chester (SAGE, 2020-05-21)
      Little is known about what factors are associated with emerging adult theory of mind (ToM). We predicted that childhood fantasy play (CFP), need for cognition (NfC), and fiction reading would be positive predictors due to their deliberative, perspective-taking nature while engagement with media and technology would be a negative predictor due to increased interpersonal distance. The best-fit mixed logit model (n = 369) showed that CFP, texting frequency, and NfC were significant positive predictors while smartphone usage and preference for task switching were significant negative predictors. Email and phone call usage were contributing non-significant negative predictors. Our study extends previous findings regarding NfC, and highlights the importance of CFP engagement for ToM beyond immediate childhood. Future research should investigate how subtly different media (e.g., texting vs smartphone use) have differential predictive relationships with social cognition. Data and code are available at doi: 10.17605/OSF.IO/CBD9J.
    • Psychometric properties of the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire (BMQ)-AET for Women taking Adjuvant Endocrine Therapies (AET) following early-stage breast cancer

      Brett, Jo; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Fenlon, Deborah F.; Boulton, Mary; Walter, Fiona M.; Donnelly, Peter; Lavery, Bernadette; Morgan, Adrienne; Morris, Carolyn; Horne, Rob; et al. (SAGE, 2017-11-17)
      Objectives: To evaluate the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire to explore adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy after treatment for breast cancer (BMQ-AET). Method: Factor structure of the BMQ-AET was explored alongside internal consistency, convergent validity and acceptability. Results: The BMQ-AET Specific Scale fitted the original 10 item model. Internal consistency of the BMQ-AET was much improved compared to the original BMQ and convergent validity showed predicted direction of correlation, although correlation with BMQ-AET concerns scale was low. Acceptability was good. Conclusions: The evaluation of the BMQ-AET is encouraging, and could facilitate future research around adherence to AET.
    • Psychosocial experiences of chronic illness in individuals with an intellectual disability: A systematic review of the literature

      Flynn, Samantha; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Bramwell, Ros; University of Chester (SAGE, 2015)
      Background: Increased life expectancy has led to an increase in diagnoses of chronic illness in people with an intellectual disability; despite this increase, research about the psychological impact is rare. This review explored the psychosocial experiences of chronic illness in adults with an intellectual disability, revealing potential predictors and moderators of these experiences. Methods: Online databases were systematically searched to identify relevant literature, using predefined inclusion criteria. Of the 25,058 titles initially identified, 4 were included, that is, those collecting data on people with an intellectual disability and diagnosed with cancer (n = 2), chronic pain (n = 1) and diabetes (n = 1). Results: Narrative synthesis of the data identified six themes, namely, delayed diagnosis, information, communication and understanding, negative psychological consequences, negative physical consequences, social perception and social support. Conclusions: There are unmet needs within this population, including a lack of assistance in understanding their illness. A substantial gap in the literature should be addressed through further empirical work.
    • The relation between trust beliefs and loneliness during early childhood, middle childhood, and adulthood

      Rotenberg, Ken J.; Addis, Nick; Betts, Lucy R.; Corrigan, Amanda; Fox, Claire L.; Hobson, Zoe; Rennison, Sarah; Trueman, Mark; Boulton, Michael J.; Keele University ; Keele University ; Nottingham Trent University ; Keele University ; Keele University ; Keele University ; Keele University ; Keele University ; University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-06-28)
      This article discusses four studies which examined the relation between trust and loneliness.
    • The role of psychopathy and exposure to violence in rape myth acceptance

      Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Kola, Susanna; Meller-Prunska, Alexandra; University of Chester ; University of Huddersfield ; Manchester Metropolitan University ; University of Huddersfield ; Polish Prison Service (SAGE, 2014-10-09)
      The main aim of the present study was to specify and test a structural model to examine the relationships between four psychopathy dimensions (Interpersonal Manipulation, Callous Affect, Erratic Lifestyle, and Antisocial Behavior), childhood exposure to violence, and rape myth acceptance while controlling for gender, age, sample type (prisoner vs. non-prisoner), and relationship status. Participants were a sample of non-offending adults (n = 319) recruited from the University of Security in Poznan, and a sample of prisoners (n = 129) incarcerated in Stargard Szczecinski Prison. Results indicated that the model provided a good fit for the data, and that Callous Affect and childhood exposure to violence had a significant positive effect on attitudes toward rape and rape victims. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed.
    • Short-term longitudinal relationships between children's peer victimization/bullying experiences and self-perceptions: Evidence for reciprocity

      Boulton, Michael J.; Smith, Peter K.; Cowie, Helen; University of Chester ; University of London ; University of Surrey (SAGE, 2010-06-11)
      This study tested transactional models to explain the short-term longitudinal links between self-perceptions and involvement in bullying and victimization among 115 9- to 10-year-old children.
    • Stakeholders’ perceptions of the benefit of introducing an Australian Intermediary System for vulnerable witnesses

      Powell, Martine B.; Bowden, Phoebe; Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Deakin University; Lancaster University (SAGE, 2014-08-14)
      Vulnerable witnesses (e.g. children and adults with communication impairment) face many barriers to testifying and achieving justice when participating in the criminal justice system. To date, reforms have been implemented in Australia to address these, yet the barriers remain. Several other countries have implemented an intermediary scheme, whereby an independent third party assists vulnerable witnesses to understand the questions and processes encountered during interviews and trials, and helps witnesses to be understood. This study provides a qualitative analysis of stakeholders’ (N¼25 professionals) perceptions regarding the potential benefits of implementing an intermediary scheme in Australia. While all participants demonstrated an open-minded attitude to new reform in this area, their perspectives did not support the introduction of an intermediary scheme at this time. Stakeholders highlighted the need for improved use and effectiveness of current measures, and expressed concern about adding further complication to the system.
    • Two languages, two minds: Flexible cognitive processing driven by language of operation

      Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel; Montero-Melis, Guillermo; Damjanovic, Ljubica; Schartner, Alina; Kibbe, Alexandra; Riches, Nick; Thierry, Guillaume; Lancaster University ; Stockholm University ; Stockholm University ; University of Chester ; Newcastle University ; Otto von Guericke University ; Newcastle University ; University of Bangor (SAGE, 2015-03-06)
      People make sense of objects and events around them by classifying them into identifiable categories. The extent to which language affects this process has been the focus of a long-standing debate: Do different languages cause their speakers to behave differently?
    • Ultra-brief non-expert-delivered defusion and acceptance exercises for food cravings: A partial replication study

      Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Nicholls, Wendy; Williamson, Sian; Poonia, Jivone; Hochard, Kevin D.; University of Chester (SAGE, 2017-03-10)
      Food cravings are a common barrier to losing weight. This paper presents a randomised comparison of non-expert group-delivered ultra-brief defusion and acceptance interventions against a distraction control. Sixty-three participants were asked to carry a bag of chocolates for a week whilst trying to resist the temptation to eat them. A behavioural rebound measure was administered. Each intervention out-performed control in respect of consumption, but not cravings. These techniques may have a place in the clinical management of food cravings. We provide tentative evidence that the mechanism of action is through decreased reactivity to cravings, not through reduced frequency of cravings.