• Suicide rates amongst individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Troya, M. Isabela; Spittal, Matthew, J; Pendrous, Rosina; Crowley, Grace; Gorton, Hayley, C; Russell, Kirsten; Byrne, Sadhbh; Musgrove, Rebecca; Hannah-Swain, Stephanie; Kapur, Navneet; et al. (Elsevier, 2022-04-28)
      Background Existing evidence suggests that some individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds are at increased risk of suicide compared to their majority ethnic counterparts, whereas others are at decreased risk. We aimed to estimate the absolute and relative risk of suicide in individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds globally. Methods Databases (Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo) were searched for epidemiological studies between 01/01/2000 and 3/07/2020, which provided data on absolute and relative rates of suicide amongst ethnic minority groups. Studies reporting on clinical or specific populations were excluded. Pairs of reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts, and full texts. We used random effects meta-analysis to estimate overall, sex, location, migrant status, and ancestral origin, stratified pooled estimates for absolute and rate ratios. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020197940. Findings A total of 128 studies were included with 6,026,103 suicide deaths in individuals from an ethnic minority background across 31 countries. Using data from 42 moderate-high quality studies, we estimated a pooled suicide rate of 12·1 per 100,000 (95% CIs 8·4–17·6) in people from ethnic minority backgrounds with a broad range of estimates (1·2–139·7 per 100,000). There was weak statistical evidence from 51 moderate-high quality studies that individuals from ethnic minority groups were more likely to die by suicide (RR 1·3 95% CIs 0·9–1·7) with again a broad range amongst studies (RR 0·2–18·5). In our sub-group analysis we only found evidence of elevated risk for indigenous populations (RR: 2·8 95% CIs 1·9–4·0; pooled rate: 23·2 per 100,000 95% CIs 14·7–36·6). There was very substantial heterogeneity (I2 > 98%) between studies for all pooled estimates. Interpretation The homogeneous grouping of individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds is inappropriate. To support suicide prevention in marginalised groups, further exploration of important contextual differences in risk is required. It is possible that some ethnic minority groups (for example those from indigenous backgrounds) have higher rates of suicide than majority populations.
    • Appraisal Self-respect: Scale Validation and Construct Implications

      Clucas, Claudine; Corr, Philip; Wilkinson, Heather; Schepman, Astrid; University of Chester; University of London (Springer, 2022-04-26)
      Despite the widely accepted recognition of the notion of self-respect and its importance for emotional well-being, it has received scant attention in the psychological literature. We report on the development and validation of a scale to measure trait (character-based) appraisal self-respect (ASR), conceptualised as a disposition to perceive or appraise oneself as being a respectworthy honourable person. We tested the factor structure, reliability, convergent, discriminant and criterion validity of the ASR scale in samples of adult individuals (combined N = 1910 across samples). The resulting ASR scale was found to be essentially unidimensional and showed good internal and acceptable test-retest reliability. Trait ASR was correlated with (yet distinct from) theoretically related measures of global self-esteem, moral self and principledness, and was distinct from other self-esteem facets not based on honourable character traits. Importantly, it related to well-being and prosocial behaviour over-and-above self-esteem. The validation work served to consolidate the theoretical boundaries and utility of this important concept.
    • Situational factors shape moral judgments in the trolley dilemma in Eastern, Southern, and Western countries in a culturally diverse sample

      Bago, Bence; Kovacs, Marton; Protzko, John; Nagy, Tamas; Kekecs, Zoltan; Palfi, Bence; Adamkovič, Matúš; Adamus, Sylwia; Albalooshi, Sumaya; Albayrak-Aydemir, Nihan; et al. (Nature Research, 2022-04-14)
      The study of moral judgements often centers on moral dilemmas in which options consistent with deontological perspectives (i.e., emphasizing rules, individual rights, and duties) are in conflict with options consistent with utilitarian judgements (i.e., following the greater good based on consequences). Greene et al. (2009) showed that psychological and situational factors (e.g., the intent of the agent or the presence of physical contact between the agent and the victim) can play an important role in moral dilemma judgements (e.g., trolley problem). Our knowledge is limited concerning both the universality of these effects outside the United States and the impact of culture on the situational and psychological factors of moral judgements. Thus, we empirically tested the universality of the effects of intent and personal force on moral dilemma judgements by replicating the experiments of Greene et al. in 45 countries from all inhabited continents. We found that personal force and its interaction with intention, exert influence on moral judgements in the US and Western cultural clusters, replicating and expanding the original findings. Moreover, the personal force effect was present in all cultural clusters, suggesting it is culturally universal. The evidence for the cultural universality of the interaction effect was inconclusive in the Eastern and Southern cultural clusters (depending on exclusion criteria). We found no strong association between collectivism/individualism and moral dilemma judgements.
    • Who are we protecting? Exploring counsellors' understanding and experience of boundaries

      Blundell, Peter; Oakley, Lisa; Kinmond, Kathryn; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester; Staffordshire University (European Journal of Qualitative Research in Psychotherapy, 2022-04-07)
      The concept of boundary is a term often used within counselling and psychotherapy literature. However, there is a paucity of research exploring how useful and meaningful boundaries are for therapy practice. This study explored how counsellors understand and experience boundaries within their counselling practice. Seven participants, who were all qualified and practising counsellors, were interviewed about their understanding and experience of boundaries. These interviews were transcribed and then analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Analysis identified one significant overarching theme entitled “Protection and Safety” which distinguished between the protection of self and other. This paper focuses solely on the Protection of Self theme because of the theme’s rich and vivid data and the theme’s overarching dominance across the accounts. Two subthemes were identified: Establishing the Self and Defending the Self. Findings indicate that there was a lack of awareness around boundaries, with some participants describing defensive responses to some boundary issues. However, participants also described using boundaries to restrict, limit and defend themselves when working with clients, and they identified this as necessary for their own safety and security. This study recommends that therapists should engage reflexively with boundaries, towards developing a more relational and/or client-focused approach.
    • An International Validation of the Bolton Unistride Scale (BUSS) of Tenacity

      Kannangara, Chathurika; Allen, Rosie; Hochard, Kevin; Carson, Jerome; University of Bolton; University of Chester (Public Library of Science, 2022-03-11)
      Academic success at University is increasingly believed to be a combination of personal characteristics like grit, resilience, strength-use, self-control, mind-set and wellbeing. The authors have developed a short 12-item measure of academic tenacity, the Bolton Uni-Stride Scale (BUSS) which incorporates these elements. Previous work in the UK had established the reliability and validity of the BUSS. The present paper reports the findings of an International validation of BUSS across 30 countries (n = 1043). Participants completed the BUSS alongside other recognised scales. Factor analysis revealed an almost identical two-factor solution to previous work and the reliability and validity of the scale were supported using an international sample. The authors recommend however that the scale be used as a single score combining all 12 items. In the light of this, the authors suggest that the BUSS will be a useful measure to incorporate in studies of academic attainment.
    • A Community-Sourced Glossary of Open Scholarship Terms

      Parsons, Sam; Azevedo, Flavio; Elsherif, Mahmoud M.; Guay, Samuel; Shahim, Owen N.; Govaart, Gisela H.; Norris, Emma; O'Mahony, Aoife; Parker, Adam J.; Todorovic, Ana; et al. (Nature Research, 2022-02-21)
      Open scholarship has transformed research, introducing a host of new terms in the lexicon of researchers. The Framework of Open and Reproducible Research Teaching (FORRT) community presents a crowdsourced glossary of open scholarship terms to facilitate education and effective communication between experts and newcomers.
    • Reforms to improve reproducibility and quality must be coordinated across the research ecosystem: The view from the UKRN Local Network Leads

      Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Pennington, Charlotte R.; da Silva, Goncalo R.; Ballou, Nick; Butler, Jessica; Dienes, Zoltan; Jay, Caroline; Rossit, Stephanie; Samara, Anna; University of Chester; Aston University; Queen’s University Belfast; Queen Mary University of London; University of Aberdeen; University of Sussex; University of Manchester; University of East Anglia; University of Greenwich (BMC, 2022-02-15)
      Many disciplines are facing a “reproducibility crisis”, which has precipitated much discussion about how to improve research integrity, reproducibility, and transparency. A unified effort across all sectors, levels, and stages of the research ecosystem is needed to coordinate goals and reforms that focus on open and transparent research practices. Promoting a more positive incentive culture for all ecosystem members is also paramount. In this commentary, we - the Local Network Leads of the UK Reproducibility Network - outline our response to the UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee’s inquiry on research integrity and reproducibility. We argue that coordinated change is needed to create (1) a positive research culture, (2) a unified stance on improving research quality, (3) common foundations for open and transparent research practice, and (4) the routinisation of this practice. For each of these areas, we outline the roles that individuals, institutions, funders, publishers, and Government can play in shaping the research ecosystem. Working together, these constituent members must also partner with sectoral and coordinating organisations to produce effective and long-lasting reforms that are fit-for-purpose and future-proof. These efforts will strengthen research quality and create research capable of generating far-reaching applications with a sustained impact on society.
    • Measuring and Exploring LGBTQ+ Stigma Reduction from a Contextual Behavioural Science Perspective

      Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Hulbert-Williams, Nick; Mattison, Michelle; Carol, Janine; Norwood, Sabrina (University of Chester, 2022-02)
      This thesis is comprised of five empirical studies which were designed to measure and explore lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning+ (LGBTQ+) stigma reduction, through a Contextual Behavioural Science (CBS) lens. This thesis offered unique contributions to the field via its introduction of a novel stigma measure, its empirical testing of the euphemism treadmill effect, and its introduction of a novel form of perspective-taking. The thesis begins with a literature review chapter, followed by the first phase of experimentation. This involved the creation of a new psychometric scale to measure others’ stigmatising attitudes. Data were collected from a total of 429 participants, measuring attitudes toward two different populations. Exploratory factor analysis and item-reduction was undertaken using data from one sub-set of participants resulting in a unidimensional scale. Parallel forms were created using an odd-even split. The resultant factor was compared against the second sub-set of participants using a confirmatory factor analysis. The one factor, 24-item structure was confirmed and retained. The second phase of experimentation involved exploring a previously employed reduction technique (i.e., language and the euphemism treadmill effect) using both a methodologically robust approach and ecologically valid approach, across two studies. The first study used a technique familiar to CBS, match-to-sample, while the second used a more ecologically valid approach, a vignette. Both contained the same three hypotheses. Results from the first study indicated some significant correlation between pre-intervention and post-intervention scores, but no significant effect within the gay condition specifically. Results also showed that word valence was a significant moderator between pre- and post-intervention scores. Results from the second study indicated no significant change in scores from pre- to post-intervention labels, with pre-intervention scores and post-intervention scores showing a strong positive correlation. Word valence was not a significant moderator between pre- and post- scores. The third phase of experimentation involved exploring both a previously utilised perspective-taking intervention, and the creation of a novel form of perspective-taking, across two studies. For the first study, 280 participants were randomly assigned to one of six different conditions varying in requirements expected and type of perspective-taking. Each ix condition also varied in participant burden, across three levels ranging from least burdensome to most burdensome. The second study utilised 235 participants who were randomly assigned to one of three different perspective-taking conditions. Attitudes toward gay people were measured pre- and post-intervention as well as after a two-week follow-up period and compared both within and between subjects. Results from the first study showed no significant effect of change scores nor of type of intervention, as well as level of participant burden, on two of the three measures utilised. Results for the second study found no significant effect of condition on change scores. However, attitudes were shown to have significantly changed from pre-intervention to post-intervention on all three measures, and this significant change remained between pre-intervention to follow-up on two of the three measures utilised. The general discussion chapter gives an overview of the key findings that emerged from this thesis as well as a discussion of implications, limitations, and future directions as a whole and complete work.
    • Mirror self-recognition in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): A review and evaluation of mark test replications and variants

      Murray, Lindsay E; Anderson, James R; Gallup, Gordon G, Jr; University of Chester; Kyoto University Graduate School of Letters; University at Albany, State University of New York (Springer, 2022-01-07)
      Mirror self-recognition (MSR), widely regarded as an indicator of self-awareness, has not been demonstrated consistently in gorillas. We aimed to examine this issue by setting out a method to evaluate gorilla self-recognition studies that is objective, quantifiable, and easy to replicate. Using Suarez and Gallup’s (1981) study as a reference point, we drew up a list of 15 methodological criteria and assigned scores to all published studies of gorilla MSR for both methodology and outcomes. Key features of studies finding both mark-directed and spontaneous self-directed responses included visually inaccessible marks, controls for tactile and olfactory cues, subjects who were at least five years old, and clearly distinguishing between responses in front of versus away from the mirror. Additional important criteria include videotaping the tests, having more than one subject, subjects with adequate social rearing, reporting post-marking observations with mirror absent, and giving mirror exposure in a social versus individual setting. Our prediction that MSR studies would obtain progressively higher scores as procedures and behavioural coding practices improved over time was supported for methods, but not for outcomes. These findings illustrate that methodological rigour does not guarantee stronger evidence of self-recognition in gorillas; methodological differences alone do not explain the inconsistent evidence for MSR in gorillas. By implication, it might be suggested that, in general, gorillas do not show compelling evidence of MSR. We advocate that future MSR studies incorporate the same criteria to optimize the quality of attempts to clarify the self-recognition abilities of gorillas as well as other species.
    • The views of the few or the voices of many: Methods of exploring leadership roles through alternative approaches within Higher Education.

      Lafferty, Moira E.; University of Chester (Springer, 2021-12-16)
      In the following chapter I begin by discussing the changing landscape in higher education and argue why “leadership” is an important part of every academic’s journey. I discuss why we need to challenge traditional views of leadership and critically how we need to explore individuals’ views and reflections on their own leadership journeys. Furthermore, I will critically reflect on how we need to adopt different research methods to allow leadership journeys to emerge with a focus on the use of Q-methodology and why such approaches allow not only the emergence of understanding but can serve a dual purpose and contribute not only to a global understanding but also an individual’s personal development.
    • Research Evaluating Staff Training Online for Resilience (RESTORE): Protocol for a single-arm feasibility study of an online acceptance and commitment therapy intervention to improve staff wellbeing in palliative care settings

      Finucane, Anne; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Swash, Brooke; Spiller, Juliet A.; Lydon, Brigid; Gillanders, David; University of Edinburgh; Marie Curie Hospice Edinburgh; University of Chester (AMRC Open Research, 2021-11-18)
      Background Palliative care workers commonly experience workplace stress and distress. General stressors include unmanageable workloads and staff shortages. Stressors specific to palliative care include regular exposure to death, loss and grief. The COVID pandemic exacerbated exhaustion and burnout across the healthcare system, including for those providing palliative care. Evidence based psychological support interventions, tailored to the needs and context of palliative care workers, are needed. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an established form of cognitive behavioural therapy which uses behavioural psychology, values, acceptance, and mindfulness techniques to improve mental health and wellbeing. ACT is effective in improving workplace wellbeing in many occupational settings. Our study examines the acceptability and feasibility of an online ACT-based intervention to improve mental health and wellbeing in staff caring for people with an advanced progressive illness. Methods A single-arm feasibility trial. We will seek to recruit 30 participants to take part in an 8- week online ACT-based intervention, consisting of three synchronous facilitated group sessions and five asynchronous self-directed learning modules. We will use convergent mixed methods to evaluate the feasibility of the intervention. Quantitative feasibility outcomes will include participant recruitment and retention rates, alongside completion rates of measures assessing stress, quality of life, wellbeing, and psychological flexibility. Focus groups and interviews will explore participant perspectives on the intervention. We will run a stakeholder workshop to further refine the intervention and identify outcomes for use in a future evaluation. We will describe participant perspectives on intervention acceptability, format, content, and perceived impact alongside rates of intervention recruitment, retention, and outcome measure completion. Conclusion We will show whether a brief, online ACT intervention is acceptable to, and feasible for palliative care workers. Findings will be used to further refine the intervention and provide essential information on outcome assessment prior to a full-scale evaluation.
    • Loneliness and Scholastic Self-Beliefs among Adolescents: A population-based survey.

      Eccles, Alice; Qualter, Pamela; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Holstein, Bjorn; University of Chester; University of Manchester; University of Southern Denmark (Taylor and Francis, 2021-10-18)
      Loneliness has previously been linked to cognitive and attentional bias, and such biases may have a detrimental impact on perceived scholastic self-beliefs. Little is known about the relationship in school-aged adolescents. The current study examined the association between loneliness and scholastic self-beliefs in a nationally representative Danish sample of adolescents (aged 11-, 13- and 15 years, n = 3815, collected by the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC, 2014). Through binary logistic regressions, results demonstrated that higher levels of loneliness, measured by a single item and a composite score, were associated with poorer self-reported achievement perception, higher feelings of school dissatisfaction, and greater feelings of school pressure. Results also suggested gender played a moderating role. The current study highlights the importance of loneliness for scholastic self-beliefs, and provides a novel insight by utilising distinct loneliness measures. The implications, in relation to research and practise, are discussed.
    • A Systematic Review Exploring the Reflective Accounts of Applied Sport Psychology Practitioners

      Wadsworth, Nick; McEwan, Hayley; Lafferty, Moira; Tod, David; Eubank, Martin; University of Bolton; University of the West of Scotland; University of Chester; Liverpool John Moores (Taylor and Francis, 2021-10-12)
      This systematic review explores the reflective accounts of applied sport psychology practitioners. The aim of this review was to synthesize the reflective accounts of applied sport psychology practitioners and highlight common themes that provide focus to their reflective practice. The insight into current progress on reflective content in applied sport psychology provides a foundation to build on as we continue to understand this topic. Following a systematic search of the literature, a total of 73 studies were included within the review, which were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Analysis of the reflective accounts resulted in the creation of nine higher-order themes: Process and Purpose of Reflective Practice; Ethical Practice; Supporting Person and Performer; Practitioner Individuation; Relationships with Clients; Cultural Awareness; Competence-Related Angst; Support of Practitioner Development; and Evaluating Practitioner Effectiveness. The review includes recommendations for future research, such as the use of narrative analysis to provide further insight into applied practitioners’ experiences. We also provide practical implications, which are tailored to match the specific demands of practitioners at different stages of development and include increased engagement in critical reflection for trainee practitioners and engaging with ‘critical friends’ to facilitate the process of meta-reflection for newly qualified practitioners.
    • Specialist palliative and end-of-life care for patients with cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection: a European perspective

      Soosaipillai, G; Wu, A; Dettorre, GM; Diamantis, J; Chester, J; Moss, C; Aguilar-Company, J; Bower, M; Sng, CCT; Salazar, R; et al. (Sage, 2021-09-02)
      Background: Specialist palliative care team (SPCT) involvement has been shown to improve symptom control and end-of-life care for patients with cancer, but little is known as to how these have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we report SPCT involvement during the first wave of the pandemic and compare outcomes for patients with cancer who received and did not receive SPCT input from multiple European cancer centres. Methods: From the OnCovid repository (n=1,318), we analysed cancer patients aged ≥18 diagnosed with COVID-19 between 26th February and 22nd June 2020 who had complete specialist palliative care team (SPCT) data (SPCT+ referred; SPCT- not referred). Results: Of 555 eligible patients, 317 were male (57.1%), with a median age of 70 (IQR 20). At COVID-19 diagnosis, 44.7% were on anti-cancer therapy and 53.3% had >1 co-morbidity. 206 patients received SPCT input for symptom control (80.1%), psychological support (54.4%), and/or advance care planning (51%). SPCT+ patients had more DNACPR orders completed prior to (12.6% vs. 3.7%) and during admission (50% vs 22.1%, P<0.001), with more SPCT+ patients deemed suitable for treatment escalation (50% vs. 22.1%, P<0.001). SPCT involvement was associated with higher discharge rates from hospital for end-of-life care (9.7% vs. 0%, P<0.001). End-of-life anticipatory prescribing was higher in SPCT+ patients, with opioids (96.3% vs. 47.1%) and benzodiazepines (82.9% vs. 41.2%) being used frequently for symptom control. Conclusions: SPCT referral facilitated symptom control, emergency care and discharge planning, as well as high rates of referral for psychological support than previously reported. Our study highlighted the critical need of SPCT for patients with cancer during the pandemic and should inform service planning for this population.
    • Gut thinking and eye tracking: Evidence for a central preference heuristic

      Thoma, Volker; Rodway, Paul; Tamlyn, Guy; University of East London; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2021-09-01)
      People prefer the central item in an array of items. This could be due to applying a decision heuristic or greater visual attention to the central item. We manipulated task instructions as participants chose one from three consumer items. The instructions were to “think carefully” in one block and to “use gut feeling” in another. A centrality preference appeared only in the “gut” condition, which was also negatively correlated with self-reported reflective thinking disposition (Need-for-Cognition). Eye-movement patterns, however, were equivalent across both instruction conditions with more frequent and longer fixations on the middle items. The findings demonstrate an effect of instructions on the centrality preference for non-identical consumer items, and provide evidence for a heuristic cause of the centrality preference rather than the allocation of visual attention. The results also show that the centrality preference is more likely to be present when people choose quickly and intuitively.
    • Valence of agents and recipients moderates the side-effect effect: Two within-subjects, multi-item conceptual replications

      Stewart, Suzanne L. K.; Kennedy, Bradley J.; Haigh, Matthew.; University of Chester; Northumbria University (Taylor & Francis, 2021-08-27)
      The side-effect effect (SEE) demonstrates that the valence of an unintended side effect influences intentionality judgements; people assess harmful (helpful) side effects as (un)intentional. Some evidence suggests that the SEE can be moderated by factors relating to the side effect’s causal agent and to its recipient. However, these findings are often derived from between-subjects studies with a single or few items, limiting generalisability. Our two within-subjects experiments utilised multiple items and successfully conceptually replicated these patterns of findings. Cumulative link mixed models showed the valence of both the agent and the recipient moderated intentionality and accountability ratings. This supports the view that people represent and consider multiple factors of a SEE scenario when judging intentionality. Importantly, it also demonstrates the applicability of multi-vignette, within-subjects approaches for generalising the effect to the wider population, within individuals, and to a multitude of potential scenarios. For open materials, data, and code, see https://www.doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/5MGKN.
    • Enhancing community weight loss groups in a low socioeconomic status area: Application of the COM-B model and Behaviour Change Wheel

      Coupe, Nia; Cotterill, Sarah; Peters, Sarah; University of Chester; Lancaster University; University of Manchester (Wiley Open Access, 2021-08-04)
      Background Obesity rates are higher among people of lower socioeconomic status. While numerous health behaviour interventions targeting obesity exist, they are more successful at engaging higher socioeconomic status populations, leaving those in less affluent circumstances with poorer outcomes. This highlights a need for more tailored interventions. The aim of this study was to enhance an existing weight loss course for adults living in low socioeconomic communities. Methods The Behaviour Change Wheel approach was followed to design an add-on intervention to an existing local authority-run weight loss group, informed by mixed-methods research and stakeholder engagement. Results The COM-B analysis of qualitative data revealed that changes were required to psychological capability, physical and social opportunity and reflective motivation to enable dietary goal-setting behaviours. The resulting SMART-C booklet included 6 weeks of dietary goal setting, with weekly behavioural contract and review. Conclusion This paper details the development of the theory- and evidence-informed SMART-C intervention. This is the first report of the Behaviour Change Wheel being used to design an add-on tool to enhance existing weight loss services. The process benefitted from a further checking stage with stakeholders.
    • Between-task consistency, temporal stability and the role of posture in simple reach and fishing hand preference in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

      Diaz, Sergio; Murray, Lindsay; Roberts, Sam; Rodway, Paul; Universidad Autónoma de Madrid; University of Chester: Liverpool John Moores University (Elsevier, 2021-07-31)
      Studying hand preferences in chimpanzees can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human hemispheric specialization. Research on chimpanzee hand preference requires careful examination of important factors such as posture, between-task consistency and temporal stability, although few studies have investigated all of these factors in combination. We investigated hand preference in simple reach and fishing behaviours in a group of 19 chimpanzees at Chester Zoo in the UK. Simple reach was defined as extending a hand to grasp a small object, then flexing the limb in a continuous motion, and was examined in quadrupedal, sitting and climbing postures. Fish in hole was defined as inserting a stick into a hole in the wall with one hand and then extracting it with the same hand. Between-task consistency of hand preference was assessed by comparing simple reach and fish in hole, while temporal stability was assessed by comparing simple reach from two points in time: 2017 and 2019. The data showed no significant influence of posture on the strength of hand preference, which contrasts with previous research. The findings of this study show temporal stability in simple reach, although only partial between-task consistency. Overall, the results indicate that simple reach elicits laterality at the individual level and is consistent across postures and stable over time, which is consistent with the literature. These results suggest that posture stability may be important in affecting hand preference. Further, whilst there was overall stability in hand preference across time periods, some individuals changed their preferred hand, suggesting there may be individual level temporal instability of hand preference for certain tasks.
    • The Neural Correlates of a Central Coherence Task in Young Women with Anorexia Nervosa

      Leslie, Monica; Halls, Daniel; Leppanen, Jenni; Sedgewick, Felicity; Lang, Katie; Fonville, Leon; Simic, Mima; Mandy, William; Nicholls, Dasha; Williams, Steven; et al. (Wiley, 2021-07-18)
      Objective: Heightened detail-processing and low levels of central coherence are common in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and predict poorer prognosis. However, it is unclear whether these processing styles predate the disorder or, rather, emerge during later stages of AN. The current study aimed to address this question by investigating central coherence, and the neural correlates of central coherence, in a sample of young women with AN with shorter duration of illness than previous studies recruiting adult samples. Methods: We recruited 186 participants, including: 73 young women with AN, 45 young women weight-recovered from AN, and 68 age-matched controls. Participants completed the Embedded Figures Task during an fMRI scan. Results: There were no significant differences between the participant groups in performance accuracy or reaction time. There were no other between-groups differences in neural response to the Embedded Figures Task. Conclusions: These findings contrast with evidence from older adults demonstrating differences in the neural underpinning of central coherence amongst participants with AN versus control participants. The current study adds to an increasing literature base demonstrating the resilience of neuropsychological traits and associated brain systems in the early stages of AN.
    • The Finding My Way UK Clinical Trial: Adaptation report and protocol for a replication randomised controlled efficacy trial of a web-based psychological programme to support cancer survivors

      Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J; Leslie, Monica; Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Koczwara, Bogda; Watson, Eila K; Hall, Peter S; Ashley, Laura; Coulson, Neil S; Jackson, Richard; Millington, Sue; et al. (JMIR, 2021-07-12)
      Background: Cancer survivors frequently report a range of unmet psychological and supportive care needs; these often continue after treatment has finished, and are predictive of psychological distress and poor health-related quality of life. Online interventions demonstrate good efficacy in addressing these concerns and are more accessible than face to face interventions. Finding My Way is an online, psycho-educational and cognitive behaviour therapy intervention for cancer survivors developed in Australia. Previous trials have demonstrated Finding My Way to be acceptable, highly adhered to, and effective in reducing the impact of distress on quality of life, whilst leading to cost-savings through health-resource use reduction. Objectives: Our study will adapt the Australian Finding My Way website for a UK cancer care context, and then undertake a single-blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) of Finding My Way UK against a treatment-as-usual waitlist control. Methods: As much as possible, our trial design replicates the existing Australian RCT of Finding My Way. Following a comprehensive adaptation of the web-resource, we will recruit 294 participants (147 per study arm) from across clinical sites in North West England and North Wales. Participants will: (i) have been diagnosed with cancer of any type in the last six months, (ii) have received anti-cancer treatment with curative intent, (iii) be over 16 years of age, (iv) be proficient in English and (v) have access to the internet and an active email address. Participants will be identified and recruited through the NIHR Clinical Research Network. Measures of distress, quality of life, and health economic outcomes will be collected using a self-report online questionnaire at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment and both three- and six-month follow-up. Quantitative data will be analysed using intention-to-treat Mixed-Model Repeated Measures analysis. Embedded semi-structured qualitative interviews will probe engagement with, and experiences of using, Finding My Way UK and suggestions for future improvements. Results: Website adaptation work was completed in January 2021. A panel of cancer survivors and healthcare professionals provided feedback on the test version of Finding My Way UK. Feedback was positive overall, though minor updates were made to website navigation, inclusivity, terminology and the wording of the Improving Communication and Sexuality and Intimacy content. Recruitment for the clinical trial commenced in April 2021. We aim to report on findings from mid 2023. Conclusions: Replication studies are an important aspect of the scientific process, particularly in psychological and clinical trial literatures, and especially in different geographical settings. Prior to replicating the Finding My Way trial in the UK setting, some content updating was required. If Finding My Way UK now replicates Australian findings, we will have identified a novel and cost-effective method of psychosocial care delivery for UK cancer survivors.