• Aggression and conflict management at fusion in spider monkeys

      Aureli, Filippo; Schaffner, Colleen; Liverpool John Moores University ; University of Chester (The Royal Society, 2007-02-20)
      This article discusses fission–fusion dynamics amongst wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) and how it is mitigated by the use of embraces.
    • Embraces and grooming in captive spider monkeys

      Schaffner, Colleen; Aureli, Filippo; University of Chester ; Liverpool John Moores University (Springer, 2005-10)
    • Embraces for infant handling in spider monkeys: Evidence for a biological market?

      Slater, Kathy; Schaffner, Colleen; Aureli, Filippo; University of Chester : University of Chester : Liverpool John Moores University (Elsevier, 2007-08-22)
      This article discusses infant handling among wild female spider monkeys.
    • Raiding parties of male spider monkeys: Insights into human warfare?

      Aureli, Filippo; Schaffner, Colleen; Verpooten, Jan; Slater, Kathy; Ramos-Fernandez, Gabriel; Liverpool John Moores University ; University of Chester ; Liverpool John Moores University ; University of Chester ; Unidad Oaxaca (Wiley, 2006-05-09)
      This article discusses the first witnessed cases of raiding parties of male spider monkeys.
    • There is no Other Monkey in the Mirror for Spider Monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)

      Murray, Lindsay; Schaffner, Colleen; Aureli, Filippo; Amici, Federica; University of Chester, Adams State University, Universidad Veracruzana, Liverpool John Moores University, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (American Psychological Association, 2020-06-18)
      Mirror self-recognition (MSR), usually considered a marker of self-awareness, occurs in several species and may reflect a capacity that has evolved in small incremental steps. In line with research on human development and building on previous research adopting a gradualist framework, we categorized the initial mirror responses of naïve spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) according to four levels. We compared social, exploratory, contingent and self-exploratory responses to a mirror and faux mirror during three short trials. If spider monkeys respond as most monkey species, we predicted they would perform at level 0, mainly showing social behavior toward their mirror-image. However, because spider monkeys show enhancement of certain cognitive skills comparable to those of great ape species, we predicted that they would perform at level 1a (showing exploratory behavior) or 1b (showing contingent behavior). GLMMs revealed that monkeys looked behind and visually inspected the mirror significantly more in the mirror than the faux mirror condition. Although the monkeys engaged in contingent body movements at the mirror, this trend was not significant. Strikingly, they showed no social behaviors toward their mirror-image. We also measured self-scratching as an indicator of anxiety and found no differences in frequencies of self-scratching between conditions. Therefore, in contrast to most findings on other species, spider monkeys did not treat their image as another monkey during their initial exposure to the mirror. In fact, they reached at least level 1a within minutes of mirror exposure. These responses recommend spider monkeys as good candidates for further explorations into monkey self-recognition.