• Marathon des Sables: A scientific case study

      Ryder, J. J.; Grantham, N. J.; Kellett, David; Jones, G. E.; University of Hull ; University College Chester ; University College Chester ; University College Chester ; University College Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2004-01)
      The Marathon des Sables is an ultra-endurance foot race across the Sahara Desert. The event lasts 6 days, and competitors are susceptible to a variety of specific injuries, including dehydration, heat stress, and ultimately poor performance. This study involved the monitoring of a highly trained 42-year-old male competitor through a 6-month training program and immediately after the event. The monitoring sessions assessed maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 Max), pulmonary function, anthropometric characteristics, body composition, resting metabolic rate, training, and nutritional status. The subject also completed a period of acclimation during the taper phase of the training program in an environmental chamber. The last pre-race VO2max of 4.5 1-min showed a decrease of 0.5 1-min. The subject's diet successfully maintained body weight during the training period, and the subject's weight increased from 67.7kg at 12.2% body fat to 71kg at 13.2% body fat during the taper. The subject sustained no chronic injuries during the training or race periods. We concluded that the intervention strategies adopted were successful in preparing the subject to successfully complete the Marathon des Sables. The athlete covered the 229km in 29hr 21min 21sec, finishing in 75th place.
    • Maximal punching performance in amateur boxing: An examination of biomechanical and physical performance-related characteristics

      Lamb, Kevin; Thomson, Edd; Smith, Grace; Stanley, Edward, R (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2020-01)
      Punches in boxing are intricate actions requiring the coordinated and synergistic recruitment of leg, trunk and arm musculature. Maximal punches can have a marked impact on the outcomes of boxing contests. Currently, there is an absence of research appraising the biomechanics and physical performance-related qualities associated with boxing punches, and as such, there are no practical guidelines pertaining to resistance training and its impact upon these important characteristics. In this respect, coaches and boxers are reliant consequently upon non-scientific approaches to training and contest preparation. Thus, the purpose of this thesis was to quantify the biomechanics and physical performance-related qualities associated with maximal punching techniques common to amateur boxing, and investigate the extent to which resistance training enhances such features. Study 1 quantified the three-dimensional kinetics and kinematics of maximal punches common to boxing competition to identify the differences between punch types (straights, hooks, and uppercuts), whilst Study 2 investigated the movement variability of these measures across punch types. These studies revealed significant differences for the majority of kinetic and kinematic variables between punch types. High within-subject, between-subject, and biological variability were recorded for the same variables across punch types, independent of the amount of boxing experience. These findings confirm that kinetic and kinematic characteristics vary from punch to punch, with boxers appearing to manipulate kinematic variables in order to achieve a consistent intensity and end-product. Study 3 quantified the relationships between physical performance-related traits and kinetic and kinematic qualities of maximal punches, and revealed moderate-to-large associations with muscular strength and power. From this, Study 4 appraised the extent to which strength and contrast resistance training enhanced maximal punch biomechanics and physical performance-related qualities. The findings highlighted that contrast training was superior among male amateur boxers over a six-week intervention, though strength training alone also brought about improvements. This current research has advanced our understanding of maximal punching and the influence of resistance training on a variety of its determinants. Nonetheless, future research is required to identify if the same findings can be generalised to higher standards of boxing and whether alternative strength and conditioning strategies are equally, or more effective.
    • Measurement procedures affect the interpretation of metatarsophalangeal joint function during accelerated sprinting

      Smith, Grace; Lake, Mark; Lees, Adrian; Worsfold, Paul R.; University of Chester ; Liverpool John Moores University ; Liverpool John Moores University ; University of Chester (Routledge, 2012-08-07)
      The metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) is a significant absorber of energy in sprinting. This study examined the influence of MPJ axis choice and filter cut-off frequency on kinetic variables describing MPJ function during accelerated sprinting. Eight trained sprinters performed maximal sprints along a runway. Three dimensional high-speed (1000 Hz) kinematic and kinetic data were collected at the 20 m point. Three axis definitions for the five MPJs were compared. MPJ moments, powers and energies were calculated using different filter cut-off frequencies. The more anatomically appropriate dual axis resulted in less energy absorbed at the MPJ compared to the oblique axis which also absorbed less energy compared to the perpendicular axis. Furthermore, a low cut-off frequency (8 Hz) substantially underestimated MPJ kinematics, kinetics and the energy absorbed at the joint and lowered the estimate of energy production during push-off. It is concluded that a better understanding of MPJ function during sprinting would be obtained by using an oblique or anatomically appropriate representation of the joint together with appropriate kinematic data sampling and filtering so that high frequency movement characteristics are retained.
    • Mental practice, motor performance, and the late CNV

      Smith, Dave; Collins, Dave; University College Chester ; University of Edinburgh (North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity, 2004-09)
      The aim of these two studies was to examine the application of Lang’s (1979, 1985) bioinformational theory to the mental practice (MP) of a strength task, the maximal voluntary contraction of the abductor digiti minimi, and the MP of a computerized barrier knockdown task. Study 1 divided 18 males into three groups: a physical practice (PP) group; a stimulus and response proposition mental practice (SRP) group; and a stimulus proposition mental practice (SP) group. Each participant either physically or mentally practiced 40 contractions twice a week for 3 weeks, and electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded during testing sessions. All three groups significantly increased abduction strength, but there were no significant between-group differences in the mag-nitude of the improvements. In addition, late contingent negative variation (CNV) waves were apparent prior to both real and imagined movements in all conditions. Study 2 allocated 24 participants to PP, SRP, SP, and control groups. Participants performed 120 imaginary or actual barrier knockdown trials, with EEGs recorded as in Study 1. A Group x Test ANOVA for movement time revealed that the PP and SRP groups improved to a significantly greater degree than the SP and control groups. Also, the late CNV was observed prior to real and imagined movement in the SRP group, but not prior to imagined movement in the SP group. These results support bioinformational theory with respect to cognitively oriented motor tasks, but not strength tasks.
    • Metabolic demands and replenishment of muscle glycogen after a rugby league match simulation protocol.

      Bradley, Warren J.; Hannon, Marcus P.; Benford, Victoria; Morehen, James C.; Twist, Craig; Shepherd, Sam; Cocks, Matthew; Impey, Samuel G.; Cooper, Robert G.; Morton, James P.; et al. (2017-02-22)
      Objectives: The metabolic requirements of a rugby league match simulation protocol and the timing of carbohydrate provision on glycogen re-synthesis in damaged muscle were examined. Design: Fifteen (mean ± SD: age 20.9 ± 2.9 y, body-mass 87.3 ± 14.1 kg, height 177.4 ± 6.0 cm) rugby league (RL) players consumed a 6 g•kg•day-1 CHO diet for 7-days, completed a time to exhaustion test (TTE) and a glycogen depletion protocol on day-3, a RL simulated-match protocol (RLMSP) on day-5 and a TTE on day-7. Players were prescribed an immediate or delayed (2-h-post) re-feed post-simulation. Methods: Muscle biopsies and blood samples were obtained post-depletion, before and after simulated match-play, and 48-h after match-play with PlayerLoad and heart-rate collected throughout the simulation. Data were analysed using effects sizes ± 90% CI and magnitude-based inferences. Results: PlayerLoad (8.0 ± 0.7 AU•min-1) and %HRpeak (83 ± 4.9%) during the simulation were similar to values reported for RL match-play. Muscle glycogen very likely increased from immediately after to 48-h post-simulation (272 ± 97 cf. 416 ± 162 mmol•kg-1d.w.; ES ± 90%CI) after immediate re-feed, but changes were unclear (283 ± 68 cf. 361 ± 144 mmol•kg-1d.w.; ES ± 90%CI) after delayed re-feed. CK almost certainly increased by 77.9 ± 25.4% (0.75 ± 0.19) post-simulation for all players. Conclusions: The RLMSP presents a replication of the internal loads associated with professional RL match-play, although difficulties in replicating the collision reduced the metabolic demands and glycogen utilisation. Further, it is possible to replete muscle glycogen in damaged muscle employing an immediate re-feed strategy.
    • Metabolic demands of elite rugby competition after 36 hours of a high (6 g·kg-1) or low (3 g·kg-1) carbohydrate diet: implications for dietary recommendations.

      Bradley, Warren J.; Morehen, James C.; Haigh, Julian; Clarke, Jon; Donovan, Timothy F.; Twist, Craig; Cotton, Caroline; Shepherd, Sam; Cocks, Matthew; Sharma, Asheesh; et al. (Elsevier, 2016-04-22)
      Objectives: Although the physical demands of Rugby League (RL) match-play are well-known, the fuel sources supporting energy-production are poorly understood. We therefore assessed muscle glycogen utilisation and plasma metabolite responses to RL match-play after a relatively high (HCHO) or relatively low CHO (LCHO) diet. Design: Sixteen (mean ± SD age; 18 ± 1 years, body-mass; 88 ± 12 kg, height 180 ± 8 cm) professional players completed a RL match after 36-h consuming a non-isocaloric high carbohydrate (n = 8; 6 g kg day−1) or low carbohydrate (n = 8; 3 g kg day−1) diet. Methods: Muscle biopsies and blood samples were obtained pre- and post-match, alongside external and internal loads quantified using Global Positioning System technology and heart rate, respectively. Data were analysed using effects sizes ±90% CI and magnitude-based inferences. Results: Differences in pre-match muscle glycogen between high and low carbohydrate conditions (449 ± 51 and 444 ± 81 mmol kg−1 d.w.) were unclear. High (243 ± 43 mmol kg−1 d.w.) and low carbohydrate groups (298 ± 130 mmol kg−1 d.w.) were most and very likely reduced post-match, respectively. For both groups, differences in pre-match NEFA and glycerol were unclear, with a most likely increase in NEFA and glycerol post-match. NEFA was likely lower in the high compared with low carbohydrate group post-match (0.95 ± 0.39 mmol l−1 and 1.45 ± 0.51 mmol l−1, respectively), whereas differences between the 2 groups for glycerol were unclear (98.1 ± 33.6 mmol l−1 and 123.1 ± 39.6 mmol l−1) in the high and low carbohydrate groups, respectively. Conclusions: Professional RL players can utilise ∼40% of their muscle glycogen during a competitive match regardless of their carbohydrate consumption in the preceding 36-h.
    • Metatarsophalangeal joint function during sprinting: A comparison of barefoot and sprint spike shod foot conditions

      Smith, Grace; Lake, Mark; Lees, Adrian; University of Chester ; Liverpool John Moores University ; Liverpool John Moores University (2013-09-13)
      The metatarsophalangeal joint is an important contributor to lower limb energetics during sprint running. This study compared the kinematics, kinetics and energetics of the metatarsophalangeal joint during sprinting barefoot and wearing standardised sprint spikes. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether standard sprinting footwear alters the natural motion and function of the metatatarsophalangeal joint exhibited during barefoot sprint running. Eight trained sprinters performed maximal sprints along a runway, four sprints in each condition. Three dimensional high speed (1000 Hz) kinematic and kinetic data were collected at the 20 m point. Joint angle, angular velocity, moment, power and energy were calculated for the metatarsophalangeal joint. Sprint spikes significantly increase sprinting velocity (0.3 m/s average increase), yet limit the range of motion about the metatarsophalangeal joint (17.9 % average reduction) and reduce peak dorsiflexion velocity (25.5 % average reduction), thus exhibiting a controlling affect over the natural behaviour of the foot. However, sprint spikes improve metatarsophalangeal joint kinetics by significantly increasing the peak metatarsophalangeal joint moment (15 % average increase) and total energy generated during the important push-off phase (0.5 J to 1.4 J). The results demonstrate substantial changes in metatarsophalangeal function and potential improvements in performance-related parameters due to footwear.
    • Misperception: No evidence to dismiss RPE as regulator of moderate-intensity exercise

      Eston, Roger; Coquart, J.; Lamb, Kevin L.; Parfitt, Gaynor; University of South Australia; Universite´ de Rouen; University of Chester (American College of Sports Medicine, 2015-12-01)
      Dear Editor-in-Chief, Shaykevich et al. (7) demonstrate the efficacy of auditory feedback anchored at 75% of age-predicted HRmax to regulate intensity (claimed as ‘‘moderate’’) during several 20-min bouts of cycling. Their technical approach is novel, but 76% HRmax is the upper limit of moderate intensity, so given the large error in age-predicted HRmax, it is unlikely that their exercise bandwidth was ‘‘moderate’’ for all participants. This is not our major concern, but it reveals one among other inaccuracies: the most serious include training, interpretation, and inferences relating to the RPE.
    • Mission impossible? Reflecting upon the relationship between physical education, youth sport and lifelong participation

      Green, Ken; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2012-05-08)
      It is widely believed that school physical education (PE) is or, at the very least, can (even should) be a crucial vehicle for enhancing young people’s engagement with physically active recreation (typically but not exclusively in the form of sport) in their leisure and, in the longer run, over the life-course. Despite the prevalence of such beliefs there remains a dearth of evidence demonstrating a ‘PE effect’. Indeed, the precise nature of the relationship between PE, youth sport and lifelong participation is seldom explored other than in implicit, often speculative and discursive, ways that simply take-for-granted the positive effects of the former (PE) on the latter (youth and adult participation in sport and physically active recreation). Using largely European studies to frame the issue, this paper reflects upon the supposedly ‘causal’ relationship between PE, youth sport and lifelong participation and, in doing so, highlights the inherent problems associated with attempts to identify, characterise and establish a ‘PE effect’.
    • More than a game? The role of sports governing bodies in the development of sport education programmes

      Reid, Paul; University College Chester (SAGE, 2003-10-01)
      This article explores the extent to which young people can transfer the skills and knowledge gained from a sport education programme to contexts experienced outside the curriculum. Furthermore, it seeks to identify how and where governing bodies of sport can be influential in the promotion of sport education values outside the school context; that is to say, are governing bodies able to develop initiatives to encourage community clubs to adopt a supporting role in the promotion and delivery of sport education?
    • The movement and physiological demands of international and regional men's touch rugby matches

      Beaven, Robert; Highton, Jamie M.; Thorpe, Cari; Knott, Emma; Twist, Craig; University of Chester; Manchester Metropolitan University; Huddersfield University (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2014-05-14)
      This study compared the internal and external match demands imposed on international and regional standard male touch rugby players. The study adopted a cohort design with independent groups. Twelve international players (mean age 27.8 ± 6.2 y, body mass 72.8 ± 3.7 kg, stature 174.5 ± 5.4 cm) and nine regional players (mean age 25.5 ± 5.5 y, body mass 74.2 ± 7 kg, stature 174.1 ± 7 cm) were analysed during nine competitive matches from the 2013 season. Movement demands were measured using a 5 Hz global positioning system (GPS), alongside heart rate and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) to quantify internal load. Total distance covered by international players was lower than regional players (2265.8 ± 562.3 cf. 2970 ± 558.9 m, p<0.05). However, international players had greater relative distance (137.1 ± 13.6 cf. 126.2 ± 17.2 m·min) due to shorter playing times per match (p<0.05). Absolute high speed running (>14 km·h) was not different between groups (p>0.05), but relative high speed running (39.3 ± 12.0 cf. 26.0 ± 13.6 m·min) was higher for international players. Regional players performed more absolute low speed activity (≤14 km·h) than international players (p<0.05), whereas relative low speed activity was not different between groups (p>0.05). Very high speed running (>20 km·h) distance, bout number and frequency, peak and average speed were all greater in international players (p<0.05). Higher average heart rate, summated heart rate and s-RPE (p<0.05) indicated higher internal loads during matches for regional players. These data indicate that performance in men's touch rugby is characterised by more relative high speed running and better repeated sprint capacities in higher standard players.
    • Movement characteristics, physiological and perceptual responses of elite standard youth football players to different high intensity running drills

      Gibson, Neil; Henning, Greig; Twist, Craig; Heriot-Watt University; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-04-06)
      Purpose: To examine responses to high intensity running drills in youth football players. Methods: Seventeen players completed the YoYo Intermittent Recovery test level one (YYIR1) and a 15 m maximal sprint to quantify target running speeds. Players performed three conditions on separate occasions comprising: 12 x 15 s high intensity runs at 100% of the final YYIRT1 speed, 12 x ~4 s repeated sprints with ~26 s recovery, and combination running using both modalities. Heart rate was monitored continuously with PlayerLoadTM and movement characteristics using microtechnology. Ratings of perceived exertion and blood lactate responses were measured 2 min after the final repetition. The ratio of Flight:contraction time was calculated from a countermovement jump before and at 2 min and 14 hours after each condition. Data analysis used magnitude based inferences and effect sizes statistics. Results: Peak speed (1.1%; ES 0.23 ± 0.44) and mean speed over the initial 4s (6.3%; ES 0.45 ± 0.46) were possibly faster during combination compared to high intensity running with unclear differences when compared to repeated sprinting. This was despite most likely (21.6%; ES 7.65 ± 1.02) differences in prescribed speeds between conditions. There were likely reductions in F:C at 14 hours ratio after high intensity (-5.6%; ES –0.44 ± 0.32) and combination running (-6.8%; ES -0.53 ± 0.47). Changes in the repeated sprinting condition were unclear. Conclusions: Actual movement characteristics of high intensity running drills may not reflect those used to prescribe them whilst reductions in F:C ratio are still evident 14 hours after their completion.
    • Movement demands of elite rugby league players during Australian National Rugby League and European Super League matches

      Twist, Craig; Highton, Jamie M.; Waldron, Mark; Edwards, Emma; Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim J.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of New England, Australia ; University of Chester ; Sydney Swans Australian Football Club, Australia ; Australian Catholic University/University of Queensland (Human Kinetics Publishers, 2014-02-28)
      This study compared the movement demands of players competing in matches from the elite Australian and European rugby league competitions.
    • Moving primary physical education forward: start at the beginning

      Jess, Mike; McEvilly, Nollaig; Carse, Nicola; The University of Edinburgh; University of Chester; The University of Edinburgh (Taylor & Francis, 2016-03-07)
      This paper presents selected findings from a questionnaire completed by 509 primary school teachers in Scotland. Drawing on policy enactment theory, the paper focusses on teachers’ personal experiences of physical education and perceptions of the importance of physical education in their schools. More than half (56%) reported that physical education was either ‘very important’ or ‘important’, while almost 40% perceived it to be of ‘limited’ or ‘very limited importance’. ‘Staff’, ‘time’ and ‘subject status’ were the main themes they drew on to explain their responses. Our findings highlight the diverse nature of the physical education professional cultures in Scottish primary schools. From this, we propose that future initiatives to support change in primary physical education should, as a starting point, acknowledge these diverse professional cultures and move beyond the simplistic one-size-fits-all change projects that have been shown to have limited impact on practice.
    • Multiple-sprint sport exercise and carbohydrate-protein ingestion in humans

      Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin L.; Highton, Jamie M. (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2012-03)
      The aim of the present thesis was to examine the potential for acute carbohydrate-protein (CHO-P) ingestion to enhance performance and recovery from exercise designed to simulate the demands of multiple-sprint sports (MSSs). Chapter 3 of the thesis explored the inter- and intra-day reliability and concurrent validity of non-motorised treadmill ergometry (NMT) for the assessment of short-distance sprint performance [i.e. 10-30 m). There were no significant mean differences between NMT variables recorded on the same day or between days. Ratio limits of agreement indicated that the best agreement was in 20 [1.02 */-=- 1.09) and 30 m [1.02 */* 1.07) sprint times, peak [1.00 */T 1.06) and mean (0.99 */+ 1.07) running speed and step length (0.99 */-=- 1.09) and frequency (1.01 */+ 1.06). The poorest agreement was observed for time to peak running speed (1.10 */* 1.47). Significant differences were observed between NMT and over-ground sprint times across all distances, with times being lower (faster) by approximately 25-30% over-ground. The correlations between NMT and over-ground variables were generally modest (r5 = 0.44 - 0.67), and optimal for time to cover 30 m on Day 2 (rs = 0.8). Chapter 4 sought to examine the efficacy of CHO-P ingestion during 4 h of recovery from the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) when compared to CHO matched for energy (ISOEN) or CHO (ISOCHO) in a typical CHO beverage. There were significant increases over time in muscle soreness, and reductions in extensor and flexor peak torque (by approximately 9%, 9% and 8%, and 13 %, 13% and 11% at 60 deg-s-1) and jump performance (10%, 7% and 5%) with the ingestion of CHO-P, ISOEN and ISOCHO, respectively. Beverage type x time interactions were not significant for any of these variables, indicating that changes in each variable were similar for all groups. Decrements in sprint performance assessed on the NMT were typically small and not different between beverage types (<4%), although sprint times over 20 and 30 m remained elevated for 48 h post-exercise. Accordingly, Chapter 4 provided no clear evidence for a benefit of ingesting CHO-P in the hours after exercise to enhance recovery of muscle function and selected performance variables following MSS activity. Chapters 5 and 6 of the thesis aimed to examine the effect of CHO-P ingestion during simulated MSS exercise. In Chapter 5, it was observed that sprint times, HR and gut fullness increased over the course of the LIST, with no influence of consuming each of the different beverages. In contrast, there was a main effect of time (P < 0.001), and drink (P = 0.042) observed for RPE, which was lower (P < 0.001) during the LIST in the CHO-P condition (16.9 ± 1.4) than in either the ISOCHO (17.8 ± 1.1) or ISOEN (17.7 ± 1.3). However, time to exhaustion was not different (P = 0.29) between CHO-P (468.3 ± 268.5 s), ISOCHO (443.4 ± 286.3 s) and ISOEN (446.2 ± 282.08 s), although these times did equate to a non-significant mean improvement of 4% in the CHO-P trial. Chapter 6 demonstrated that during a modified version of the LIST with two self-regulated blocks of exercise intensity, participants had a higher average speed (8.1 ± 0.3 cf. 7.9 ± 0.5 knvlr1) during the final (self-regulated) 15 min block of the LIST in the CHO-P condition compared to CHO. Whilst the mechanisms for such an improvement are not certain, the attenuated rise in RPE observed in Chapter 5, and increased blood urea concentration observed in Chapter 6, with CHO-P ingestion may suggest altered central fatigue and/or increased protein oxidation enhances performance during MSSs.
    • Muscle function after exercise-induced muscle damage: Considerations for athletic performance in children and adults

      Eston, Roger; Byrne, Christopher; Twist, Craig; University of Wales, Bangor ; DSO National Laboratories, Republic of Singapore ; NEWI/University of Wales, Bangor (Elsevier, 2004)
    • A Narrative Review on Female Physique Athletes: The Physiological and Psychological Implications of Weight Management Practices

      Alwan, Nura; Moss, Samantha L.; Elliott-Sale, Kisrty; Davies, Ian; Kevin, Enright; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester; Nottingham Trent University (Human Kinetics, 2019-06-13)
      Physique competitions are events in which aesthetic appearance and posing ability are valued above physical performance. Female physique athletes are required to possess high lean body mass and extremely low fat mass in competition. As such, extended periods of reduced energy intake and intensive training regimens are utilised with acute weight loss practices at the end of the pre-competition phase. This represents an increased risk for chronic low energy availability and associated symptoms of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport, compromising both psychological and physiological health. Available literature suggests that a large proportion of female physique athletes report menstrual irregularities (e.g., amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea), which are unlikely to normalise immediately post-competition. Furthermore, the tendency to reduce intakes of numerous essential micronutrients is prominent among those using restrictive eating patterns. Following competition reduced resting metabolic rate, and hyperphagia, are also a concern for these female athletes, which can result in frequent weight cycling, distorted body image and disordered eating/eating disorders. Overall, female physique athletes are an understudied population and the need for more robust studies to detect low energy availability and associated health effects is warranted. This narrative review aims to define the natural female physique athlete, explore some of the physiological and psychological implications of weight management practices experienced by female physique athletes and propose future research directions.
    • The nature and practice of primary physical education: A study of the perceptions of subject leaders

      Green, Ken; Jones, Luke (University of Chester, 2015-09)
      Much of the existing research on primary physical education (PE) has focused on the supposed importance and potential of the subject at this age range, rather than on its actual nature and practice. It is repeatedly claimed within the literature that the development of movement skills during early learning experiences is significant as it lays the foundation for continuing participation in health enhancing physical activity. While much of the existing research has focused on the supposed importance of primary PE, further study in this area expresses concerns about the deficiencies in the preparation of primary generalists to teach the subject; over the quality of learning and teaching within the subject; and over a perceived lack of investment (in the long term) in the primary age phase. In the light of the comparatively limited research relating to primary PE, the reported issues which surround the provision of the subject and the current emphasis on its promotion through the PE and Sport Premium, the study aimed to examine change alongside continuity in what has been identified, rhetorically at least, as an important area of PE. Drawing upon data gathered from one-to-one interviews with 36 subject leaders (SLs), this study sought to describe and explain the nature and practice of primary PE and develop a more adequate understanding of what is actually happening in the name of the subject. The analysis of primary PE was undertaken through the use of a case study of one School Sport Partnership (SSP) in the north-west of England, with the theoretical framework for this study being formed by the figurational sociological perspective. The findings revealed that the most common model for the delivery of PE involved responsibility being shared between the generalist class teacher and either a sports coach or specialist PE teacher. The SLs recognised strengths and weaknesses in all of the three main approaches used. However, while they favoured the use of specialist teachers because of their subject knowledge and expertise, the more prosaic constraints of cost and flexibility meant that the use of coaches had become increasingly popular. Whether or not, the growth of coaches is de-professionalizing the delivery of PE, it certainly appears to be exacerbating any existing tendency to turn primary PE into a pale imitation of the sport-biased curricular of secondary schools. Ironically, the apparent ‘threat’ to the status of PE in the primary curriculum (as well as the status of PE specialists) posed by the growth of coaches in curricular PE in primary schools may well be exaggerated by the primary PE and Sport Premium which appears to have added momentum to a change of direction regarding staffing the subject – towards sports coaches and away from generalist classroom teachers and PE specialists. The data also showed that while the pedagogical approaches adopted in primary PE lessons did include some inclusive and developmentally appropriate methods, the overriding focus was on didactic teaching approaches being used to achieve narrow skills based outcomes. The historical dominance of games, the inclusion of primary teachers in lengthening chains of interdependence with sporting groups and individuals, and the conflation of sport with PE were all thought to have influenced the adoption of a teaching model that is unduly influenced by sport. It was also clear from SLs responses, that the prevalence of teaching methods that bind didactic and skill based pedagogy are unlikely to be challenged by the greater inclusion of sports coaches within primary PE. Finally, the contents of primary PE lessons were shown, by the data, to be dominated by sport and traditional team games; and to be organised around the timings of the major inter-school competitions and tournaments. Overall it was argued that the portents of a future with sports coaches as the main deliverers of primary ‘sport’ lessons are there for all to see, and that this apparent change is best understood by locating the subject leaders of PE in the networks of interdependent relationships that they have with others.
    • Neuromuscular function after exercise-induced muscle damage: Theoretical and applied implications

      Byrne, Christopher; Twist, Craig; Eston, Roger; DSO National Laboratories, Republic of Singapore ; NEWI/University of Wales, Bangor ; University of Wales, Bangor (Adis, 2004)
      Exercise-induced muscle damage is a well documented phenomenon particularly resulting from eccentric exercise. When eccentric exercise is unaccustomed or is performed with an increased intensity or duration, the symptoms associated with muscle damage are a common outcome and are particularly associated with participation in athletic activity. Muscle damage results in an immediate and prolonged reduction in muscle function, most notably a reduction in force-generating capacity, which has been quantified in human studies through isometric and dynamic isokinetic testing modalities. Investigations of the torque-angular velocity relationship have failed to reveal a consistent pattern of change, with inconsistent reports of functional change being dependent on the muscle action and/or angular velocity of movement. The consequences of damage on dynamic, multi-joint, sport-specific movements would appear more pertinent with regard to athletic performance, but this aspect of muscle function has been studied less often. Reductions in the ability to generate power output during single-joint movements as well as during cycling and vertical jump movements have been documented. In addition, muscle damage has been observed to increase the physiological demand of endurance exercise and to increase thermal strain during exercise in the heat. The aims of this review are to summarise the functional decrements associated with exercise-induced muscle damage, relate these decrements to theoretical views regarding underlying mechanisms (i.e. sarcomere disruption, impaired excitation-contraction coupling, preferential fibre type damage, and impaired muscle metabolism), and finally to discuss the potential impact of muscle damage on athletic performance.
    • No Effect of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on 100-m and 200-m Swimming Performance in Moderately-Trained Swimmers.

      Esen, Ozcan; Nicholas, Ceri; Morris, Mike; Bailey, Stephen J (2018-11-14)
      Dietary nitrate supplementation has been reported to improve performance in kayaking and rowing exercise which mandate significant recruitment of the upper body musculature. Since the effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on swimming performance is unclear, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on 100-m and 200-m swimming freestyle time-trial (TT) performance. In a double blind, randomized crossover design, ten moderately-trained swimmers underwent two separate 3-day supplementation periods, with a daily dose of either 140 mL nitrate-rich (BRJ; ~800 mg/d nitrate) or nitrate-depleted (PLA) BRJ. Following blood sampling on day 3, the swimmers performed both 200-m and 100-m freestyle swimming TTs, with 30 min recovery between trials. Plasma nitrite concentrations was greater after BRJ relative to PLA consumption (432 ± 203 nmol/L, 111 ± 56 nmol/L, respectively, p = 0.001). Systolic BP was lowered after BRJ compared to PLA supplementation (114 ± 10, 120 ± 10 mmHg, respectively p = 0.001), but time to complete the 200-m (BRJ: 152.6 ± 14.1 s, PLA: 152.5 ± 14.1 s) and 100-m (BRJ: 69.5 ± 7.2 s, PLA: 69.4 ± 7.4 s) freestyle swimming TTs were not different between BRJ and PLA (p > 0.05). While 3 days of BRJ supplementation increased plasma nitrite concentration and lowered blood pressure, it did not improve 100-m and 200-m swimming TT performance. These results do not support an ergogenic effect of nitrate supplementation in moderately-trained swimmers, at least for 100-m and 200-m freestyle swimming performance.