• Including pupils with special educational needs in secondary school physical education: A sociological analysis of teachers' views

      Smith, Andy; Green, Ken; University College Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2004-11)
      This paper explores physical education (PE) teachers' views of the inclusion of pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in PE from a figurational sociological perspective. Starting from the premise that teachers' views cannot be adequately explained by studying the concept of inclusion or the teacher in isolation, it is argued that we can only begin to make sense of such views by locating teachers within the figurations of which they are a part and by exploring two particularly salient features of those figurations: namely, teachers' habituses and contexts. In doing so, the paper focuses upon the training teachers receive, the constraints imposed upon them by their colleagues and pupils, and, most importantly, the suitability of the National Curriculum for meeting the needs of pupils with SEN. The paper concludes by highlighting some of the unintended consequences of the inclusion of pupils with SEN in PE.
    • Inclusion, special educational needs, disability and physical education

      Smith, Andy; Thomas, Nigel; University College Chester ; Staffordshire University (SAGE, 2004-10-05)
      This book chapter explores some of the aspects of the complex inter-relationships and issues surrounding the inclusion of pupils with special educational needs (SEN)and disabilities in physical education. It focuses on the revised National Curriculum for Physical Education (2000) and dicusses sports suitable for pupils with SEN, the role of staff, assessing pupils with SEN and disabilities, and the experiences of pupils with SEN and disabilities in physical education.
    • Individual differences and risk taking in rock climbing

      Llewellyn, David J.; Sanchez, Xavier; University of Cambridge : University of Chester (Elsevier, 2008-07)
      This article discusses the notion that risk taking populations are homogenous, and that risk taking in sport necessarily reflects the expression of trait sensation seeking. 116 active rock climbers took part in a quantitative cross-sectional study.
    • Influence of contextual factors, technical performance and movement demands on the subjective task load associated with professional rugby league match-play

      Mullen, Thomas; Twist, Craig; Daniels, Matthew; Dobbin, Nick; Highton, Jamie; University of Chester
      Purpose: The aim of the study was to identify the association between several contextual match factors, technical performance and external movement demands on the subjective task load of elite rugby league players. Methods: Individual subjective task load, quantified using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), was collected from 29 professional rugby league players from one club competing in the European Super League throughout the 2017 season. The sample consisted of 26 matches, culminating in 441 individual data points. Linear mixed-modelling was adopted to analyze the data for relationships and revealed that various combinations of contextual factors, technical performance and movement demands were associated with subjective task load. Results: Greater number of tackles (effect size correlation ± 90% CI; η2= 0.18 ±0.11), errors (η2= 0.15 ±0.08) decelerations (η2= 0.12 ±0.08), increased sprint distance (η2= 0.13 ±0.08), losing matches (η2= 0.36 ±0.08) and increased perception of effort (η2= 0.27 ±0.08) led to most likely – very likely increases in subjective total task load. The independent variables included in the final model for subjective mental demand (match outcome, time played and number of accelerations) were unclear, excluding a likely small correlation with the number of technical errors (η2= 0.10 ±0.08). Conclusions: These data provide a greater understanding of the subjective task load and their association with several contextual factors, technical performance and external movement demands during rugby league competition. Practitioners could use this detailed quantification of internal loads to inform the prescription of recovery sessions and current training practices.
    • The influence of different work and rest distributions on performance and fatigue during simulated team handball match play

      Moss, Samantha L.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2015-05-05)
      This study investigated the effect of different interchange strategies on performance and pacing strategy during a simulated team-sports protocol. Eight youth male team handball players completed two conditions (LONG; work: 3 x 13:00 min, rest: 8:00 min, SHORT; work: 5 x 7:48 min, rest: 3:45 min). Participants were tested for 20 m sprint, counter-movement jump, throwing performance and heart rate during conditions. Postcondition measures included repeated shuttle-sprint and jump ability, session rating of perceived exertion, blood lactate and glucose. Faster sprint (3.87 ± 0.27 s cf. 3.97 ± 0.24 s, ES = 0.39, P= 0.03) and throwing performance (70.02 ± 7.40 km*h-1 cf. 69.04 ± 5.57 km*h-1, P> 0.05, ES = -0.15) occurred in SHORT compared to LONG by a 'likely small' difference. Higher summated heart rate (157 ± 21 cf. 150 ± 15 AU) occurred in SHORT compared to LONG by a 'likely small' difference (ES = 0.37, P> 0.05). SHORT resulted in lower session rating of perceived exertion (224 ± 45 AU cf. 282 ± 35 AU, ES = 1.45, P= 0.001) and higher blood glucose (6.06 ± 0.69 mmol*l-1 cf. 4.98 ± 1.10 mmol*l-1, ES = -1.17, P= 0.03) by a 'most likely moderate' difference compared to LONG. Repeated shuttle-sprint was better preserved after SHORT, with 'moderately lower' 10 m and 25 m times (P< 0.05). Interchange strategies using SHORT rather than LONG work and rest periods result in lower physiological load, leading to improved fatigue resistance and better preservation of high-intensity movements during matches.
    • The influence of music genre on explosive power, repetitions to failure and mood responses during resistance exercise

      Moss, Samantha L.; Enright, Kevin; Cushman, Simon; University of Chester; Liverpool John Moores University (Elsevier, 2018-05-04)
      Objectives: To investigate the influence of different music genres on the psychological, psychophysical and psychophysiological responses during power-based and strength-based resistance exercises. Design: Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. Method: Sixteen resistance-trained participants completed an explosive power test in the squat and bench exercises at 30% 1RM across no music, electronic dance music, metal and self-selected conditions. Peak and mean values were recorded for power and velocity. A progressive loading protocol assessed the impact of condition on repetitions to failure at 60, 70 and 80% 1RM in the squat and bench exercises. For all tests, recording of heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were completed after every set, blood lactate after protocol completion, and mood states before and after. Results: Using magnitude-based inferences, music either had no effect or a small detrimental effect on power and velocity, depending on the exercise. Repetitions to failure increased by a small to moderate amount for all music conditions compared to no music at low but not high intensities. Self-selected music provided additional small benefits in repetitions than other music conditions. Rating of perceived exertion was similar between self-selected, metal and no music conditions, whereas electronic dance music revealed higher responses. Vigour increased after all music conditions but remained unchanged in no music. Conclusions: Explosive power exercises either remain unchanged or are disadvantaged when completed to music. Various music genres could improve repetition to failure training at low to moderate intensities, although individuals might expect greatest improvements using self-selected music, without concomitant increases in perceived effort.
    • Influence of Playing Standard on Upper- and Lower-Body Strength, Power, and Velocity Characteristics of Elite Rugby League Players

      Fernandes, John; Daniels, Matthew; Myler, Liam; Twist, Craig (MDPI, 2019-04-17)
      Background: To compare load–velocity and load–power relationships among first grade (n = 26, age 22.9 ± 4.3 years), academy (n = 23, age 17.1 ± 1.0 years), and scholarship (n = 16, age 15.4 ± 0.5 years) Super League rugby league players. Methods: Participants completed assessments of maximal upper- and lower-body strength (1RM) and peak velocity and power at 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg during bench press and squat exercises, in a randomised order. Results: Bench press and squat 1RM were highest for first grade players compared with other standards (effect size (ES) = −0.43 to −3.18). Peak velocities during bench and squat were greater in the higher playing standards (ES = −0.39 to −3.72 range), except for the squat at 20 and 40 kg. Peak power was higher in the better playing standards for all loads and exercises. For all three groups, velocity was correlated to optimal bench press power (r = 0.514 to 0.766), but only 1RM was related to optimal power (r = 0.635) in the scholarship players. Only squat 1RM in the academy was related to optimal squat power (r = 0.505). Conclusions: Peak velocity and power are key physical qualities to be developed that enable progression from junior elite rugby league to first grade level. Resistance training should emphasise both maximal strength and velocity components, in order to optimise upper- and lower-body power in professional rugby league players.
    • The influence of preseason training phase and training load on body composition and its relationship with physical qualities in professional junior rugby league players

      Dobbin, Nick; Gardner, Adrian; Daniels, Matthew; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-05-08)
      This study investigated changes in body composition in relation to training load determined using RPE and duration (sRPE), and its relationship with physical qualities over a preseason period. Sixteen professional academy players (age = 17.2 ± 0.7 years; stature = 179.9 ± 4.9 cm; body mass = 88.5 ± 10.1 kg) participated in the study. Body composition was assessed before and after each training phase and physical qualities assessed at the start and end of preseason. Across the whole preseason period, skinfold thickness, body fat percentage and fat mass were most likely lower (ES = -0.73 to -1.00), and fat free mass and lean mass were likely to most likely higher (ES = 0.31 to 0.40). Results indicated that the magnitude of change appeared phase-dependent (ES = -0.05 to -0.85) and demonstrated large individual variability. Changes in physical qualities ranged from unclear to most likely (ES = -0.50 to 0.64). Small to moderate correlations were observed between changes in body composition, and TL with changes in physical qualities. This study suggests training phase and TL can influence a player’s body composition; that large inter-participant variability exists; and that body composition and TL are related to the change in physical qualities.
    • The influence of sprint spike bending stiffness on sprinting performance and metatarsophalangeal joint function

      Smith, Grace; Lake, Mark; Sterzing, Thorsten; Milani, Thomas; University of Chester; Liverpool John Moores University; Chemnitz University of Technology. (Taylor and Francis, 2016-06-07)
      There is evidence that increasing the longitudinal bending stiffness of sprinting footwear can lead to improved sprinting performance although this has not yet been established. This study examined the effect of four known shoe stiffness conditions on both sprinting performance and metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) motion. Twelve trained sprinters performed 40 m maximal sprints along an indoor running track, two sprints in each stiffness condition, and high speed video (600 Hz) recorded two dimensional MTPJ motion during ground contact. To explore individual responses to the footwear manipulations, three dimensional (1000 Hz) kinematic and kinetic data was collected during maximal sprinting for two sprinters. At the group-level, increasing shoe bending stiffness elicited no significant differences in sprinting performance or MTPJ motion, with any changes between conditions being subject-specific. In-depth individual analyses revealed that increased shoe stiffness could restrict motion about the MTPJ and there appeared to be a preferred stiffness for best performance. This notion of individual optimal sprint shoe stiffness and what factors might contribute to the optimum requires further investigation.
    • The influence of warm-up duration on simulated rugby league interchange match performance

      Williams, Robert; Gillham, Scott; Highton, Jamie; Twist, Craig; University of Chester
      Objective: The study was conducted to understand the effects of a short (10-minute) and a long (30-minute) duration warm-up on subsequent readiness to exercise and movement during simulated rugby league match play. Methods: Using a randomised cross-over design, 13 male rugby players (age: 23.6 ± 4.1 y) completed a 10- or 30-minute warm-up immediately before 2 x 23 min rugby league movement simulation protocol. Comparisons of the responses to the warm-up and during the simulation were made between each trial. Results: Total distance, high- and low speed running and tympanic temperature (ES = 0.56 to 20.8) were all higher in the 30 min warm-up, with differences in relative distance and heart rate unclear (ES = -0.36 to 0.06). Differences in participants’ readiness to exercise after the warm-ups were unclear (ES = 0.25). Differences between trials for movement characteristics (ES = -0.13 to -0.32), RPE (ES = -0.13 to 0.04) and B[La] after the simulation were mostly unclear, with only trivial changes in high-speed running (ES = 0.08) and a lower heart rate (ES = -0.26) between the two playing bouts after the 30 min warm-up trial. Conclusion: Practitioners can use warm-ups between 10 or 30 minutes for rugby league interchange players without any implications for subsequent match running performance.
    • The influences of rugby spin pass technique on movement time, ball velocity and passing accuracy

      Worsfold, Paul R.; Page, Matthew; University of Chester (University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, 2014-04)
      The success of a rugby spin pass is determined by the speed of the passing movement and the resultant velocity, distance and accuracy of the ball flight. The present study investigated 900 dominant and 900 non-dominant hand spin passes at three randomised target distances (4, 8 and 12 m), whilst players ran between 60 and 80% of their maximum speed. Two distinct types of spin pass technique were compared. One involved the player lowering their body height (‘body drop’) then raising it again prior to ball release, and the other, players maintained a more upright body position and incorporated greater arm movement. The current study assessed performance measures (velocity, spin, timing, accuracy) of the two previously identified passing techniques made from the players’ dominant and non-dominant hands. The percentage of passes which included a ‘body drop’ phase rose linearly with pass distance. The ‘body drop’ technique resulted in higher ball velocities and improved accuracy from both the dominant and non-dominant passing hands. In comparison, the more upright passing technique resulted in a faster passing movement, but was compromised by lower ball velocity and accuracy. The findings provide an understanding of how different spin pass techniques affect the mechanics of ball flight and performance.
    • The interaction between the physical and mental loads associated with actual and simulated rugby league performance

      Highton, Jamie; Twist, Craig; Mullen, Thomas (University of Chester, 2019-09)
      The aim of the current thesis was to develop knowledge of the ‘loads’ associated with rugby league match-play, with a particular focus on the effects of altered mental loads before and during exercise indicative of a rugby league match. Chapter 3 examined the test-retest reliability of movement, physiological and perceptual measures during and after a novel rugby match simulation, where movement commands were more random than those typical of match simulations. The most reliable measure of external load during bouts of the simulation was relative distance (typical error [TE] and coefficient of variation [CV%] = 1.5-1.6 m.min-1 and 1.4-1.5%, respectively), with all other movement characteristics possessing a CV% <5%. The most reliable measure of internal load, neuromuscular function and perceptual measures were for %HRmax during bout 1 (TE and CV% = 1.4-1.7% and 1-4-2.1%, respectively), MVC before (TE and CV% = 10.8-14.8 N·m and 3.8-4.6%, respectively), and average RPE (TE and CV% = 0.5-0.8 AU and 3.6-5.5%, respectively). The conclusion of this chapter was that randomisation of the movements during simulated activity to better reflect intermittent team sports has no detrimental effect on its reliability. Studies can therefore confidently examine alterations in several perceptual, neuromuscular, physiological and movement load measures related to rugby activity using stochastic movements. Chapter 4 examined the responses to a simulated rugby league protocol that was designed to include more random commands, and therefore require greater vigilance, than traditional team sport simulation protocols. The randomised simulation (RDM) was matched for the number and types of activity performed every 5.45 min in a control trial (CON), but included no repeated cycles of activity. The RDM trial was more mentally demanding than CON (Effect size (ES) = 0.56; ±0.57). Self-paced mean sprint performance increased in RDM (22.5 ± 1.4 vs. 21.6 ± 1.6 km∙h-1; ES = 0.50; ±0.45), which was accompanied by a higher RPE (14.3 ± 1.0 vs. 13.0 ± 1.4; ES = 0.87; ±0.54) and a greater number of errors in the Stroop Test (10.3 ± 2.5 vs. 9.3 ± 1.4 errors; ES = 0.65; ±0.67). MVC peak torque (CON = -48.4 ± 31.6 N.m, RDM = -39.6 ± 36.6 N.m) and voluntary activation (CON = -8.3 ± 4.8%, RDM = -6.0 ± 4.1%) was similarly reduced in both trials. Providing more random commands, requiring greater vigilance, can therefore alter performance and associated physiological, perceptual and cognitive responses to team sport simulations. Chapter 5 describes the subjective task load of elite rugby league match play using the NASA-TLX and examines their association with several contextual match factors, technical ii performance and external movement demands. Linear mixed modelling revealed that various combinations of contextual factors, technical performance and movement demands were associated with subjective task load (NASA-TLX). Greater number of tackles (η2 = 0.18), errors (η2 = 0.15) decelerations (η2 = 0.12), increased sprint distance (η2 = 0.13), losing matches (η2 = 0.36) and increased perception of effort (η2 = 0.27) lead to most likely – very likely increases in subjective total workload. These data provide a greater understanding of the internal load and their association with several contextual factors, technical performance and external movement demands during rugby league competition. The purpose of the final empirical chapter (Chapter 6) was to describe the effects of mental fatigue on simulated rugby league performance and to determine the effects of caffeine supplementation on simulated rugby league performance in the presence of mental fatigue. Completing a mentally demanding task increases participants’ subjective rating of mental fatigue (pre = 29 ± 25 AU; post = 55 ± 20 AU) immediately before completing a simulation protocol. Impairments in sprint speed (ES = -0.18; ±0.19), sprint to contact speed (ES = -0.20; ±0.27), high-intensity running (ES = -0.30; ±0.24), high metabolic power > 20 W·kg-1 (ES =-0.50; ±0.51) and time to complete a passing accuracy task (ES = 0.54; ±0.63) were observed after mental fatigue. Caffeine supplementation (5 mg.kg-1) attenuated several adverse effects of mental fatigue before exercise replicating the demands of rugby league match play, with increased sprint speed (ES = 0.40; ±0.18), high-intensity running (ES = 0.50; ±0.53), high metabolic power > 20 W·kg-1 (ES = 0.33; ±0.38) and decreased time to complete a passing accuracy test (ES =-0.70; ±0.45). Mental fatigue affected internal loads, external loads and skill performance during simulated rugby league match play that appear to be centrally regulated by a decreased motivation and increased perception of effort. However, a single dose of caffeine taken 60 min before performance can attenuate several of these negative effects. In summary, the current thesis highlights several interactions between the physical and mental loads associated with actual and simulated rugby league performance.
    • The internal and external responses to a forward-specific rugby league simulation protocol performed with and without physical contact

      Mullen, Thomas; Twist, Craig; Highton, Jamie M.; Dept Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Chester (Human Kinetics Publishers, 2015-09-30)
      It is important to understand to what extent physical contact changes the internal and external load during rugby simulations that aim to replicate the demands of match play. Accordingly, this study examined the role of physical contact on the physiological and perceptual demands during and immediately after a simulated rugby league match. Nineteen male rugby players completed a ‘contact’ (CON) and a ‘non-contact’ (NCON) version of the rugby league match simulation protocol (RLMSP-i) in a randomized crossover design with one week between trials. Relative distance covered (ES = 1.27; ±0.29), low intensity activity (ES = 1.13; ±0.31), high-intensity running (ES = 0.49; ±0.34), heart rate (ES = 0.52; ±0.35), blood lactate concentration (ES = 0.78; ±0.34), RPE (ES = 0.72; ±0.38) and session RPE (ES = 1.45; ±0.51) were all higher in the CON compared to the NCON trial. However, peak speeds were lower in the CON trial (ES = -0.99; ±0.40) despite unclearreductions in knee extensor (ES = 0.19; ±0.40) and knee flexor (ES = 0.07; ±0.43) torque. Muscle soreness was also greater after CON compared to the NCON trial (ES = 0.97; ±0.55). The addition of physical contact to the movement demands of a simulated rugby league match increases many of the external and internal demands, but also results in players slowing their peak running speed during sprints. These findings highlight the importance of including contacts in simulation protocols and training practices designed to replicate the demands of real match play.
    • Internal loads, but not external loads and fatigue, are similar in young and middle-aged resistance trained males during high volume squatting exercise.

      Fernandes, John; Lamb, Kevin L.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (MDPI Basel, 2018-08-22)
      Little is known about the internal and external loads experienced during resistance exercise, or the subsequent fatigue-related response, across different age groups. This study compared the internal (heart rate, OMNI ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), session RPE) and external loads (peak velocity and power and volume load) during high volume squatting exercise (10 10 at 60% one-repetition maximum (1RM)) and the fatigue-related response (maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), resting doublet force, peak power, and blood lactate) in young (n = 9; age 22.3 1.7 years) and middle-aged (n = 9; age 39.9 6.2 years) resistance-trained males. All internal load variables and peak velocity illustrated unclear differences between groups during exercise. Peak power and volume load were likely higher in the young group compared to their middle-aged counterparts. The unclear differences in MVC, VA and blood lactate between groups after exercise were accompanied by very likely greater decrements in resting doublet force and peak power at 20 and 80% 1RM in the middle-aged group compared to the young group. These data indicate that internal load is not different between young and middle-aged resistance-trained males, though certain external load measures and the fatigue response are.
    • The intra- and inter-day reliability of the FitroDyne as a measure of multi-jointed muscle function

      Fernandes, John; Lamb, Kevin L.; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (IOS Press, 2016-02-27)
      The FitroDyne has been used to assess muscle function but its reliability has not been determined during traditional multi-jointed resistance exercises. Objective: To assess the intra- and inter-day reliability of the FitroDyne during traditional resistance exercises. Methods: 14 resistance trained males completed a one repetition maximum (1RM) and three repetitions of bench press, squat and bent-over-row in 10% increments (from 20 to 80%). Replica trials were completed two and 48 hours later. The FitroDyne rotary encoder measured barbell velocity during each repetition from which power output was calculated. Results: For all loads and exercises the intra-day typical error (TE) for peak and mean power, and velocity, respectively, during bench press (8.2-53 W and 2.2-6.9 cms-1), squat (13.3-55.6 W and 2.4-7.4 cms-1), and bent-over-row (14.5-62.8 W and 4-10.5 cms-1) identified only moderate changes. Bench press yielded poor intra-day reliability at 80% 1RM only (CV% = 12.2-17.1), whereas squat and bent-over-row across all loads for peak and mean power and velocity displayed better reliability CV% = 2.4-9.0). Inter-day, the TE detected moderate changes for peak and mean power and velocity for all three exercises. Inter-day reliability was comparable to intra-day, though improved for bench press 80%1RM (CV% = 6.1-8.6). Conclusion: These data support the use of the FitroDyne at submaximal loads for monitoring moderate changes in muscle function both intra- and inter-day.
    • An introduction to drugs in sport: Addicted to winning?

      Waddington, Ivan; Smith, Andy; University of Chester (Routledge, 2008-12-02)
      This book discusses the use of performance enhancing drugs in elite sport. It covers a history of the use of performance enhancing drugs in sport, theories of drug use, the development of performance enhancing drugs, the World Anti-Doping Agency, and case studies on the use of performance enhancing drugs in British sports, cycling, and football.
    • Introduction: History, sociology and the sociology of sport: The work of Norbert Elias

      Dunning, Eric; Malcolm, Dominic; Waddington, Ivan; University of Leicester ; University of Leicester ; University College Chester (Routledge, 2004-04-01)
      This book chapter discusses the 'figurational' or 'process-sociological' approach developed by Norbert Elias.
    • An investigation of the test-retest reliability of an ultrasound densitometer

      Lamb, Kevin L.; Owen, David G. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 18/10/1998)
      Army recruits undertake a rapidly increasing amount of exercise in their initial basic training period. Injuries due physical training forces many recruits out of the Army and costs the Ministry of Defence millions of pounds. Stress fractures are one of the most commonly diagnosed injuries amongst Army recruits. Low bone mineral density has been identified as a risk factor for stress fractures. A technique which can measure bone mineral density is Ultrasound Densitometry (US). This study will address a gap in the research by assessing the inter-observer and intra-observer reliability of the two US measurements, broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and the velocity of sound (VOS). Ninety eight white male recruits, median aged 18 (I.Q. range 1yr) were measured at the calcanea of the non-dominant foot. A repeated measures design was used, BUA and VOS were measured in 55 subjects by both researcher 'A1 and 'B' for inter-observer (inter-BUA & inter-VOS), and 43 subjects were measured for BUA and VOS twice by researcher 'A' for the intra-observer analysis (intra-BUA & intra-VOS). The results from this study found that a coefficient of variation (CV) analysis was not appropriate for assessing measurement error, this was due to the homoscedasity of the data. An alternative method the '95% limits of agreement' found that only VOS was reliable. The '95% limits of agreement1 results (bias ±1.96 x s) were 0.74 ±22.77 m/s for intra-VOS and 4.85 ±23.44 m/s for inter-VOS, the variance in scores were judged to be acceptable, f-test confirmed this with a non-significant difference between measurements (t=0.83, p=0.477; t=0.42, p=0.677, respectively). The '95% limits of agreement1 results for BUA were -0.22±11.56 dB/MHz (inter-BUA) and -1.39 ±11.11 dB/MHz (intra-BUA). These results represent an unacceptable variability in the range of scores obtained. This is highlighted when expressed as a proportion of the mean measurement: inter-BUA ±11.41% and intra-BUA ± 11.91%. However, the West's for inter- and intra-BUA indicate no significant difference (t = -0.07, p = 0.091; t = 1.60, p = 0.116). This insignificance may be the result of the inappropriateness of a statistical method that reliance on a comparison of means. The CV results for BUA indicate that both inter- and intra-BUA are reliable (4.08% & 4.38%, respectively), even though as already stated that the BUA measurements are not deemed reliable when analysed by the '95% limits of agreement'. The results of this study suggest that VOS measurements are reliable and that BUA measurements are non-reliable. As both BUA and VOS would have been used to assess those at risk of suffering stress fractures it was essential that both were found to be reliable. Thus US's appropriateness in individual diagnosis is questioned. This study has also highlighted how the use of an inappropriate statistical method, in this case the CV, can effect the interpretation of data and cause false claims over e.g. reliability.
    • Isn’t it good, Norwegian wood? Lifestyle and adventure sports participation among Norwegian youth

      Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Vaage, Odd; University of Chester; Hedmark University College; Norsk Statistisk Sentralbyra (Taylor & Francis, 2014-08-19)
      Based primarily on quantitative data from the Norwegian Statistisk Sentralbyrå (Statistics Norway) study of Mosjon, Friluftsliv og Kulturaktiviteter (Vaage, 2009) supplemented by a little qualitative data, this paper explores Norwegian youngsters’ (and, to a lesser extent, adults’) engagement with conventional and lifestyle sports via an examination of recent trends. Norway boasts particularly high levels of sports participation as well as sports club membership among young people and young Norwegians are the quintessential sporting omnivores. Nevertheless, among the age group where regular participation peaks in Norway (16-19-year-olds) the popularity of games declined over the decade 1997-2007 while participation in lifestyle sports continued to increase (Vaage, 2009). It seems that the particular mix of conventional and lifestyle sports that Norwegian youngsters favour has shifted within a generation, with lifestyle activities more prominent in 2007 than they had been even a decade earlier. The changes in participation in a particular area of sporting participation strongly associated with Norwegian culture – friluftsliv (outdoor life) – may well represent a shift among Norwegian youth towards sports and physical activities that offer alternative forms, as well as types, of participation to conventional sports. They may also represent alternative motivations to those traditionally associated with sport and, for that matter, friluftsliv. The paper draws upon these findings in order to tentatively hypothesize developments in youth leisure-sport in Norway.
    • ‘It’s alpha omega for succeeding and thriving’: Parents, children and sporting cultivation in Norway

      Johansen, Patrick F.; Green, Ken; Innland University Norway; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2017-11-13)
      It has become increasingly apparent, internationally, that childhood is a crucial life-stage in the formation of predispositions towards sports participation and that parents are increasingly investing in the sporting capital of their children via a process of ‘concerted cultivation’. It is surprising, therefore, that parents’ involvement in the development of their children’s sporting interests has received so little attention in Norway, given that sport is a significant pastime for Norwegians and participation has been steadily increasing – among youngsters, in particular – over the past several decades. Through a qualitative case study of a combined primary and secondary school in a small Norwegian city, this study sought to add to recent explorations of the role of parents in children’s sporting involvement in Norway. As expected, it was evident that sport becomes taken for granted and internalized very early on in Norwegian children’s lives. Less expected was the recognition that children’s nascent sporting interests were often generated by sports clubs via early years schooling and, therefore, that parents played only one (albeit very important) part in the formation of their youngsters’ early sporting habits. Thus, parents, sports clubs and early years schooling appeared to form something akin to a ‘sporting trinity’ in youngsters’ nascent sporting careers. These findings may have implications for policy-makers looking towards Norway for the ‘recipe’ for sports participation.