• A unique engraved shale pendant from the site of Star Carr

      Milner, Nicky; Bamforth, Michael; Beale, Gareth; Carty, Julian C.; Chatzipanagis, Konstantinos; Croft, Shannon; Elliott, Ben; Fitton, Laura C.; Knight, Becky; Kröger, Roland; et al. (Internet Archaeology, 2016-02-26)
      In 2015 an engraved shale pendant was found during excavations at the Early Mesolithic site of Star Carr, UK. Engraved motifs on Mesolithic pendants are extremely rare, with the exception of amber pendants from southern Scandinavia. The artwork on the pendant is the earliest known Mesolithic art in Britain; the 'barbed line' motif is comparable to styles on the Continent, particularly in Denmark. When it was first uncovered the lines were barely visible but using a range of digital imaging techniques it has been possible to examine them in detail and determine the style of engraving as well as the order in which the lines might have been made. In addition, microwear and residue analyses were applied to examine whether the pendant showed signs that it had been strung or worn, and whether the lines had been made more visible through the application of pigments, as has been suggested for some Danish amber pendants. This approach of using multiple scientific and analytical techniques has not been used previously and provides a methodology for the examination of similar artefacts in the future.
    • US Foreign Policy in the Horn of Africa: From Colonialism to Terrorism

      Jackson, Donna; University of Chester (Routledge, 2017-10-31)
      Examining American foreign policy towards the Horn of Africa between 1945 and 1991, this book uses Ethiopia and Somalia as case studies to offer an evaluation of the decision-making process during the Cold War, and consider the impact that these decisions had upon subsequent developments both within the Horn of Africa and in the wider international context. The decision-making process is studied, including the role of the president, the input of his advisers and lower level officials within agencies such as the State Department and National Security Council, and the parts played by Congress, bureaucracies, public opinion, and other actors within the international environment, especially the Soviet Union, Ethiopia and Somalia. Jackson examines the extent to which influences exerted by forces other than the president affected foreign policy, and provides the first comprehensive analysis of American foreign policy towards Ethiopia and Somalia throughout the Cold War. This book offers a fresh perspective on issues such as globalism, regionalism, proxy wars, American aid programmes, anti-communism and human rights. It will be of great interest to students and academics in various fields, including American foreign policy, American Studies and Politics, the history of the Cold War, and the history of the Horn of Africa during the modern era.
    • The use of photogrammetry and film in fostering understanding of early medieval history

      Lang, Roger (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2019-09)
      The recent arrival of a growing body of freely available photogrammetric 3D models of early medieval stone sculptures gives the opportunity for educators to use them as virtual primary sources, either directly as navigable objects or through the medium of film. The research investigates their potential role in schools following the current national curriculum in England. The curriculum requirements are reviewed and their implementation investigated through a study of school websites and Ofsted reports in an English shire county. A search is made for suitable stone sculptures with 3D models, new ones are made where necessary, and the academic literature on the sculptures is reviewed. Lesson plans and resources are created and trialed in three primary schools in a method closely resembling cyclic Lesson Study methodology. The conclusion is that the process has demonstrated the potential for the use of 3D models to serve as the focus of engaging and challenging lessons.
    • Viking Mortuary Citations

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-07-06)
      Introducing the European Journal of Archaeology’s special issue ‘Mortuary Citations: Death and Memory in the Viking World’, this article outlines the justification and theoretical framework underpinning a new set of studies on Viking-age mortuary and commemorative practice as strategies of mortuary citation. The contributions to the collection are reviewed in relation to strengths and weaknesses in existing research and broader themes in mortuary archaeological research into memory work in past societies.
    • Virtually dead: digital public mortuary archaeology

      Williams, Howard; Atkin, Alison; University of Chester; University of Sheffield (Internet Archaeology, 2015-11-18)
      Over recent decades, the ethics, politics and public engagements of mortuary archaeology have received sustained scrutiny, including how we handle, write about and display the archaeological dead. Yet the burgeoning use of digital media to engage different audiences in the archaeology of death and burial have so far escaped attention. This article explores categories and strategies by which digital media create virtual communities engaging with mortuary archaeology. Considering digital public mortuary archaeology (DPMA) as a distinctive theme linking archaeology, mortality and material culture, we discuss blogs, vlogs and Twitter as case studies to illustrate the variety of strategies by which digital media can promote, educate and engage public audiences with archaeological projects and research relating to death and the dead in the human past. The article then explores a selection of key critical concerns regarding how the digital dead are currently portrayed, identifying the need for further investigation and critical reflection on DPMA’s aims, objectives and aspired outcomes.
    • Visualizing Jews: An Introduction to Literary and Material Representations of Jewishness and Judaism Through the Ages

      Ewence, Hannah; Spurling, Helen; University of Chester; University of Southampton (Routledge, 2015-04-24)
      A wide-ranging introduction that offers a new approach for examining the relationship between Jews, Judaism, Jewishness and visual culture. The editors suggest that debates surrounding literary and material images within Judaism and Jewish life are part of an on-going strategy of image management; that is, the urge to shape, direct, authorise and contain Jewish literary and material images and encounters with those images.
    • Vizualising Jews through the Ages: Literary and Material Representations of Jewishness and Judaism

      Ewence, Hannah; Spurling, Helen; University of Chester; University of Southampton (Routledge, 2015-04-24)
      This volume explores literary and material representations of Jews, Jewishness and Judaism from antiquity to the twenty-first century. Gathering leading scholars from within the field of Jewish Studies, it investigates how the debates surrounding literary and material images within Judaism and in Jewish life are part of an on-going strategy of image management - the urge to shape, direct, authorize and contain Jewish literary and material images and encounters with those images - a strategy both consciously and unconsciously undertaken within multifarious arenas of Jewish life from early modern German lands to late twentieth-century North London, late Antique Byzantium to the curation of contemporary Holocaust exhibitions.
    • Vlog to death: Project Eliseg's video-blogging

      Tong, Joe; Evans, Suzanne; Williams, Howard; Edwards, Nancy; Robinson, Gary; University of Chester (2015-05-31)
      Project Eliseg involved three field seasons (2010–12) of survey and excavation at the multi-period mortuary and commemorative monument known as the Pillar of Eliseg, near Llangollen, Denbighshire, Wales. Each season incorporated an evolving range of media and public engagement activities, with digital media employed to disseminate ongoing work both globally and locally, including to those unable to access the site during the excavation seasons. One of the key strategies employed via digital media in seasons 2 and 3 was a daily video-blog (hereafter: vlog). This article presents and appraises the rationale, design, content and reception of the Project Eliseg vlog revealing key lessons in the use of digital media in archaeological fieldwork, particularly for those engaged with the archaeology of death, burial and commemoration.
    • A well-urned rest: Cremation and inhumation in early Anglo-Saxon England

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (University of Arizona Press, 2014-11-30)
    • Wellsprings of a 'World War': An early English attempt to conquer Canada during King William's war, 1688-97

      McLay, Keith A. J.; University of Chester (2006-06-10)
      This article discusses the military history of the early years of King William's War, 1688-97, including an early attempt to conquer French Canada in 1690 by Sir William Phips. The article places this within differeing interpretations of the military historiography of early modern colonial America.
    • When the roof fell in: Counterinsurgency in South Vietnam, 1961-1963

      Jackson, Donna; McLay, Keith; Poole, Darren (University of Chester, 2019-07-23)
      According to Sir Robert Thompson, the beginning of the 1960s saw ‘the roof fall in’ across South Vietnam. This was because the military campaign being waged against the Viet Cong began to falter and collapse. This thesis examines the period from 1961 to 1963 and focusses in particular on the Strategic Hamlet Programme implemented by Ngo Dinh Diem’s South Vietnamese government. The research assesses the impact of the strategic hamlets on South Vietnam and argues that the programme needs to be re-evaluated. The thesis will claim that although the strategic hamlets are often considered to be a failure, this is an incomplete picture of events at this time: a re-assessment of the strategy is long overdue. In fact, when executed correctly, the Strategic Hamlet Programme was effective and was damaging the Viet Cong insurgency. However, this also led to its downfall. A concept termed ‘Paradoxical Duality’ will be introduced to help explain this process. This theory argues that the hamlets could simultaneously be both a success and a failure. Essentially, the more the hamlets protected the people, the greater the alienation they caused within rural Vietnam; the more they damaged the insurgency, the more violent the insurgent response. In effect, the success of the programme contributed to its own destruction. What gives this thesis its niche within the historiography is that it combines the views of the Viet Cong, the Vietnamese people and the American Military into a coherent, evaluative whole. A feature of the research is the way in which it uses captured guerrilla documentation to present its argument. The views of the Vietnamese fighting ‘on the ground’ are essential to this thesis because they provide an alternative perspective to the established, Western-dominant historiography and American-centric accounts of the war. The thesis will show that the Strategic Hamlet Programme was well-planned, was hurting the Viet Cong and was an effective counterinsurgency measure in large parts of the country. It will also examine the insurgent response, show how they held the advantage when it came to winning popular support and discuss why the counterinsurgent forces were, despite their successes, unable to alter the direction of the conflict. In addition, the thesis will examine the way in which so many well intentioned initiatives had counterproductive outcomes. Ultimately, the thesis will argue that the Strategic Hamlet Programme was a missed opportunity. It created the conditions for military success. However, the Diem regime and its American allies were unable to build upon these achievements and claim victory in the wider war.
    • Why is China absent from the human remains debate

      Wu, Hukeyao (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2019-09)
      The display of human remains has been widely studied and discussed by archaeologists and museum curators all around the world. The discussion on this topic involves the ethics, policies, and display methods faced by museums concerning the repatriation, storage, care, management and interpretation of human remains. China, however, has been absent from this debate. It is not that Chinese museums do not display human remains. On the contrary, some Chinese museums do exhibit human remains and proper practices and respect have been shown in some museums. In order to find out the reasons of China’s absence from the human remains debate, this article will review the relevant literature of Britain and China and analyse the possible reasons from four aspects, respectively: repatriation claims, authority, changed Chinese culture and display tendency. Besides, one case study of a Western Han dynasty female corpse displayed in the Hunan Museum will be reviewed as access to the Chinese context.
    • Why should we write about Anglo-Saxon farms and farming?

      Pickles, Thomas; University of Chester
      A review of four recent works on Anglo-Saxon farms, farming, and food.
    • William Caxton and Commemorative Culture in Fifteenth-Century England

      Harry, David; University of Chester (Boydell and Brewer, 2014-09-18)
      This piece explores Caxton's use of the language of the 'common profit' as a means of ensuring that his publishing endeavors offered both spiritual nourishment for his readers, and reciprocal benefit for the printer.
    • The Wooden Structures

      Bamforth, Michael; Taylor, Maisie; Taylor, Barry; Robson, Harry K.; Radini, Anita; Milner, Nicky; University of Chester; University of York (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      The wooden structures at Star Carr
    • Writing a Spiritual Biography in Early Modern France: The 'Many Lives' of Madeleine de Lamoignon

      Hillman, Jennifer; University of Chester (Duke University Press, 2019-02-01)
      In the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, four different spiritual biographers wrote the "life" of the recently deceased lay dévote, Madeleine de Lamoignon (1609-1687). Each of these authors was seeking to compose a spiritual biography - an account of Madeleine's devotional life - and they were all penned with the distant prospect of beatification or canonisation in mind. This article analyses these four retellings of Madeleine's life in order to excavate the process of writing vitae, and situates this within the broader context of lay spiritual biography in early modern France. It is argued here that a comparative exploration of Madeleine de Lamoignon's "lives" reveals different, and sometimes competing, conceptions of lay female sanctity in the Counter-Reformation era. Ultimately, the article contends that by turning our attention to neglected biographies of lay women, scholars might better understand how a life outside of the cloister could be reconciled with saintliness.
    • Writing and sources III: Cromwell's death at Chepstow, summer 1648

      Gaunt, Peter; Chester College of Higher Education (The Cromwell Association, 2000)
      This article discusses a pamphlet which gives an account of Cromwell's supposed death and death-bed pronouncements at Chepstow in summer 1648.
    • Writing and sources III: The Siege of Crowland, 1643

      Gaunt, Peter; Chester College of Higher Education (The Cromwell Association, 1999-01-01)
      This article discusses various sources relating to the seige of Crowland in south Lincolnshire in April 1643.