• Manchester and its press under the bomb: Britain’s ‘other Fleet Street’ and its contribution to a myth of the blitz

      Huggins, Michael; McLay, Keith A. J.; Hodgson, Guy R. (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2014-01)
      The Manchester Blitz was relatively short, lasting two nights in December 1940, when around 1,000 people were killed and more than 3,000 injured in the city centre, Salford and the residential areas near Old Trafford. This thesis focuses on the reaction to this heavy bombing by the local and regional newspapers of Manchester, which was Britain’s second press centre at the time. The newspapers, the Manchester Guardian, Manchester Evening News and Evening Chronicle, are studied over an eight-week period from mid December 1940. According to these editions, Mancunians were unbowed by the death and destruction wrought by the Luftwaffe and had a steely determination to win the war. Contemporary writing, including individual diaries and reports from Mass Observation and Home Intelligence, tells a more complicated and nuanced story. The thesis finds that the Manchester newspapers submitted their coverage to more self-imposed censorship than was being demanded even by a government desperate to maintain morale. They did so partly because they feared they would be closed down if they offended the censor, but also because they felt that patriotism had a greater priority than maintaining the news values of the time. The newspapers could have exposed local authority incompetence and shortcomings in the emergency services but chose instead to paint a rosy picture of defiance by omission, distortion and, in some cases, deceit. They did not do so independently, but in accordance with the reporting norms in Fleet Street and other British provincial cities during the Second World War. Circulations rose for both national and local newspapers during the war, but the cost was a further severing of the confidence people had in their press. When readers themselves became the story by being the victims of the Blitz they discovered there was often a gap between the truth and what appeared in print. It is a trust that has not been recovered to this day.
    • Mapping ‘Wordsworthshire’: A GIS Study of Literary Tourism in Victorian Lakeland

      Donaldson, Christopher; Gregory, Ian; Murrieta-Flores, Patricia; University of Birmingham; Lancaster University; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2015-08-14)
      This article answers the call for scholarship that models the implementation of geographic information systems (GIS) technologies in literary-historical research. In doing so, it creates a step change to the integration of digital methodologies in the humanities. Combining methods and perspectives from cultural history, literary studies, and geographic information sciences, the article confirms, challenges, and extends understanding of Victorian literary tourism in the English Lake District. It engages with the accounts of several nineteenth-century tourists, paying specific attention to Nathaniel Hawthorne’s English Notebooks and Hardwicke Drummond Rawnsley’s A Coach Drive at the Lakes, which are examined alongside contemporaneous guidebooks and other commercial tourist publications. In the process, the article draws attention to a spatial correlation between the route of the Ambleside turnpike (the Lake District’s principal coach road) and the major literary sites to which Victorian Lakeland visitors were guided. Recognizing this correlation, we contend, helps to deepen our appreciation of how the physical and imaginative geographies of the Lake District region interrelate. Specifically, it helps us appreciate how the Victorian fascination with the Lakeland’s literary associations was modulated not only by interest in the region’s other attractions, but also by material conditions on the ground.
    • Margaret of Anjou, Queen Consort of Henry VI: A reassessment of her role, 1445-54

      Dunn, Diana; Chester College of Higher Education (Alan Sutton, 1995-09-28)
      This book chapter discusses Margaret of Anjou and her reputation as a power-hungry queen.
    • Marriage and Martyrdom: the Death of John Fisher Reconsidered

      Harry, David; University of Chester (Shaun Tyas, 2017-06-16)
      This essay explores Fisher's writings in the years and months before his execution in June, 1535. The essay argues that Fisher's writings demonstrate efforts made by the prelate to reconcile his defence of the sacrament of marriage with his willingness to die for the Catholic faith. Fisher's works suggest that he believed it was only through martyrdom that the unity of the Church could be preserved and that he went to the scaffold willingly and with the belief that it would be efficacious in preventing further reform in England.
    • The medieval English landscape, 1000-1540

      White, Graeme J.; University of Chester (Bloomsbury, 2013-01-08)
      This book discusses continuity and change in the medieval English landscape and the landscapes of farming and hunting, rural settlement, towns and trade, religion, and fortification.
    • 'A Mediterranean amphibian': British warfare, 1693-1713

      McLay, Keith A. J.; University of Chester (Malta University Publishers, 2007-04)
    • Memories of Suburbia: Autobiographical Fiction and Minority Narratives

      Ewence, Hannah; University of Chester (Routledge, 2013-04-02)
      Historians have recently begun to engage with fiction as a compelling and elucidative historical source. Novels deemed to engender autobiographical qualities have garnered particular attention for their presumed historical ‘authenticity’, yet memory work encoded within their narratives has rarely been considered. This chapter explores how memory functions within and through the conceptualisation of place within The Buddha of Suburbia (1990); White Teeth (2000) and Disobedience (2006). Bound up in apparently familiar images of London’s peripheries are individual remembrances of the past which intersect with and problematise collective memories of suburbia, and complicate the relationship between history, memory, fiction and identity.
    • Memory through monuments: Movement and temporality in Skamby’s boat graves

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Göteborgs Universitet, Institutionen för historiska studier, 2014)
      Boat inhumation graves were one among many ways by which waterborne craft were deployed in the mortuary arena in late first millennium AD Scandinavia: they might be represented on stone, burned, decommissioned or set adrift. Moreover, smaller craft and parts of craft might have been readily employed in inhumation and cremation practices far more than is revealed in the archaeological record. Further still, boats can be symbolised through boat-shaped stone-settings and their depiction on picture-stones (see Andrén 1993; Williams et al. 2010). Consequently there are strong grounds for seeing boat-inhumation as part of a diverse versatility in mortuary expression drawing upon water transportation as metaphor and medium. Yet within this diversity, I here contend that the high archaeological visibility of wealthy boat-inhumations was not an accident of archaeological preservation. Instead, I argue that boatinhumation was a strategic choice to exhibit and constitute a distinctive identity for the dead using a specific use of a maritime vessel in early medieval mortuary practice. Hence, as technologies of remembrance, boat-inhumations are the surviving archaeological traces of a distinctive chains of ritual acts by which the dead were selectively remembered and forgotten by survivors and interred unburned within a maritime craft (Williams 2001, 2006). Moreover, boatinhumation was a practice that rendered the grave persistent in the landscape as an ongoing place for memory work, prone to subsequent manipulations, whether sanctioned interventions by the survivors or plundering inspired by a range of motivations (e.g. Bill & Daly 2012).
    • 'Mere matters of arrangement and detail': John Mitchel and Irish Chartism

      Huggins, Michael; University of Chester (Four Courts Press, 2006-09-01)
    • Methods, Aims and Objectives

      Milner, Nicky; Taylor, Barry; Allen, Steve; Bamforth, Michael; Conneller, Chantal; Croft, Shannon; French, Charlie; Hadley, Patrick; Knight, Becky; Little, Aimee; et al. (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      The aims, objects and methods of the Star Carr project
    • Minor operations in the English civil war

      Gaunt, Peter; University of Chester (The Cromwell Association, 2015-07-16)
      This short paper explores the surviving sources which give information on minor operations - raids, skirmishes, ambushes, beating-up quarters and the like. In particular, it compares and contrasts the sources for two such minor operations - the skirmish at Myddle in Shropshire sometime in the autumn or winter of 1644-45 and the pursuit of the royalist Lord Forth, his carriage train and lifeguard shortly after the second battle of Newbury in October 1644 - and evaluates both their reliability and what they reveal about the nature of the civil war.
    • Minorities and the First World War: From War to Peace

      Grady, Tim; Ewence, Hannah; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017-06-17)
      This book examines the particular experience of ethnic, religious and national minorities who participated in the First World War as members of the main belligerent powers: Britain, France, Germany and Russia. Individual chapters explore themes including contested loyalties, internment, refugees, racial violence, genocide and disputed memories from 1914 through into the interwar years to explore how minorities made the transition from war to peace at the end of the First World War. The first section discusses so-called 'friendly minorities', considering the way in which Jews, Muslims and refugees lived through the war and its aftermath. Section two looks at fears of 'enemy aliens', which prompted not only widespread internment, but also violence and genocide. The third section considers how the wartime experience of minorities played out in interwar Europe, exploring debates over political representation and remembrance, thereby bridging the gap between war and peace.
    • Monument and material reuse at the National Memorial Arboretum

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2014-05-16)
      Exploring the relocation and reuse of fragments and whole artefacts, materials and monuments in contemporary commemorative memorials in the United Kingdom (UK), this paper focuses on the National Memorial Arboretum (Alrewas, Staffordshire, hereafter NMA). Within this unique assemblage of memorial gardens, reuse constitutes a distinctive range of material commemoration. Through a detailed investigation of the NMA’s gardens, this paper shows how monument and material reuse, while used in very different memorial forms, tends to be reserved to commemorate specific historical subjects and themes. Monument and material reuse is identified as a form of commemorative rehabilitation for displaced memorials and provides powerful and direct mnemonic and emotional connections between past and present in the commemoration through peace memorials, of military disasters and defensive actions, the sufferings of prisoners of war, and atrocities inflicted upon civilian populations. In exploring monument and material reuse to create specific emotive and mnemonic fields and triggers, this paper engages with a hitherto neglected aspect of late 20th- and early 21st-century commemorative culture.
    • No Contemptible Commander: Sir William Howe and the American War of Independence, 1775-1777

      McLay, Keith A. J.; Gaunt, Peter; Smith, David (University of Chester, 2013-10)
      This thesis examines the period in command of British land forces during the American War of Independence of Sir William Howe. The previously untapped resource of a draft of Howe’s famous narrative to the House of Commons underpins the original contribution made by this thesis, which also draws original conclusions from more familiar documents. Howe’s command is considered in the light of four major factors: his relationship with subordinate officers; the composition and quality of his army; his relationship with the American Secretary, Lord George Germain; and his personal qualities and experience. These four factors are then combined to consider key tactical and strategic decisions made by Howe while in command of the British army in North America. No attempt has been made to examine every decision or event during Howe’s period in command. Rather, those most contentious and controversial events, and those that can be reconsidered using new evidence and new interpretations of existing evidence, have been focussed on. This thesis does not (nor was it intended to) systematically counter the prevailing opinions of Howe set down over more than two centuries of historical works. However, it can be seen that Howe had more reasonable grounds for some of his most contentious decisions than has previously been argued and his overall strategy for 1776 was more coherent than he is generally given credit for.
    • Ogaden

      Jackson, Donna; University of Chester (Wiley-Blackwell, 2015-12-30)
      The Ogaden, a mostly barren desert in southeast Ethiopia, has long been a source of ethnic and nationalist conflict. Although officially within Ethiopia's territorial borders, the region is largely inhabited by ethnic Somalis, who have demanded, and continue to demand, the removal of Ethiopian authority and reunification with Somalia. Frequent border skirmishes have occasionally erupted into war, most notably the Ogaden War of 1977–78, often considered a major factor in the demise of détente between the United States and the Soviet Union.
    • Oliver Cromwell

      Gaunt, Peter; Chester College of Higher Education (Blackwell Publishing, 1997-06-08)
      This book discusses the life and career of Oliver Cromwell.
    • Oliver Cromwell

      Gaunt, Peter; Chester College of Higher Education (British Library, 2004-09-01)
      This book discusses the life and career of Oliver Cromwell.
    • Oliver Cromwell and Great Britain

      Gaunt, Peter; Chester College of Higher Education (The Cromwell Association, 1999-06-01)
      This book chapter discusses Cromwell's travels throughout Great Britain.
    • Oliver Cromwell and the opening of the First Protectorate Parliament

      Gaunt, Peter; University College Chester (The Cromwell Association, 2005)
      This article discusses the first Protectorate Parliament in 1654.
    • Oliver Cromwell’s letter to Colonel Valentine Walton, conveying good and bad news arising from the battle of Marston Moor, written on 5 July 1644

      Gaunt, Peter; University of Chester (The Cromwell Association, 2014-10-31)
      This electronic publication provides a detailed document analysis of a specific letter written by Oliver Cromwell for which the original (in Cromwell's own hand) survives, namely the letter which he wrote to his brother-in-law shortly after the battle of Marston Moor of 2 July 1644 and describing the nature and consequences of that engagement. It examines in detail the contents, language, meaning and interpretation of the letter and also explores the different historical interpretations which have been placed upon it.