The Department of Chemical Engineering is located on Thornton Science Park, a modern expressly-designed site that profits from a recently-completed multi-million pound renovation that has created a state-of-the-art teaching and research facility. The site was home to Shell UK’s exploration and research centre since the 1940s, and its takeover by the University heralded the opportunity to apply its legacy to the continuation of world-class innovation and research in the North West. This collection is licenced under a Creative Commons licence. The collection may be reproduced for non-commerical use and without modification, providing that copyright is acknowledged.

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  • The status of hydrogen technologies in the UK: A multi-disciplinary review

    Edwards, Reace Louise; Font-Palma, Carolina; Howe, Joe; University of Chester
    Hydrogen has the potential to offer deep decarbonisation across a range of global heavy-emitting sectors. To have an impact on the global energy system, hydrogen technologies must be deployed with greater urgency. This review article facilitates the much needed, multi-disciplinary discussion around hydrogen. In doing so, the paper outlines recent advancements, prevailing challenges and areas of future research concerning hydrogen technologies, policy, regulation and social considerations in a UK setting. Findings suggest that hydrogen will play a significant role in decarbonising several UK sectors whilst simultaneously addressing challenges faced by alternative low-carbon technologies. Optimal production, delivery and storage systems must be developed to accommodate perceived future demand. Whilst this will be largely dictated by scale, efficiency, cost and technological maturity, significant improvements in existing policies and regulation will also be critical. The future role of hydrogen in the UK’s decarbonisation strategy is not clearly defined. In comparison to alternative low- carbon technologies, policy and regulatory support for hydrogen has been minimal. Whilst there is growing evidence concerning the public perception of hydrogen in UK homes, additional research is required given its many potential applications. The findings detailed in this article support the urgency for further multi- disciplinary collaborative research.
  • Columnar self-assembly, electrochemical and luminescence properties of basket-shaped liquid crystalline derivatives of Schiff-base-moulded p-tert-butyl-calix[4]arene

    Sharma, Vinay S.; orcid: 0000-0003-4970-0676; Sharma, Anuj S.; Worthington, Sheena J. B.; Shah, Priyanka A.; orcid: 0000-0002-1386-6984; Shrivastav, Pranav S.; orcid: 0000-0002-1284-1558 (Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2020)
    A new family of blue-light emitting supramolecular basket-shaped liquid crystalline compounds based on p-tert-butyl-calix[4]arene core to form self-assembly and columnar hexagonal phase.
  • Electrochemically Detecting DNA Methylation in the EN1 gene Promoter: Implications for understanding Ageing and Disease

    Morgan, Amy; Acutt, Katie; Mc Auley, Mark; University of Chester
    There is a growing need for biomarkers which predict age-onset pathology. Although this is challenging, the methylome offers significant potential. Cancer is associated with the hypermethylation of many gene promoters, among which are developmental genes. Evolutionary theory suggests developmental genes arbitrate early-late life trade-offs, causing epimutations that increase disease vulnerability. Such genes could predict age related disease. The aim of this work was to optimise an electrochemical procedure for the future investigation of a broad range of ageing related pathologies. An electrochemical approach, which adopted three analytical techniques, was used to investigate DNA methylation in the EN1 gene promoter. Using synthetic single stranded DNA, one technique was able to detect DNA at concentrations as low as 10nM, with methylation status distinguishable at concentrations >25nM. A negative correlation could be observed between % methylation of heterogeneous solution and the key electrochemical parameter, Rct (r = -0.982, p < 0.01). The technique was applied to the breast cancer cell line MCF-7, where a similar correlation was observed (r = -0.965, p < 0.01). These results suggest electrochemistry can effectively measure DNA methylation at low concentrations of DNA. This has implications for the future detection of age-related disease.
  • Online conductivity calibration methods for EIT gas/oil in water flow measurement

    Jia, Jiabin; Wang, Mi; Faraj, Yousef; Wang, Qiang; University of Chester; University of Leeds; University of Edinburgh
    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a fast imaging technique displaying the electrical conductivity contrast of multiphase flow. It is increasingly utilised for industrial process measurement and control. In principle, EIT has to obtain the prior information of homogenous continuous phase in terms of conductivity as a reference benchmark. This reference significantly influences the quality of subsequent multiphase flow measurement. During dynamic industrial process, the conductivity of continuous phase varies due to the effects from the changes of ambient and fluid temperature, ionic concentration, and internal energy conversion in fluid. It is not practical to stop industrial process frequently and measure the conductivity of continuous phase for taking the EIT reference. If without monitoring conductivity of continuous phase, EIT cannot present accurate and useful measurement results. To online calibrate the electrical conductivity of continuous phase and eliminate drift error of EIT measurement, two methods are discussed in this paper. Based on the linear approximation between fluid temperature and conductivity, the first method monitors fluid temperature and indirectly calibrates conductivity. In the second method, a novel conductivity cell is designed. It consists of a gravitational separation chamber with refreshing bypass and grounded shielding plate. The conductivity of continuous phase is directly sensed by the conductivity cell and fed to EIT system for online calibration. Both static and dynamic experiments were conducted to demonstrate the function and accuracy the conductivity cell.
  • Measurement of vertical oil-in-water two-phase flow using dual-modality ERT–EMF system

    Faraj, Yousef; Wang, Mi; Jia, Jiabin; Wang, Qiang; Xie, Cheng-gang; Oddie, Gary; Primrose, Ken; Qiu, Changhua; University of Leeds; Sate Key Lab. of O&G Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, China; Schlumberger Gould Research, Cambridge; Industrial Tomography System plc, Manchester
    Oil-in-water two-phase flows are often encountered in the upstream petroleum industry. The measurement of phase flow rates is of particular importance for managing oil production and water disposal and/or water reinjection. The complexity of oil-in-water flow structures creates a challenge to flow measurement. This paper proposes a new method of two-phase flow metering, which is based on the use of dual-modality system and multidimensional data fusion. The Electrical Resistance Tomography system (ERT) is used in combination with a commercial off-the-shelf Electromagnetic Flow meter (EMF) to measure the volumetric flow rate of each constituent phase. The water flow rate is determined from the EMF with an input of the mean oil-fraction measured by the ERT. The dispersed oil-phase flow rate is determined from the mean oil fraction and the mean oil velocity measured by the ERT cross-correlation velocity profiling. Experiments were carried out on a vertical upward oil-in-water pipe flow, 50 mm inner-diameter test section, at different total liquid flow rates covering the range of 8–16 m3/hr. The oil and water flow rate measurements obtained from the ERT and the EMF are compared to their respective references. The accuracy of these measurements is discussed and the capability of the measurement system is assessed.
  • A new visualisation and measurement technology for water continuous multiphase flows

    Wang, Mi; Jia, Jiabin; Faraj, Yousef; Wang, Qiang; Xie, Cheng-gang; Oddie, Gary; Primrose, Ken; Qiu, Changhua; University of Chester; University of Leeds; University of Edinburgh; Schlumberger Gould Research, Cambridge; Industrial Tomography Systems plc, Manchester
    This paper reports the performance of a research prototype of a new multiphase flow instrument to noninvasively measure the phase flow rates, with the capability to rapidly image the flow distributions of two- and three-phase (gas and/or oil in water) flows. The research prototype is based on the novel concepts of combining vector Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) sensor (for measuring dispersedphase velocity and fraction) with an electromagnetic flow metre (EMF, for measuring continuous-phase velocity with the EIT input) and a gradiomanometer flow-mixture density metre (FDM), in addition to on-line water conductivity, temperature and absolute pressure measurements. EIT–EMF–FDM data fusion embedded in the research prototype, including online calibration/compensation of conductivity change due to the change of fluids' temperature or ionic concentration, enables the determination of mean concentration, mean velocity and hence the mean flow rate of each individual phase based on the measurement of dispersed-phase distributions and velocity profiles. Results from first flow-loop experiments conducted at Schlumberger Gould Research (SGR) will be described. The performance of the research prototype in flow-rate measurements are evaluated by comparison with the flow-loop references. The results indicate that optimum performance of the research prototype for three-phase flows is confined within the measuring envelope 45–100% Water-in-Liquid Ratio (WLR) and 0–45% Gas Volume Fraction (GVF). Within the scope of this joint research project funded by the UK Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), only vertical flows with a conductive continuous liquid phase will be addressed.
  • Imaging of gas–liquid annular flows for underbalanced drilling using electrical resistance tomography

    Na, Wei; Jia, Jiabin; Yu, Xin; Faraj, Yousef; Wang, Qiang; Meng, Ying-feng; Wang, Mi; Sun, Wantong; University of Chester; University of Leeds; University of Edinburgh; Southwest Petroleum University (China)
    The underbalanced drilling technique, which is also known as managed-pressure drilling, is playing an important role in oil and gas sector, as it reduces common conventional drilling problems such as minimal drilling rates and formation damage, differential sticking and lost circulation. Flow regime monitoring is one of the key topics in annular multiphase flow research, particularly for underbalanced drilling technique. Prediction of the prevailing flow regime in an annulus is of particular importance in the design and installation of underbalanced drilling facilities. Especially, for establishing a suitable pressure drop model based on the characteristics of the active flow regime. The methods of flow regime prediction (or visualisation) in an annulus that are currently in use are very limited, this is evidently due to poor accuracy or they are simply not applicable to underbalanced drilling operation in practice. Therefore, this paper presents a monitoring method, in which Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) is used to rapidly image the prevailing flow regime in an annulus with a metallic inner pipe. Experiments were carried out using an air–waterflow loop with a test section 50 mm diameter flow pipe. The two-phase air–waterflow regimes are visualised in the upward vertical annulus with a radius ratio (r/R) 0.4.This paper highlights the visualisation results of only three flow regimes, namely bubble flow, transitional bubble-slug flow and slug flow. The flow regimes are visualised through axial images stacked from50 mm diameter-pixels of 2D tomograms reconstructed with the Conjugate Gradient Method (SCG). Gas volume fraction profiles within the annular flow channel are also illustrated. The profiles are extracted using the Modified Sensitivity coefficient Back-Projection (MSBP) method with a sensitivity matrix generated from a realistic phantom in the finite element method software. The results are compared with visual observations (e.g. photographs) of the active flow regime at the time of ERT measurements.
  • Evaluation of EIT Systems and Algorithms for Handling Full Void Fraction Range in Two-phase Flow Measurement

    Jia, Jiabin; Wang, Mi; Faraj, Yousef; University of Chester; University of Leeds; University of Edinburgh
    In the aqueous-based two-phase flow, if the void fraction of dispersed phase exceeds 0.25, the conventional Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) produces a considerable error due to the linear approximation of Sensitivity Back-projection method, which limits the EIT’s wider application in process industry. In this paper, an EIT sensing system which is able to handle full void fraction range in two-phase flow is reported. This EIT system employs a voltage source, conducts true mutual impedance measurement and reconstructs online image with the Modified Sensitivity Back-Projection (MSBP) algorithm. The capability of Maxwell relationship to convey full void fraction is investigated. The limitation of linear sensitivity back-projection method is analysed. The modified sensitivity back-projection algorithm is used to derive relative conductivity change in the evaluation. Series of static and dynamic experiments demonstrate the mean void fraction obtained using this EIT system has a good agreement with reference void fractions over the range from 0 to 1, which would significantly extend the applications of EIT in process measurement.
  • Measurement of Interphase Forces based on Dual-modality ERT/DP Sensor in Horizontal Two-phase Flow Gas-water

    Fang, Lide; Wang, Peipei; Zeng, Qiaoqiao; Li, Mingming; Li, Xiaoting; Wang, Mi; Faraj, Yousef; Wang, Qiang; University of Chester; University of Leeds; Hebei University (China)
    In order to better understand the mechanisms of two-phase flow and the prevailing flow regimes in horizontal pipelines, the evaluation of interphase forces is paramount. This study develops a method to quantitatively estimate the interphase force in two-phase gas-water flow in horizontal pipeline. The electrical resistance tomography technology is used to measure the void fraction, while the differential pressure perpendicular to the horizontal pipe is measured in different flow patterns via a Differential Pressure sensor. The inner pipe diameter is 50 mm, the water flow range from 3.26 m3/h to 7.36 m3/h, the gas flowrate range from 1 to 60 l/min, which covered a range of flow patterns, the absolute pressure range from0.07 MPa to 0.12 MPa. The relationship between the differential pressure drop and interphase force is established, and the effects of these forces on the flow are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the dual-modality measurement system was successfully provided a quantitative evaluation of inter-phase forces in two-phase horizontal gas-water flow.
  • Cholesterol Homeostasis: An In Silico Investigation into How Aging Disrupts Its Key Hepatic Regulatory Mechanisms

    Morgan, Amy; Mc Auley, Mark; University of Chester
    The dysregulation of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis is associated with several age-related diseases, most notably cardiovascular disease (CVD). Research in this area has benefitted from using computational modelling to study the inherent complexity associated with the regulation of this system. In addition to facilitating hypothesis exploration, the utility of modelling lies in its ability to represent an array of rate limiting enzymatic reactions, together with multiple feedback loops, which collectively define the dynamics of cholesterol homeostasis. However, to date no model has specifically investigated the effects aging has on this system. This work addresses this shortcoming by explicitly focusing on the impact of aging on hepatic intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. The model was used to investigate the experimental findings that reactive oxygen species induce the total activation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGCR). Moreover, the model explored the impact of an age-related decrease in hepatic acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 2 (ACAT2). The model suggested that an increase in the activity of HMGCR does not have as significant an impact on cholesterol homeostasis as a decrease in hepatic ACAT2 activity. According to the model, a decrease in the activity of hepatic ACAT2 raises free cholesterol (FC) and decreases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Increased acetyl CoA synthesis resulted in a reduction in the number of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors, and increased LDL-C, FC, and cholesterol esters. The rise in LDL-C was restricted by elevated hepatic FC accumulation. Taken together these findings have important implications for healthspan. This is because emerging clinical data suggest hepatic FC accumulation is relevant to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is associated with an increased risk of CVD. These pathophysiological changes could, in part, help to explain the phenomenon of increased mortality associated with low levels of LDL-C which have been observed in certain studies involving the oldest old (≥ 85 years).
  • A review of organic waste enrichment for inducing palatability of black soldier fly larvae: Wastes to valuable resources

    Raksasat, Ratchaprapa; Lim, Jun Wei; Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Kiatkittipong, Kunlanan; Ho, Yeek Chia; Lam, Man Kee; Font Palma, Carolina; Zaid, Hayyiratul Fatimah Mohd; Cheng, Chin Kui; Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS; Silpakorn University; King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang; University of Chester; Khalifa University
    The increase of annual organic wastes generated worldwide has become a major problem for many countries since the mismanagement could bring about negative effects on the environment besides, being costly for an innocuous disposal. Recently, insect larvae have been investigated to valorize organic wastes. This entomoremediation approach is rising from the ability of the insect larvae to convert organic wastes into its biomass via assimilation process as catapulted by the natural demand to complete its lifecycle. Among the insect species, black soldier fly or Hermetia illucens is widely researched since the larvae can grow in various environments while being saprophagous in nature. Even though black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) can ingest various decay materials, some organic wastes such as sewage sludge or lignocellulosic wastes such as waste coconut endosperm are destitute of decent nutrients that could retard the BSFL growth. Hence, blending with nutrient-rich low-cost substrates such as palm kernel expeller, soybean curd residue, etc. is employed to fortify the nutritional contents of larval feeding substrates prior to administering to the BSFL. Alternatively, microbial fermentation can be adopted to breakdown the lignocellulosic wastes, exuding essential nutrients for growing BSFL. Upon reaching maturity, the BSFL can be harvested to serve as the protein and lipid feedstock. The larval protein can be made into insect meal for farmed animals, whilst the lipid source could be extracted and transesterified into larval biodiesel to cushion the global energy demands. Henceforth, this review presents the influence of various organic wastes introduced to feed BSFL, targeting to reduce wastes and producing biochemicals from mature larvae through entomoremediation. Modification of recalcitrant organic wastes via fermentation processes is also unveiled to ameliorate the BSFL growth. Lastly, the sustainable applications of harvested BSFL biomass are as well covered together with the immediate shortcomings that entail further researches.
  • Capsule membranes encapsulated with smart nanogels for facile detection of trace lead(II) ions in water

    Liu, Wen Ying; Ju, Xiao Jie; Faraj, Yousef; He, Fan; Peng, Han Yu; Liu, Yu Qiong; Liu, Zhuang; Wang, Wei; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang Yin; et al.
    A novel method based on capsule membranes encapsulated with smart nanogels is successfully developed for facilely detecting trace lead(II) (Pb2+) ions, which are hazardous to both human health and the environment because of their toxicity. The capsule membrane system is composed of a semi-permeable calcium alginate membrane and encapsulated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acryloylamidobenzo-18-crown-6) (PNB) nanogels. The semi-permeable membrane allows Pb2+ ions and water to pass through quickly, but rejects the encapsulated nanogels and polymers totally. As soon as Pb2+ ions appear in the aqueous environment and enter into the capsule, they can be specifically recognized by encapsulated PNB nanogels via forming 18-crown-6/Pb2+ complexes that cause a Pb2+-induced phase transition of PNB nanogels from hydrophobic to hydrophilic state. As a result, the osmotic pressure inside the capsule membrane increases remarkably, and thus the elastic capsule membrane isothermally swells upon the presence of Pb2+ ions in the environmental aqueous solution. The Pb2+-induced swelling degree of the capsule membrane is dependent on the concentration of Pb2+ ions ([Pb2+]) in water. Thus, the [Pb2+] value in water is able to be easily detected by directly measuring the Pb2+-induced isothermal swelling ratio of the capsule membrane, which we demonstrate by using 15 prepared capsule membranes arranged in a line. The Pb2+-induced swelling ratios of the capsule membrane groups are easily observed with the naked eye, and the detection limit of the [Pb2+] in water is 10-9 mol L-1. Such a proposed method provides an easy and efficient strategy for facile detection of trace threat analytes in water.
  • Simultaneous determination of dopamine, uric acid and estriol in maternal urine samples based on the synergetic effect of reduced graphene oxide, silver nanowires and silver nanoparticles in their ternary 3D nanocomposite

    Zhao, Qian; Faraj, Yousef; Liu, Lu Yue; Wang, Wei; Xie, Rui; Liu, Zhuang; Ju, Xiao Jie; Wei, Jie; Chu, Liang Yin; University of Chester; Sichuan University
    A facile and efficient electrochemical biosensing platform based on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with three-dimensional (3D) nanocomposite consists of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with the insertion of silver nanowires (AgNWs) followed by the anchoring of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is constructed as RGO/AgNWs/AgNPs/SPCE for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and estriol (EST). The morphology characteristic and surface elemental composition of RGO/AgNWs/AgNPs nanocomposite are investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. Cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry are utilized to explore the electrochemical performances of the constructed electrodes. Due to abundant active sites and excellent electrocatalytic activity of the nanocomposite, the RGO/AgNWs/AgNPs/SPCE sensor exhibits well-resolved oxidation peaks and enhanced oxidation peak currents in the ternary mixture of DA, UA and EST with respective linear response ranges of 0.6 to 50 μM, 1 to 100 μM and 1 to 90 μM and detection limits (S/N = 3) of 0.16 μM, 0.58 μM and 0.58 μM, respectively. Moreover, the constructed biosensor exhibits good selectivity, reproducibility and stability, and excellent performance in determining DA, UA and EST in synthetic urine samples with excellent recovery. The results reveal that the RGO/AgNWs/AgNPs nanocomposite is a promising candidate for advanced electrode material in electrochemical sensing field and possesses great application prospects in further sensing researches.
  • Treating wastewater by indigenous microalgae strain in pilot platform located inside a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    Han, Jichang; Laurenz, Thomsen; Pan, Kehou; Wang, Pu; Wawilow, Tatjana; Osundeko, Olumayowa; Wang, Song; Theilen, Ulf; Thomsen, Claudia; Jacob University Bremen, Germany
    Various resources from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) are available for microalgae cultivation plants, suggesting that a combination of these technologies can be used to produce microalgae biomass and remove contaminants at a low cost. In this study, the growth performance and nutrient removal efficiency of an indigenous Scenedesmus sp. in various wastewater media with different exchange patterns were investigated firstly, then transferred to a pilot-scale photobioreactor (located inside a MWTP) for bioremediation use. The temperature and pH of the platform were maintained at 15–30°C and 7.6, respectively. The NH+4− N, NO−3− N, and PO3−4− P of the wastewater could be reduced to below 0.05, 0.40, and 0.175 mg L–1, respectively. Our results indicate that microalgae cultivation using the resources of a MWTP can achieve high algal biomass productivity and nutrient removal rate. Our study also suggests that efficient technology for controlling zooplankton needs to be developed.
  • Systems biology and Nutrition

    Mc Auley, Mark
    Systems biology has established itself as a paradigm which has been adopted in order to integrate a wealth of omics data which has been generated in the last few decades. Nutrition research has gradually embraced the systems biology approach, and this holistic way of investigating biological systems is beginning to pay dividends for our understanding of diet and its relationship with health. This chapter presents an overview of the key strands of systems biology; these include, genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, bioinformatics and computational modelling. I discuss how these techniques are being used to gain new insights into nutrition research. Moreover, I reveal how computational modelling is being used to unravel how ageing effects cholesterol and folate metabolism. The chapter concludes by providing an insight into how systems biology will be applied to nutrition research in the future.
  • Systems Based Mechanisms of Aging

    Proctor, Carole; Morgan, Amy; Mc Auley, Mark; Newcastle University; University of Chester
    The last number of decades have witnessed an unrelenting global rise in the number of older people. This demographic shift is laudable; however, many older people are burdened by poor health. The main reason so many older people have their healthspan compromised is due to the complex biology which underpins ageing and the diseases which are associated with this intriguing phenomenon. Fortunately, however, in recent years there has been a paradigm shift within biological research which has seen the emergence of systems biology. In contrast to a reductionist approach which was commonplace in biological research for many years, systems biology seeks to understand biological systems in an integrated manner. Investigating ageing and age related disease in this way is becoming increasingly effective. In this article we discuss the methods which underpin systems and provide examples of their application to biogerontology research.
  • Production of Biomethane from Agricultural Waste Using a Cryogenic Carbon Capture Process

    Font Palma, Carolina; Lychnos, George; Willson, Paul; University of Chester; PMW Technology Limited (Energy Proceedings, 2019)
    This paper evaluates a novel cryogenic carbon capture process to upgrade biogas produced from agricultural waste. The A3C cryogenic process offers simplicity and compactness with lower capital and operating costs compared to many alternative processes. The work addresses potential technical issues presented by trace contaminants in the raw biogas including hydrogen sulphide, organics and siloxanes. It is found that the A3C process offers high CO2 removal with minimal biomethane losses while requiring simple raw gas treatment.
  • Effects of obesity on cholesterol metabolism and its implications for healthy ageing.

    Mc Auley, Mark Tomás; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2020-01-27)
    The last few decades have witnessed a global rise in the number of older people. Despite this demographic shift, morbidity within this population group is high. Many factors influence healthspan; however an obesity pandemic is emerging as a significant determinant of older peoples’ health. It is well established obesity adversely effects several metabolic systems. However, due to its close association with overall cardiometabolic health, the impact obesity has on cholesterol metabolism needs to be recognised. The aim of this review is to critically discuss the effects obesity has on cholesterol metabolism and to reveal its significance for healthy ageing.
  • Computer Modelling for Nutritionists

    Mc Auley, Mark Tomás; University of Chester
    This book is about computational modelling of nutrient focused biological systems. The book is aimed at students, researchers, and those with an interest in learning how to build a computational model. The book is the product of many years of teaching computational modelling to undergraduates, postgraduates, and researchers with limited, or no background in computational modelling. What I learned from these experiences is those new to modelling are invariably apprehensive about it, and approach it with a degree of trepidation, or even scepticism. However, from tentative initial steps, they quickly realize that modelling is not as challenging, or as academically intimidating as they initially perceive it; and after gaining familiarity with the essential components of model building they rapidly become cognisant, that it offers an alternative lens to view a biological system, and learn new insights about its underlying dynamic behaviour. In this book I provide a practical introduction to modelling, for those who are interested in exploring the dynamics of nutrient based systems. My rationale for undertaking this project is based on my experience of interacting with nutritionists in recent years. As a result of many fruitful discussions I identified a growing need for a book of this nature, which is specifically tailored to nutritionists. My aims are to provide the reader with a solid grounding in computational modelling, and how it dovetails within the burgeoning field of systems biology. For the reader this will involve learning how a model is assembled, what software tools are available for model building, what the different paradigms are for simulating a model, and how to analyse and interpret the output from in silico simulations. The only expectation I make of you, as a reader, is that you are enthusiastic about learning how to use new software tools. In exchange for your engagement I will provide you with ample practical exercises, which will help to consolidate your learning, and will make your computational modelling journey a rewarding and enjoyable experience.
  • Evaluation of a Micro Gas Turbine With Post-Combustion CO2 Capture for Exhaust Gas Recirculation Potential With Two Experimentally Validated Models

    Nikpey Somehsaraei, Homam; Ali, Usman; Font-Palma, Carolina; Mansouri Majoumerd, Mohammad; Akram, Muhammad; Pourkashanian, Mohamed; Assadi, Mohsen (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2017-08-17)
    The growing global energy demand is facing concerns raised by increasing greenhouse gas emissions, predominantly CO2. Despite substantial progress in the field of renewable energy in recent years, quick balancing responses and back-up services are still necessary to maintain the grid load and stability, due to increased penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind. In a scenario of natural gas availability, gas turbine power may be a substitute for back-up/balancing load. Rapid start-up and shut down, high ramp rate, and low emissions and maintenance have been achieved in commercial gas turbine cycles. This industry still needs innovative cycle configurations, e.g. exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), to achieve higher system performance and lower emissions in the current competitive power generation market. Together with reduced NOx emissions, EGR cycle provides an exhaust gas with higher CO2 concentration compared to the simple gas turbine/combined cycle, favorable for post-combustion carbon capture. This paper presents an evaluation of EGR potential for improved gas turbine cycle performance and integration with a post-combustion CO2 capture process. It also highlights features of two software tools with different capabilities for performance analysis of gas turbine cycles, integrated with post-combustion capture. The study is based on a combined heat and power micro gas turbine (MGT), Turbec T100, of 100kWe output. Detailed models for the baseline MGT and amine capture plant were developed in two software tools, IPSEpro and Aspen Hysys. These models were validated against experimental work conducted at the UK PACT National Core Facilities. Characteristics maps for the compressor and the turbine were used for the MGT modeling. The performance indicators of systems with and without EGR, and when varying the EGR ratio and ambient temperature, were calculated and are presented in this paper.

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