• The natural history of the College campus

      Ing, Bruce (Governors of Chester College, 1989-01-01)
      This chapter discusses the buildings, gardens, trees, sports fields and the marginal areas of disturbed or undisturbed or undeveloped land on the Chester College campus.
    • Nicholaus Steno - the blessed (1638-1686)

      Burek, Cynthia V. (Earth Science Teachers' Association, 2005)
      This article discusses the life and career of Nicholaud Steno (1638-1686).
    • No difference in satiety or in subsequent energy intakes between a beverage and a solid food

      Almiron-Roig, Eva; Flores, Sonia Y.; University of Washington (Elsevier, 2004-09-30)
      Energy compensation following the consumption of caloric beverages is said to be imprecise and incomplete. This study compared the relative impact on satiety and energy intakes of the physical form of foods versus the timing of consumption. Thirty-two volunteers (16 men and 16 women), aged 18–35 years, consumed equal-energy preloads (1254 kJ, 300 kcal) of regular cola (710 ml, 24 oz) or fat-free raspberry cookies (87 g, 3 oz) on two occasions each. The preloads were presented either 2 h or 20 min before the test meal. Their principal ingredient was sugar. Participants rated motivational states prior to ingestion and at 30-min intervals. A tray lunch was presented at 12:30 p.m., and food consumption was measured. Regular cola and cookies suppressed hunger ratings equally and no temporal difference in satiety was observed. Cola, but not cookies, resulted in lower ratings of thirst. Energy intakes at lunch were lower when the preload was consumed closer to the test meal (20 min) but was not affected by physical form (liquid vs. solid). Cola, but not cookies, reduced water intakes at lunch. There was no satiety deficit following the ingestion of a beverage as compared with a solid food. The timing of consumption may be more important than the physical form of energy consumed.
    • Non-invasive tools to quantify hypothalamic-pituitary function in lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus)

      Skyner, Lindsay J.; Smith, Tessa E.; University College Chester (Karger, 2004)
    • Not just making babies: A Darwinian perspective

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (2009-11-25)
    • A novel method to optimise the utility of underused moulted plumulaceous feather samples for genetic analysis in bird conservation.

      Peters, Catherine; Nelson, Howard; Rusk, Bonnie; Muir, Anna P.; Rusk, Bonnie L.; University of Chester (Springer, 2019-10-24)
      Non-invasive sampling methods are increasingly being used in conservation research as they reduce or eliminate the stress and disturbance resulting from invasive sampling of blood or tissue. Here we present a protocol optimised for obtaining usable genetic material from moulted plumulaceous feather samples. The combination of simple alterations to a ‘user-developed’ method, comprised of increased incubation time and modification of temperature and volume of DNA elution buffer, are outlined to increase DNA yield and significantly increase DNA concentration (W = 81, p <0.01, Cohens’s d= 0.89). We also demonstrate that the use of a primerless Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique increases DNA quality and amplification success when used prior to PCR reactions targeting avian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). A small amplicon strategy proved effective for mtDNA amplification using PCR, targeting three overlapping 314-359bp regions of the cytochrome oxidase I barcoding region which, when combined, aligned with target-species reference sequences. We provide evidence that samples collected non-invasively in the field and kept in non-optimal conditions for DNA extraction can be used effectively to sequence a 650bp region of mtDNA for genetic analysis.
    • Obesity and health: Understanding the issues in Pakistani women living in the UK

      Ludwig, Alison F.; Ellahi, Basma; Cox, Peter; University of Chester (British Sociological Association, 2008)
    • On 'Kantian Experimentation' in the health sciences

      Lewis, Stephen J. (2002-05)
      This presentation dicusses various approaches to the definition of health and disease.
    • On the question of questions

      Lewis, Stephen J.; University College Chester (Philo Sophos.com, 2004)
      This article discusses Russell's dictum that "in philosophy, what is important is not so much the answers that are given, but rather the questions that are asked" - posing questions and posing them properly.
    • One strategy doesn’t fit all: determinants of urban adaptation in mammals

      Santini, Luca; González‐Suárez, Manuela; Russo, Danilo; Gonzalez‐Voyer, Alejandro; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Ancillotto, Leonardo; Radboud University; University of Reading; University of Napoli; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018-12-20)
      Urbanisation exposes wildlife to new challenging conditions and environmental pressures. Somemammalian species have adapted to these novel environments, but it remains unclear which char-acteristics allow them to persist. To address this question, we identified 190 mammals regularlyrecorded in urban settlements worldwide, and used phylogenetic path analysis to test hypothesesregarding which behavioural, ecological and life history traits favour adaptation to urban environ-ments for different mammalian groups. Our results show that all urban mammals produce largerlitters; whereas other traits such as body size, behavioural plasticity and diet diversity were impor-tant for some but not all taxonomic groups. This variation highlights the idiosyncrasies of theurban adaptation process and likely reflects the diversity of ecological niches and roles mammalscan play. Our study contributes towards a better understanding of mammal association tohumans, which will ultimately allow the design of wildlife-friendly urban environments and con-tribute to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts.
    • Open Carboniferous Limestone pavement grike microclimates in Great Britain and Ireland: understanding the present to inform the future

      Burek, Cynthia; Hosie, Lottie; Geary, Matt; York, Peter, J. (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2020-04)
      Limestone pavements are a distinctive and irreplaceable geodiversity feature, in which are found crevices known as grikes. These grikes provide a distinct microclimate conferring a more stable temperature, higher relative humidity, lower light intensity and lower air speed than can be found in the regional climate. This stability of microclimate has resulted in an equally distinctive community of flora and fauna, adapted to a forest floor but found in an often otherwise barren landscape. This thesis documents the long-term study of the properties of the limestone pavement grike in order to identify the extent to which the microclimate may sustain its distinctive biodiversity, to provide recommendations for future research which may lead to more effective management. Over a five-year study, recordings of temperature, relative humidity, light intensity and samples of invertebrate biodiversity were collected from five limestone pavements situated in the Yorkshire Dales and Cumbria in Great Britain, and The Burren in the Republic of Ireland. An extensive description of the grike microclimate was undertaken using the data collected to understand the extent of the microclimate stability of the grike and the conditions for variation in the grike microclimate. Further insights into the grike microclimate were gained through simulation techniques more commonly used in engineering, to explore the effects of air flowing over a grike, the light from the sun entering the grike and regression analysis to simulate the temperature within the grike in the present and projected for the future. This study has indicated that although the whole of the grike confers a degree of microclimatic stability, it is made up of a less stable upper zone and a more stable lower zone. The instability of the upper zone is hypothesised to result from the extent to which the majority of light and external air can enter the grike, whereas the stability of the lower zone may be governed by the thermal stability of the limestone surrounding it. Based on this zonation and the projections for the grike temperature, it is hypothesised that climate change will have the most substantial effects in the upper grike zone where species obligated to this area could be most heavily impacted. This study recommends a range of areas in which research may be employed so that the limestone pavement habitat may be successfully managed in Great Britain and the Republic of Ireland.
    • Orally administered beta-glucan attenuates the Th2 response in a model of airway hypersensitivity

      Burg, Ashley R.; Quigley, Laura; Jones, Adam V.; O'Connor, Geraldine M.; Boelte, Kimberly; McVicar, Daniel W.; Orr, Selinda J.; National Cancer Institute-Frederick; University of Alabama at Birmingham; University Dental Hospital, Cardiff and Vale University Health Board; University of Chester; Cardiff University School of Medicine (SpringerOpen, 2016-06-21)
      beta-Glucan is a polysaccharide that can be extracted from fungal cell walls. Wellmune WGP((R)), a preparation of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans, is a dietary supplement that has immunomodulating properties. Here we investigated the effect WGP had on a mouse model of asthma. OVA-induced asthma in mice is characterized by infiltration of eosinophils into the lung, production of Th2 cytokines and IgE. Daily oral administration of WGP (400 microg) significantly reduced the influx of eosinophils into the lungs of OVA-challenged mice compared to control mice. In addition, WGP inhibited pulmonary production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), however serum IgE levels were unaffected by WGP treatment. These data indicate that WGP could potentially be useful as an oral supplement for some asthma patients, however, it would need to be combined with therapies that target other aspects of the disease such as IgE levels. As such, further studies that examine the potential of WGP in combination with other therapies should be explored.
    • The osteological use of diagnostic radiographs: Further material for osteoarchaeologists

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (1996)
      This article discusses the use of radiography in osteoarchaeology.
    • Osteoprotegerin is produced when prostaglandin synthesis is inhibited causing osteoclasts to detach from the surface of mouse parietal bone and attach to the endocranial membrane

      O’Brien, E. A.; Williams, John H. H.; Marshall, Michael J.; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry ; Chester College ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (Elsevier, 2001-02-13)
      This article tests the hypothesis that osteoprotegerin (OPG) mediates the inhibition of osteoclast activity that occurs with indomethacin in the mouse calvaria.
    • An overview of extra-curricular education for sustainable development (ESD) interventions in UK universities

      Lipscombe, Bryan P.; Burek, Cynthia V.; Potter, Jacqueline; Ribchester, Chris; Degg, Martin; University of Chester (Emerald, 2008-07-11)
      This article explores the extent and type of extra-curricular education for sustainable development-related practice in UK universities and to record opinions about the utility of such work, through a postal questionnaire survey of all UK universities was undertaken in 2006.
    • Patterns in island endemic forest-dependent bird research: the Caribbean as a case-study

      Devenish-Nelson, Eleanor S.; orcid: 0000-0002-9029-4772; email: ellie.devenish@ed.ac.uk; Weidemann, Douglas; Townsend, Jason; Nelson, Howard P. (Springer Netherlands, 2019-05-04)
      Abstract: Unequal patterns in research effort can result in inaccurate assessments of species extinction risk or ineffective management. A group of notable conservation concern are tropical island endemic birds, many of which are also forest-dependent, which increases their vulnerability to extinction. Yet, island bird species have received limited research attention compared to their continental congeners, despite this taxon being globally regarded as well-studied. We used the insular Caribbean, a globally important endemism hotspot with high rates of deforestation, to explore research bias of island and regional endemic forest-dependent birds. A review of the published literature (n = 992) found no significant increase in the number of studies over the search period. Research effort was significantly higher among species with threatened status, long generation time, wide habitat breadth and low to intermediate elevational distributions. Among family groups, the Psittacidae received the highest research effort, while the Cuculidae were the most underrepresented family (30-fold higher and six-fold less than expected, respectively). We found geographic biases in effort, with Jamaica having six-fold less and Puerto Rico eight times more research than expected for their level of endemism. These patterns likely reflect individual interests and limited capacity and funding, typical of Small Island Developing States. With over 50% of species in this review having declining population trends, we recommend prioritizing research that emphasises conservation- and management-relevant data across underrepresented families and islands, by fostering greater collaboration between researchers, practitioners and the existing local amateur ornithological community.
    • Patterns of behaviour, group structure and reproductive status predict levels of glucocorticoid metabolites in zoo-housed ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta.

      Smith, Tessa E.; McCusker, Cara; Stevens, Jeroen M. G.; Elwood, Robert W.; University of Chester; Queens University of Belfast; Centre for Research and Conservation, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, Belguim (Karger Publishing, 2016-01-30)
      In ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta, the factors modulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity differ between wild and semi-free-ranging populations. Here we assess factors modulating HPA activity in ring-tailed lemurs housed in a third environment: the zoo. First we validate an enzyme immunoassay to quantify levels of glucocorticoid (GC) metabolites in the faeces of L. catta. We determine the nature of the female-female dominance hierarchies within each group by computing David’s scores and examining these in relation to faecal GC (fGC). Relationships between female age and fGC are assessed to evaluate potential age-related confounds. The associations between fGC, numbers of males in a group and reproductive status are explored. Finally, we investigate the value of 7 behaviours in predicting levels of fGC. The study revealed stable linear dominance hierarchies in females within each group. The number of males in a social group together with reproductive status, but not age, influenced fGC. The 7 behavioural variables accounted for 68% of the variance in fGC. The amounts of time an animal spent locomoting and in the inside enclosure were both negative predictors of fGC. The study highlights the flexibility and adaptability of the HPA system in ring-tailed lemurs.
    • Pavement pleasures

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Deacon, Joanna; University College Chester (English Nature, 1998-06)
      This journal article discusses limestone pavements in north Wales.
    • A pelagic thresher shark (Alopias pelagicus) gives birth at a cleaning station in the Philippines

      Oliver, Simon P.; Bicskos Kaszo, Attila E.; University of Chester; The Thresher Shark Research and Conservation Project (Springer, 2014-12-23)
      This article discusses photographic evidence captured on April 4, 2013, as the first record of a thresher shark giving birth.
    • Pemphigus is associated with KIR3DL2 expression levels and provides evidence that KIR3DL2 may bind HLA-A3 and A11 in vivo.

      Augusto, Danillo G.; O'Connor, Geraldine M.; Lobo-Alves, Sara C.; Bass, Sara; Martin, Maureen P.; Carrington, Mary; McVicar, Daniel W.; Petzl-Erler, Maria L.; Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil; Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Boston, MA, USA; Leidos Biomedical Research, Cancer and Inflammation Program, Laboratory for Experimental Immunology, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, USA; Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD, USA. (Wiley, 2015-05-06)
      Although HLA-A3 and A11 have been reported to be ligands for KIR3DL2, evidence for any in vivo relevance of this interaction is still missing. To explore the functional importance of KIR3DL2 allelic variation, we analyzed the autoimmune disease pemphigus foliaceus, previously associated (lower risk) with activating KIR genes. KIR3DL2*001 was increased in patients (odds ratio (OR) = 2.04; p = 0.007). The risk was higher for the presence of both KIR3DL2*001 and HLA-A3 or A11 (OR = 3.76, p = 0.013), providing the first evidence that HLA-A3 and A11 may interact with KIR3DL2 in vivo. The nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism 1190T (rs3745902) was associated with protection (OR = 0.52, p = 0.018). This SNP results in a threonine-to-methionine substitution. Individuals who have methionine in this position exhibit a lower percentage of KIR3DL2-positive natural killer (NK) cells and also lower intensity of KIR3DL2 on expressing natural killer cells; additionally, we show that the expression of KIR3DL2 is independent of other killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors. Pemphigus foliaceus is a very unique complex disease strongly associated with immune-related genes. It is the only autoimmune disease known to be endemic, showing a strong correlation with environmental factors. Our data demonstrate that this relatively unknown autoimmune disease may facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of KIR3DL2 ligand recognition.