• Genetic analysis of the critically endangered Trinidad Piping guan (Pipile pipile): Implications for phylogenetic placement and conservation strategies

      McDowall, Ian; Hosie, Charlotte A.; Robinson, Louise A. (University of Chester, 2011-11)
      Classified as critically endangered since 1994, the Trinidad Piping guan (Pipile pipile) is an endemic species estimated to number less than 200 individuals. Known to locals of Trinidad as the ‘Pawi’ this bird has been the subject of substantial hunting pressures and much of the species habitat has been destroyed through deforestation. Although officially protected since 1958, occasional recreational hunting of this elusive species still occurs. Due to difficulties locating and capturing the species, no genetic research has previously been performed using samples obtained from Trinidad. All previous research studies have been conducted using biological materials obtained from captive birds outside Trinidad and island data has never been obtained or compared. The genetic diversity of the remaining population was therefore examined through the investigation of mitochondrial haplotypes, pairwise comparison and SNP analysis. With the intention of assisting the protection of this endangered species by the location of remaining areas of habitation, methods of genetic identification were established for the Trinidad Piping guan utilising non-invasive feather samples. Species specific primers were created in the regions of the ND2 and cyt b genes of the mitochondrial genome to identify Pipile pipile. Species detection was further verified with the use of PCR-RFLP of the same gene regions digested with BsaXI, EcoRV and BsrDI. This combined approach allowed the separation of closely related taxa based on single inter-species SNPs. Confirmation of species identification was subsequently performed through the use of forensically informative nucleotide sequencing. The established methodologies were used in the current study to correct the classification of a UK breeding population of Piping guans thought to be Pipile pipile and to identify Trinidad field samples. These detection methods have implications for ecological studies through the location of populations from trace evidence collected in the field. In addition this method could be used to assist Trinidadian police forces in the identification of bushmeats or simply act as a deterrent to hunters. The sequence data obtained in the present study were also used to re-assess the phylogeny of Piping guans. As genetic sequence from a true island bird was previously unstudied, differences between phylogenies created using non-island and island bird data sets were examined. Combined analysis was performed on 1884bp of the ND2 and cyt b genes and placement of Trinidad Piping guan was found to differ from that which has been previously published.
    • The genetics and evolution of the critically endangered Trinidad Piping Guan Pipile pipile, synonym Aburria pipile.

      McDowall, Ian; Hosie, Charlotte A.; Grass, Amelia (University of Chester, 2018-02)
      The Trinidad Piping Guan, Pipile pipile synonym Aburria pipile (Jaquin, 1784) is the only endemic Cracid on the island of Trinidad. The species is currently listed as Critically Endangered and is considered to be in ‘on-going decline’ by the IUCN, BirdLife International and Cracid Specialist Group. This study aims to examine aspects of genetic variation and the evolution of the mitochondrial genome in the Trinidad Piping Guan utilising, for the first time, samples collected from individuals in the wild and reference specimens of the genus Pipile sourced from museum collections. In this study the complete mitochondrial genome of the Trinidad Piping Guan was sequenced for the first time. Analysis of intra-specific variation of wild Trinidad Piping Guan individuals using single nucleotide polymorphisms demonstrates extremely limited variation within the genes of the mitochondrial genome and nuclear gene intron sequences. Limited variation within this population is consistent with both historical and contemporary contractions of populations within a restricted island system, which may have serious implications for the future of this species in terms of both genetic diversity and conservation management. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Trinidad Piping Guan enabled placement of the genus Pipile within the Galliforme evolutionary tree for the first time, and subsequently places the genus within the broader context of the Aves class. Mito-genomic analysis confirms that the Cracids are one of the basal Galliforme clades, and sister taxa to the Megapodidae. Phylogenetic placement of the Pipile genus is basal to that of the Crax species within the Cracidae family, indicative of an earlier evolutionary origin of the Piping Guans. The inclusion of the Trinidad Piping Guan, in the avian evolutionary tree using the whole mitochondrial genomes expands the current genetic phylogeny of the Cracid family, yielding a better understanding of evolutionary relationships among the Galliforme order and the diversification of modern avian lineages. This study has established novel molecular techniques for the analysis of mitochondrial DNA in historical specimens of the genus Pipile from museum reference collections. The analysis of inter-specific relationships within the genus Pipile has clarified the evolutionary and biogeographic relationships between the Piping Guan species. Additionally, the Trinidad Piping Guan is genetically defined for the first time as an evolutionarily significant unit, which represents a unique evolutionary pathway within this important genus in a closed island system on the island of Trinidad.
    • Geoconservation and geodiversity: What? Who? Where? - and why should I care?

      Nicholls, Keith H.; Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (Institute of Civil Engineering Publishing, 2015-08-31)
      Whilst "geoconservation" is a relatively new sub-discipline in academic geology and earth science departments, this presentation argues that an appreciation of our 'geodiversity' is an important but often overlooked element of the background to development work. For practising engineering geologists or geotechnical engineers, taking up a role in one of the formal geoconservation bodies (be it a local geoconservation group, a Trust or a Geopark) can be a useful networking tool, can offer increased geological awareness and be a source of beneficial continuing Professional development (CPD)). However, the value of geoconservation needs to be brought to a wider audience, since at the moment threats to elements of geological natural heritage are only addressed when important geological landscapes are threatened by development (such as have been seen at Siccar Point and at Wenlock Edge in recent months). Because geodiversity is only rarely fully considered in the planning process, it can be difficult to differentiate between genuine local concern, and irrational "Nimbyism". It is time that those of us working in the geotechnical industry who have backgrounds in geology, drive forward an agenda that establishes our geological heritage as a cause for consern alongside ecology and archaeology. Failure to do so reflects badly on us as individuals and as an industry.
    • A Geoconservation perspective on the trace fossil record associated with the end – Ordovician mass extinction and glaciation in the Welsh Basin

      Burek, Cynthia; Hosie, Lottie; Nicholls, Keith H. (University of Chester, 2019-03-24)
      In this thesis I have illustrated the value of our geological heritage and geodiversity by focussing on a particular detailed aspect of the geological and palaeontological record, i.e. the trace fossil record associated with the end Ordovician (Hirnantian) global glaciation and extinction episode. The major elements of this work that are new are: • a significantly improved understanding of the nature of the soft sediment deformation, and in particular the role of “debrites” as basal landslide decollements in the Lower Palaozic Llangrannog rock succession of West Wales, • a much more detailed description of the trace fossil ichnocoenose present in the Llangrannog succession than has previously been published • an improved understanding of the nature of the ecological perturbation associated with the Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Glacial “ice-house”, and the apparent role of an opportunistic soft body fauna in filling ecological niches vacated as a consequence of the associated extinction. • Considerable thought has been given to the question of how to value abiotic nature, and it is argued that the methods of conservation valuation associated with “Geosystem services” and in particular “Natural Capital” hold considerable potential for the Geoconservation community to engage with the public and with policy makers. • As a direct result of this research, two formal proposals have been put forward for new RIGS sites, together with a new geological SSSI.
    • Geodiversity Action Plans – A method to facilitate, structure, inform and record action for geodiversity.

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Dunlop, Lesley; Larwood, Jonathan G.; University of Chester; Northumbria University, Natural England (Elsevier, 2017-12-15)
      Geodiversity Action Plans are used widely within the United Kingdom to inform and record action for geodiversity and geoconservation. They encompass both site-based audit and conservation with a wider perspective on geodiversity resources available in an agreed area (such as geological sites, museum collections and building stones) with ambitions to present and communicate, influence policy and practice, and to secure resources in relation to geodiversity. Geodiversity Action Plans (GAPs) are used particularly at local and company level to focus and highlight the work needed to be carried out and a as key mechanism to facilitate and support the delivery of the overarching UK Geodiversity Action Plan (UKGAP). Importantly, GAPs cross cut interests and are multidisciplinary. Although they are mainly a UK tool for geoconservation the principles and approach are easily transferred and could be duplicated in other countries.
    • Geodiversity trail: Walking through the past on the university's Chester campus

      Stillwell, Nicholas; Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (University of Chester, 2007-07-01)
      This book illustrates the geodiversity trail on the University of Chester's Chester campus.
    • GORDON, Maria Matilda (nee Ogilvie: 1846-1939)

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University College Chester (Thoemmes Continuum, 2004-06-01)
      This dictionary entry discusses the life and work of Dame Maria Matilda Ogilvie Gordon (1864-1939).
    • Gorillas continue to thrive

      Fletcher, Alison W.; Uwingeli, Prosper; Fawcett, Katie; University College Chester (Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International, 2005)
    • Grike-roclimates

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Legg, Colin; Chester College of Higher Education (English Nature, 1999-07)
      This journal article discusses data collected at two north Wales sites that demonstrates that the direction of grikes makes a significant difference on the biodiversity of limestone pavements.
    • Head imaging and craniometry: A historical note on a base line error

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (College of Radiographers, 1995-07)
      This journal article discusses the work of Lysholm, Reid, and von Ihering in standarding patient positioning during radiological examination of the skull.
    • Heat shock proteins form part of a danger signal cascade in response to lipopolysaccharide and GroEL

      Davies, Emma L.; Bacelar, Maria M. F. V. G.; Marshall, Michael J.; Johnson, E.; Wardle, T. D.; Andrew, Sarah M.; Williams, John H. H.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; Charles Salt Centre, The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry ; Spinal Studies, The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry ; Countess of Chester Hospital ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (Wiley, 2006-05-26)
      An increasing number of cell types, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), have been demonstrated to release heat shock proteins (Hsps). This paper investigates further the hypothesis that Hsps are danger signals. PBMCs and Jurkat cells released Hsp70 (0·22 and 0·7 ng/106 cells, respectively) into medium over 24 h at 37°C. Release of Hsp70 was stimulated 10-fold by GroEL (P < 0·001) and more than threefold by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (P < 0·001). Although Hsp60 could be detected in the medium of cells cultured at 37°C for 24 h, the low rates of release were due probably to cell damage. Significant release of Hsp60 was observed when Jurkat cells were exposed to GroEL (2·88 ng/106 cells) or LPS (1·40 ng/106 cells). The data are consistent with the hypothesis that Hsp70 and Hsp60 are part of a danger signalling cascade in response to bacterial infection.
    • Helpers influence on territory use and maintenance in Alpine marmot groups

      Pasquaretta, Cristian; Busia, Laura; Ferrari, Caterina; Bogliani, Giuseppe; Reale, Denis; von Hardenberg, Achaz; University of Pavia, Universiteé du Quebec a Montreal, Gran Paradiso National Park (2015-04-22)
      In social mammals, territory size and shape vary according to the number and strength of neighbour individuals competing for resources. Two main theories have been proposed to explain this variability: the Group Augmentation (GA) and the realized Resource Holding Potential (rRHP) hypotheses. The first states that the outcome of the interactions among groups depends on the total number of individuals in the group while the second states that only the number of animals directly involved in intergroup competition determines this outcome. We collected data on space use of individually tagged Alpine marmots ( Marmota marmota), a cooperative breeding species that overlaps part of its territory with neighbouring groups. In accordance with the rRHP hypothesis, we found that groups having higher proportion of helpers, rather than higher total number of individuals, had lower percentage of the territory overlapping with neighbouring groups and a larger area available for individual exclusive use.
    • Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus nest sites on the Isle of Mull are associated with habitat mosaics and constrained by topography

      Geary, Matthew; Haworth, Paul F.; Fielding, Alan H.; University of Chester; Haworth Conservation Ltd. (Taylor & Francis, 2018-02-07)
      Capsule: Hen Harrier on the Isle of Mull, UK, are associated with habitat mosaics consisting of moorland, scrub and forestry but avoid grazed land, suggesting that forested habitats could be managed sympathetically for Hen Harrier in the future should the current UK population increase. Aims: To use distribution modelling to investigate nesting habitat associations using a long term dataset for Hen Harrier on Mull. Methods: We develop area-interaction models using a LASSO penalty to explore the distribution of 102 Hen Harrier nest sites in relation to habitat and topography. Our model is then successfully validated in tests using data for 70 nest sites from subsequent years. Results: Our model is effective in predicting suitable areas for Hen Harrier nest sites and indicates that Hen Harriers on Mull are found in habitat mosaics below 200 m asl. Hen Harrier nest intensity is positively associated with increasing proportions of moorland and scrub, open canopy forestry and closed canopy forestry. Nest intensity is negatively associated with increasing proportions of grazed land. Conclusion: Hen Harrier avoid grazed areas but are relatively tolerant of other habitat combinations. These findings are supported by previous observations of Hen Harrier habitat use and have implications for the recovery of some Hen Harrier SPA populations and future forest management. Open canopy forest and forest mosaics could potentially be incorporated into landscape-scale conservation plans for Hen Harriers using the population in Mull as an example.
    • Higher risk of gastrointestinal parasite infection at lower elevation suggests possible constraints in the distributional niche of Alpine marmots

      Zanet, Stefania; Miglio, Giacomo; Ferrari, Caterina; Bassano, Bruno; Ferroglio, Ezio; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Università di Torino; Gran Paradiso National Park; University of Chester (Public Library of Science, 2017-08-01)
      Alpine marmots Marmota marmota occupy a narrow altitudinal niche within high elevation alpine environments. For animals living at such high elevations where resources are limited, parasitism represents a potential major cost in life history. Using occupancy models, we tested if marmots living at higher elevation have a reduced risk of being infected with gastrointestinal helminths, possibly compensating the lower availability of resources (shorter feeding season, longer snow cover and lower temperature) than marmots inhabiting lower elevations. Detection probability of eggs and oncospheres of two gastro-intestinal helminthic parasites, Ascaris laevis and Ctenotaenia marmotae, sampled in marmot feces, was used as a proxy of parasite abundance. As predicted, the models showed a negative relationship between elevation and parasite detectability (i.e. abundance) for both species, while there appeared to be a negative effect of solar radiance only for C. marmotae. Site-occupancy models are used here for the first time to model the constrains of gastrointestinal parasitism on a wild species and the relationship existing between endoparasites and environmental factors in a population of free-living animals. The results of this study suggest the future use of site-occupancy models as a viable tool to account for parasite imperfect detection in ecoparasitological studies, and give useful insights to further investigate the hypothesis of the contribution of parasite infection in constraining the altitudinal niche of Alpine marmots.
    • Higher satiety ratings following yogurt consumption relative to fruit drink or dairy fruit drink

      Tsuchiya, Ami; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Lluch, Anne; Guyonnet, Denis; Drewnowski, Adam; University of Washington ; University of Washington ; Danone Research Centre, France ; Danone Research Centre, France ; University of Washington (Elsevier, 2006-04)
      This article compares the satiating power of semisolid and liquid yogurts with fruit beverages and dairy fruit drinks using 32 volunteers.
    • The historical problems of travel for women undertaking geological fieldwork

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Kolbl-Ebert, Martina; University of Chester ; Jura-Museum, Willibaldsburg (The Geological Society of London, 2007-08-01)
      From unsuitable clothes to a lack of chaperones, from sexual harrassment to lack of proper funding, throughout history women geologists have encountered difficulties travelling to their field location or wotking in the field, whether these locations were close by or abroad. From Etheldred Benett to the present day problems are often sociological and political as well as logistical. Most early women geologists were able to avoid many difficulties because they were protected through working locally where their high social standing was known and respected or because they worked in a team with husband, father, or brother. However the problem developed virulence in the second half of the nineteenth century when women started to appear as students and professionally trained geologists. The single travelling women geologist had to face desciminating attitudes, ranging from pity to disregard and even to sexual harrassment. Benevolent society also had its problems with these women when, for example, professors needed their wives as chaperones to take women students on field trips.
    • Homocysteine and cognitive decline in healthy elderly

      McCaddon, Andrew; Hudson, Peter R.; Davies, Gareth K.; Hughes, Alan; Williams, John H. H.; Wilkinson, Clare; University of Wales College of Medicine ; Wrexham Maelor Hospital ; Wrexham Maelor Hospital ; Royal Alexandra Hospital, Paisley ; Chester College ; University of Wales College of Medicine (Karger, 2001-09)
      Serum homocysteine is increased, and correlates inversely with cognitive scores, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia and "age-associated memory impairment". Elevated levels might signal accelerated cognitive decline, although this remains to be established. We therefore repeated Mini-Mental State Examinations, together with additional ADAS-Cog assessments, in 32 healthy elderly individuals to determine whether prior homocysteine levels predicted cognitive changes over a 5-year period.
    • Hsp70 release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells

      Hunter-Lavin, Claire; Davies, Emma L.; Bacelar, Maria M. F. V. G.; Marshall, Michael J.; Andrew, Sarah M.; Williams, John H. H.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry ; University College Chester ; University College Chester (Elsevier, 2004-11-12)
      There are an increasing number of studies reporting the presence of Hsps in human serum. We have investigated the release of Hsp70 into blood and culture medium from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and whether this release is due to cell damage or active secretion from the cells. Intact Hsp70 was released from cells within whole blood and from purified PBMCs under normal culture conditions. Hsp70 release was rapid (0.1 ng/106 cells/h) over the first 2 h of culture and continued at a reduced rate up to 24 h (<0.025 ng/106 cells/h). Using viable cell counts and lactate dehydrogenase release we were able to confirm that the release of Hsp70 was not due to cellular damage. Hsp70 release was inhibited by monensin, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, and methylamine, but not by brefeldin A. These data suggest that Hsp70 is released from cells via a non-classical pathway, possibly involving lysosomal lipid rafts.
    • Hunger, thirst, and energy intakes following consumption of caloric beverages

      Almiron-Roig, Eva; Drewnowski, Adam; University of Washington (Elsevier, 2003-09)
      Whereas soft drinks are described as primarily thirst-quenching liquids, juices and milk are said to be liquid foods, with a greater satiating power. This study was conducted to compare the effects of orange juice, low-fat milk (1%), regular cola, and sparkling water on hunger, thirst, satiety, and energy intakes at the next meal. Thirty-two volunteers (14 men and 18 women), ages 18–35 years, consumed a breakfast preload composed of 590 ml (20 oz) of an energy-containing beverage (1036 kJ) or water (0 kJ) and a slice of toast (418 kJ) on four different occasions. Participants rated hunger, thirst, fullness, and desire to eat at baseline and at 20-min intervals for 2 h following preload ingestion. A tray lunch was presented at 2 h, 15 min and food consumption was measured. Compared to sparkling water, the three energy-containing beverages were associated with higher fullness and reduced hunger rating and desire to eat. However, energy intakes at lunch (4511±151 kJ for men and 3183±203 kJ for women) were the same across all four beverage conditions and no compensation for breakfast energy was observed. The three beverages of equal energy value were significantly different from sparkling water, but not from each other, in their effects on hunger and satiety ratings. All four beverages satisfied thirst equally well. Whether energy-containing cola, juice, and low-fat milk facilitate a positive energy balance remains a topic for further study.
    • Ida Slater: A Collection Researcher in a Male World at the Beginning of the 20th Century

      Sendino, Consuelo; Ducker, Erik; Burek, Cynthia V. (SAGE Publications, 2019-06-27)
      Ida Lilian Slater (1881-1969) was one of the first women to work as a geologist in a male world, and although her career was short, she made important contributions to the Early Palaeozoic of Wales and Scotland. Her main work was based on a collection of a group of fossil scypho-zoan polyps gathered not by her but by another significant woman, Elizabeth Anderson, widely known as Mrs. Robert Gray (1831-1924). The majority of this collection is kept at the Natural History Museum (NHM), London, and the Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge. She worked in the former one for two years describing species and comparing specimens for her monograph on British conulariids. Although her work was based not only on this group, she will be remembered by her important contribution to the conulariids through collections. The NHM collection is considered the best in the world in terms of diversity and the second best in its number of specimens, while the Sedgwick Museum has a smaller collection that is still considered the second best in diversity and number of specimens in the United Kingdom. Her work has been cited for more than 100 years and continues to be cited to this day by researchers on this group of fossils.