• “There was something very peculiar about Doc…”: Deciphering Queer Intimacy in Representations of Doc Holliday

      Tankard, Alex; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2014-12-08)
      This essay discusses representations of male intimacy in life-writing about consumptive gunfighter John Henry “Doc” Holliday (1851-1887). I argue that twentieth-century commentators rarely appreciated the historical specificity of Holliday’s friendships in a frontier culture that not only normalized but actively celebrated same-sex intimacy. Indeed, Holliday lived on the frayed edges of known nineteenth-century socio-sexual norms, and his interactions with other men were further complicated by his vicious reputation and his disability. His short life and eventful afterlife exposes the gaps in available evidence – and the flaws in our ability to interpret it. Yet something may still be gleaned from the early newspaper accounts of Holliday. Having argued that there is insufficient evidence to justify positioning him within modern categories of hetero/homosexuality, I analyze the language used in pre-1900 descriptions of first-hand encounters with Holliday to illuminate the consumptive gunfighter’s experience of intimacy, if not its meaning.
    • The Thief of Talant

      Reverdy, Pierre; Seed, Ian; University of Chester (Wakefield Press, 2016-09-27)
      Translation of novel/long poem by Pierre Reverdy. Published in French in 1917. This is the first translation to be published in English.
    • 'This most humane commerce': Lace-making during the Famine

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester (Liverpool University Press, 2018-11-30)
      Fintan O’Toole includes a lace collar from Youghal, Co. Cork in his A History of Ireland in 100 Objects, noting it ‘epitomises one of the more remarkable achievements of Irish women in the second half of the nineteenth century – the creation from scratch of a world-class craft industry’. It was an industry largely founded in response to the Famine, by philanthropic upper- and middle-class Irish women who recognised the failure of famine relief measures for women and girls in particular; the Youghal lace collar is a legacy of the lace school founded there by a nun during the Famine. Lace-making offered rescue not just for them, but their families; in 1852, among fishing families in Blackrock, ‘the strong and powerful father’ and ‘the vigorous son’ were now ‘protected from hunger and misery by the fingers of the feeble child, and saved from the workhouse by her cheerful and untiring toil’. This chapter will examine the representation of textile and lace making during the Famine in texts such as Mary Anne Hoare’s ‘The Knitted Collar’, Susanna Meredith’s The Lacemakers, and Brother James’s Eva O’Beirne, or the Little Lacemaker, as narratives of self-help, critiques of inadequate state intervention, calls for support of the trade and charitable donations, and an impetus to emigration. It will also consider the relationship between depictions of mid-nineteenth-century Irish textile workers and the representation of seamstresses in Victorian literature more widely.
    • Three Poems

      Stephenson, William; University of Chester (The Rialto, 2017-03-01)
      Three poems
    • Timothy Leary and Alternative Salvation

      Stephenson, William; University of Chester (T & T Clark, 2015-12-17)
      In his rewriting of The Tibetan Book of the Dead as an LSD manual in The Psychedelic Experience, his verse translations of the Tao Te Ching and his later work such as Your Brain is God, Timothy Leary outlines a constantly evolving manifesto for social and personal salvation. My focus in this chapter is on Leary’s countercultural and post-countercultural revisions of the human from the 1960s to 1990s; his mission to move beyond inherited templates of subjectivity of towards states of ecstasy which were largely uncharted but towards which his chosen tools – drugs, then later computer technology – could point the way. The divinity of the brain is, in Leary’s worldview at least, a literal physiological truth, rather than a metaphor; for Leary, God is among other things a cluster of neurons, but this is to be welcomed as an alternative route to salvation.
    • Timothy Leary and the trace of the posthuman

      Stephenson, William; University of Chester (Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2014-07-03)
      If we trace the line of Timothy Leary’s thought from The Politics of Ecstasy to Your Brain is God, he is outlining his programme for social and personal change based on the consumption of psychedelics and the 3-stage process of ‘turn on, tune in, drop out’. And yet, at the same time, he is mapping out a process which has a profound relationship to the shifting concept of the human. Leary’s programme was one which paradoxically urged the reader to re-humanize him or herself by stepping out of preprogrammed social games even to the extent of temporarily destroying the ego under heavy doses of psychedelics, and yet at the same time sketched out an emerging posthuman future, in which the subject in and of ideology (Althusser) was to be replaced by a post-subjective, post-ideological being whose processes Leary believed would operate on a different ontological level. Leary argued that this level was that of the cellular process of the body, the automatic somatic workings over which the ego has no control and yet which inform and create the majority of sensory impressions and subjective consciousness. His means of reaching this level was, at first, drugs; then from the 1980s his focus shifted to computer technology: ‘Electronics and psychedelics have shattered the sequence of orderly linear identification, the automatic imitation that provides racial and social continuity’. In his introduction to the 1995 reissue of High Priest (1968), Leary pointed out that ‘You will note (and, perhaps, be amused by) our Breathless Spirituality, our lavish use religious metaphors. Today, of course, we are beginning to use neurological and digital terms to suggest how we can operate our brains’; he warns the reader that the Priest in the title is ironic. My focus here is not on the means but the end: not on drugs or computers as such but on Leary’s revisions of the human; on his problematic quest to refashion the human being and move beyond it towards posthuman states which were largely uncharted but towards which his chosen tools, fashionable for each era in which he was writing, could point the way.
    • 'The Tottering, Fluttering, Palpitating Mass': Power and Hunger in Nineteenth-Century Literary Responses to the Great Famine

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester (Routledge, 2015-11-29)
      This chapter examines representations of power and powerlessness in nineteenth-century literary responses to the Great Famine, arguing that many of these - largely middle-class authors - transcend the values and prejudices of their class in the attempt to engage honestly and imaginatively with the sufferings of Famine victims.
    • Toys and Radical Politics: The Marxist Import of Toy Story That Time Forgot

      Hay, Jonathan; University of Chester (University of Edinburgh, 2018-06-17)
      Through the analysis of a capitalist text, and by reflecting on the discourse of Marx and Althusser, this paper demonstrates why Marxism remains a potent politics of dissent. It suggests that Marxist philosophies can come to function in an ultimately reparative manner through their promotion of countercultural ideologies.
    • The tragedies

      Rees, Emma L. E.; University of Chester (Continuum, 2010-02-28)
      This book chapter discusses Shakespeare's tragedies, focusing on King Lear.
    • 'Tram in Milan', 'In the Pavilion', 'Incident' and 'Changes'

      Seed, Ian; University of Chester (Tears in the Fence, 2015-02-28)
      Four prose poems
    • Translation practices: Through language to culture

      Chantler, Ashley; Dente, Carla; University of Chester ; University of Pisa (Rodopi, 2009-03-19)
      This cutting-edge collection, born of a belief in the value of approaching 'translation' in a wide range of ways, contains essays of interest to students and scholars of translation, literary and textual studies. It provides insights into the relations between translation and comparative literature, contrastive linguistics, cultural studies, painting and other media. Subjects and authors discussed include: the translator as 'go-between'; the textual editor as translator; Ghirri's photography and Celati's fiction; the European lending library; La Bible d'Amiens; the coining of Italian phraseological units; Michèle Roberts's Impossible Saints; the impact of modern translations for stage on perceptions of ancient Greek drama; and the translation of slang, intensifiers, characterisation, desire, the self, and America in 1990s Italian fiction. The collection closes with David Platzer's discussion of translating Dacia Maraini's poetry into English and with his new translations of 'Ho Sognato una Stazione' ('I Dreamed of a Station') and 'Le Tue Bugie' ('Your Lies').
    • The traveller's experience of famine Ireland

      Fegan, Melissa (Carfax Publishing, 2001-12)
    • Travellers and Avatars

      Stephenson, William; University of Chester (Live Canon Poetry Press, 2018-11-09)
      Poetry collection
    • Travelling Solo: Flash Fictions

      Blair, Peter; Steward, David; Chantler, Ashley; N/A (Flash: The International Short-Short Story Press, 2018-03-01)
      In these thirty flash fictions, paths cross, people meet and part, and always there are consequences, often misremembered or misunderstood. Funny, caustic and poignant by turns, the stories remind us that we each find our own way through the muddle of life.
    • Triply bound: Genre and the exilic self

      Rees, Emma L. E.; Chester College of Higher Education (Associated University Presses, 2003)
    • Troubling Women Troubling Genre: Shakespeare's Unruly Characters

      MacKenzie, Anna (University of Chester, 2015-07)
      This thesis brings the performativity of William Shakespeare’s plays into focus; in presenting an alternative approach to his works, I show how literary criticism can be reinvigorated. Dramatic works demonstrate that, in their theatrical world, everything is mutable, and capable of evolving and changing, negating stability or reliability. Why, then, should what I term monogeneric approaches (forms of analysis that allocate one genre to plays, adopting a priori ideas as opposed to recognising processes of dramatic construction) to criticism remain prevalent in Shakespearean scholarship? Performativity, as defined by Judith Butler, is a concept that focuses on the dynamic constitution of a subject, rather than on the end result alone (whether ‘female’ for gender, or, for example, ‘comedy’ for plays). In establishing an analogical relationship between the performativity of gender and the performance of dramatic works, I offer new, interpretive possibilities for dramatic works, moving away from monogeneric methods. Constructing a method of analysis based on performativity allows an approach that recognises and privileges dramatic dynamism and characterisation. The role of female characters is vital in Shakespeare’s works: we see defiant, submissive, calculating, principled and overwhelmingly multifaceted performances from these characters who, I argue, influence the courses that plays take. This thesis joins a conversation that began in 335BCE with Aristotle’s Poetics. In acknowledging and interrogating previous scholarship on genre in Shakespeare’s works, I trace monogeneric themes in analysis from Aristotle, through A.C. Bradley, through to later twentieth- and twenty-first-century critics. I challenge the practice of allocating genre based on plot features, including weddings and deaths; such actions are not conclusively representative of one genre alone. To enable this interrogation, I establish relationships between theories such as Nicolas Bourriaud’s work on artistic exchange; Jacques Derrida’s hypothesis on participation and belonging; and feminist research by scholars including Luce Irigaray and Julia Kristeva. Performance analysis is a vital component of this thesis, alongside textual analysis. In a number of cases, multiple performances of a dramatic work are considered to illustrate the fascinating variety with which the text is translated from page to stage and the impact of different directorial decisions. I use the term ‘textual analysis’ to include the varying editions of Shakespeare’s plays, and to consider that every Complete Works publication is not, in fact, complete. The existence of quarto texts makes clear an important process of dramatic evolution, particularly when dramatic works and their allocated genres shift between quarto and Folio versions. Such textual instability highlights the difficulties inherent in applying singular identities to dynamic works. In locating performativity at the core of dramatic works and emphasising the key role of female characters, this thesis brings performance to the fore and presents an alternative ‘lens of interpretation’ for readers, watchers, teachers and scholars of Shakespeare.
    • “Truth is like a vast tree”: Metaphor use in Gandhi’s autobiographical narration.

      Neary, Clara; University of Chester (John Benjamins, 2017-07-06)
      This article focuses on Gandhi’s use of Biblical metaphor in the English translation of his autobiography “The Story of My Experiments with Truth” (1940). The aim of the analysis is to show how Gandhi appropriated Christian ideology to his own life story when presenting it to an English-speaking audience. Given that metaphor use is “seldom neutral” (Semino, 2008, p. 32), underlying conceptual mappings can be revealing, particularly when the same conceptual frame is employed systematically across a text or discourse situation. Analysis of the English translation reveals a use of Biblical metaphor in the English translation which may constitute a deliberate appropriation of Christian ideology. This article suggests potential motivations for this appropriation, linking the text’s metaphor use to Gandhi’s desire to reform Hinduism and intention to counter the rising tide of Hindu-Christian conversion that threatened the success of his campaign for Indian political and spiritual independence. Keywords: conceptual metaphor theory, Gandhi, “The Story of My Experiments with Truth”
    • Tuberculosis and Disabled Identity in Nineteenth-Century Literature: Invalid Lives

      Tankard, Alex; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018-03-15)
      Chapter 5 as sample from monograph. Wuthering Heights ridiculed consumptive stereotypes, and Jude the Obscure exposed socioeconomic and cultural factors that disabled people with chronic illness, but neither could hope for a better future – much less suggest real strategies for improving the lives of people with tuberculosis in the nineteenth century. Beatrice Harraden’s 1893 bestseller Ships That Pass in the Night also offers a complex, bitter critique of the way in which sentimentality obscures the abuse and neglect of disabled people by nondisabled carers; it undermines the Romanticisation of consumptives, and shows consumptives driven to suicide by social marginalisation that leaves them feeling useless and hopeless. Yet its depiction of a romantic friendship between an emancipated woman and a disabled man also engages with the exciting possibilities of 1890s’ gender politics, and imagines new comradeship between disabled and nondisabled people based on mutual care and respect.
    • Twelfth night: Character studies

      Atkin, Graham; University of Chester (Continuum, 2011-02-06)
      This book discusses the characters of Orsino, Viola, Sir Toby Belch, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, Maria, Feste, Olivia, Malvolio, Antonio, and Sebastian.