• Introduction to Pharmacodynamics

      Robertson, Deborah A. F.; University of Chester (Mark Allen Healthcare Ltd, 2017-04-16)
      In this second article in the series of ‘bite sized’ pharmacology we will start to look at the principles of pharmacodynamics. It is important that prescribers are aware of the actions their drugs have in the body after administration. They should know the SITE of action (where the drug works), the MODE of action (how the drug works) and the time to ONSET and DURATION of action (when the drug starts to work and how long for). This helps prescribers decide on drug choice, drug dose and the dose schedule as well as the length of time the drug needs to be prescribed for. This knowledge can also assist the prescriber in prediction and prevention (or minimising) of adverse drug reactions and to help educate their patients on possible side effects. In this article we will look at SITEs of action; receptors, ion channels, enzymes, and transport systems. We will also introduce the concepts of agonism and antagonism and their relationship to MODE of action.
    • Introduction to Pharmacokinetics

      Robertson, Deborah A. F.; University of Chester (Mark Allen Healthcare Ltd, 2017-03-16)
      Pharmacology is an area many nurse prescribers tell me that they worry about. This is whether they are prescribing students or qualified prescribers. They are very aware of the importance of pharmacological knowledge and its impact on safe prescribing. They typically want to know how much information they need to know and what depth and breadth that information should take. Another area they worry about is how many drugs they need to be familiar with? This series of pharmacology articles will explore some concepts in pharmacology to support the prescriber in developing that knowledge. This article begins by examining the basic concepts of pharmacokinetics to allow the reader to improve their understanding of drug handling within the body. It will explore the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion to chart a drugs ‘route’ from administration to elimination.
    • An introduction to problem based learning

      McCarthy, Jill (2007-06-01)
      This presentation discusses problem based learning (PBL) which is a style of facilitating learning in which the problem acts as the context and driving force for the knowledge to be learnt. PBL varies from problem solving in that with problem solving the students gain the knowledge and then apply it to the problem given, whereas with PBL, the problems are encountered before all the relevant knowledge has been acquired. It is claimed that a PBL approach produces indepdent, motivated students, with a deeper understanding of the subject and with improvements in communication, team work and higher order cognitive skills such as problem solving, and critical analysis.
    • Investigation of the development of a 'career' of aggressive behaviour by people with learning disabilities

      Lovell, Andy; Skellern, Joanne; University of Chester (Kavanah, 2010)
      This paper aims to study the development of aggression over time in the lives of a group of individuals with learning difficulties.
    • Invisible and at-risk: older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic.

      Benbow, Susan M; Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Kingston, Paul; Peisah, Carmelle (2021-12-16)
      During the COVID-19 pandemic the risks to older adults of systemic abuse and neglect have become amplified, alongside increasing abuse and neglect in the community. Novel risks have also evolved involving cybercrime and the use of remote technologies in health and social care related to the pandemic. This commentary brings together lessons to be learned from these developments and initial ideas for actions to mitigate future risks.
    • Involving Fathers in maternity care: Best practice

      Steen, Mary; Downe, Soo; Rigby, Katrina; Fisher, Duncan; Burgess, Adrienne; Davies, Jeremy; Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust ; UCLan ; Fatherhood Institute (2008-11-19)
      This presentation described and discussed a structured review of the evidence to support best practice when involving fathers during pregnancy, birth and following birth.
    • Is living well with dementia a credible aspiration for spousal carers?

      Tolhurst, Edward; Carey, Malcolm; Weicht, Bernhard; Kingston, Paul; Stafford University; University of Chester; University of Innsbruck (Taylor & Francis, 2018-05-21)
      In England there has been substantial policy development and an academic drive to promote the goal of ‘living well’ for people with dementia and their family members. This article critically evaluates the feasibility of this intention, with reference to the experience of those caring for people with the condition. Qualitative data are utilised from a study which explored how couples negotiate relationships and care. The focus of this paper is the perspectives of spousal carers and the challenges they encounter within their caring role. Views were obtained via semi-structured joint interviews where the carer participated alongside the person with dementia. The extent to which living well with dementia is a credible aspiration for carers is examined via three themes: identity subsumed under care responsibilities; the couple as an isolated family unit; and barriers to professional support. The findings highlight that experience of caring is highly complex and fraught with multiple practical, emotional and moral pressures. It is asserted that research into dementia and care relationships must avoid a zero sum situation, prompted by living well discourses, where attempts to bolster the position of people with dementia compound the marginalisation and stigmatisation of informal carers.
    • The issues affecting mental health nursing in Uganda

      Bailey, Jan; University of Chester (OMICS Group International, 2014-09-30)
      Estimates are that up to 35% of the Ugandan populations have a mental health condition; however access to psychiatric care, particularly for people living in rural areas, is poor. Additionally, cultural and lay beliefs and stigma affect both the individual with mental illness and healthcare professionals. The Ugandan government has recognized the need to modernize legislation and develop policies designed to provide modern psychiatric services to the whole population. Strategies include, passing new legislation, integrating services into primary care, including psychiatric illness in nurse education. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that this rhetoric is not being fully enacted. This paper reviews the issues affecting the development and delivery of improved mental health services, with a particular focus on psychiatric nursing. Actions that have already successfully addressed issues with psychiatric services in Uganda are highlighted and conclusions drawn regarding the development of future services.
    • Issues of Ageing, Social Class, and Poverty

      Carey, Malcolm (Routledge, 2019-01-18)
      This chapter examines some ethical and political challenges generated by the increasingly complex needs of an ageing society upon social work. It concentrates on the UK as a case study and critically evaluates related age-graded policies and practices relating to social work and care. The chapter includes a discussion of the on-going ethical tensions between social diversity within an ageing society and the shrinking of formal care provision.
    • “It’s a Tug of War Between the Person I Used To Be and the Person I Want To Be” The Terror, Complexity, and Limits of Leaving Crime Behind

      Buck, Gillian; University of Chester (SAGE, 2016-12-20)
      This article draws upon an ethnographic study of peer mentoring in the United Kingdom criminal justice system. It examines how people attempting to desist from criminal lifestyles often experience a period of crisis, characterized by unsettling practical and personal losses. Through interviews with peer mentors and mentees, and observations of mentoring practices, this study renders this sense of adversity visible. It also reveals the ways in which peer mentors may alleviate the weight of the crisis, by providing a blueprint of change, while appearing to be nonauthoritarian. These are important components given that mentees often feel untethered from known ways of being and describe their interactions with authority figures as embattled. An interesting secondary effect which emerges here is that peer mentors appear to shift the perceptions of external observers. This is a vital feature, given that sustained desistance from crime requires contexts conducive to such changes.
    • ‘It’s more than confusing our b’s and d’s’: a commentary on the lack of understanding of the needs of social work students who have dyslexia

      Gant, Valerie; Hewson, Michael; University of Chester
      Drawing on principles of auto-ethnography, this commentary offers for discussion reflections on a personal reaction to some of the struggles experienced when navigating the English social work placement landscape for a student who has a diagnosis (or label) of dyslexia/dyspraxia. Commenting on some of the challenges faced in order to try and survive the placement experience necessary to complete the programme, this account makes recommendations and suggestions for educators in university and in practice.
    • Journey’s end? From residual service to newer forms of pathology, risk aversion and abandonment in social work with older people

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester (SAGE, 2016-05-01)
      Summary: This article details how social work with older people is disappearing whilst also being supplanted by seemingly more cost-effective forms of intervention in the UK. This has included the use of higher numbers of unqualified staff in roles once completed by qualified social workers, alongside highly rationed interventions that utilise fewer staff or associate welfare professionals, including those drawn from health care. Findings: Such reforms represent important changes embedded within neo-liberal inspired professional discursive practices. These include the biomedicalization of ageing and associate narrow gaze interpretations of social care needs that privilege pathology and risk. For social work there has also occurred an ongoing retreat from older adults within communities: from care managed and personalised support to the extension of ‘risk averse’ safeguarding and promotion of personal autonomy and informal care. Rather than represent a break with the past such socially constructed and politically motivated reforms remain part of longer held societal and ideological trends. Importantly these include assumptions that older users remain a peripheral concern in contrast to other social groups or needs Applications: The article concludes that the social work profession needs to articulate its distinct role with regard its capability to provide substantive support to an ageing population alongside it’s capacity to look beyond a narrow and unsustainable focus on rationing or the endorsement of self-support, treating illness and controlling risk.
    • Justice of truth? Alleged offenders with intellectual disabilities in the criminal justice system

      Lovell, Andy; Hellenbach, Michael (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2011-09)
      This PhD study examines how people who are intellectually impaired are processed within the criminal justice system. In this context it analyses the understanding of intellectual disabilities, criminal justice decision-making processes, and the constructon of crime and punishment by professionals involved in criminal justice. Despite significant changes in mental health legislation and greater awareness by professionals of issues around intellectually disabled offenders, previous research has demonstrated that this population remains disadvantaged when coming into contact with the criminal justice system. The study focuses on how the criminal justice system maintains its traditional way of operating when engaging with people who are impaired in their intellectual capacities and who, therefore, often have difficulties in processing information and understanding complex situations. The study draws on qualitative data generated through thirty five unstructured interviews with custody sergeants, forensic examiners, prosecutors, magistrates, judges and probation officers from three regions in the North West of England: Cheshire, Merseyside and Greater Manchester. Through those interviews, the provision of support to alleged offenders is examined and the process of legal representation evaluated. By analysing decision-making processes around vulnerable defendants, two conflicting views that influence cimrinal justice professionals in their strategic behaviour were identified: protecting offenders' rights and protecting the public from criminal behaviour. It is argued that the criminal justice system draws its normative and enforcement powers from a 'discourse of truth' that concentrates on capacity and intent. Defendants who are classified as vulnerable because of impaired intellectual functioning whereby capacity to reason and intellectual disability are functionally separated. This way, an alleged offender's vulnerability becomes a manageable object within the criminal justice system and is integrated into a person's risk management. The disjointed discourse around intellectual disabilities increases the risk that people with an impaired level of intellectual functioning become drawn into the mainstream criminal justice system and, therefore, further compromises the empowerment and social inclusion of this population.
    • Key concepts in learning disability

      Talbot, Pat; Astbury, Geoff; Mason, Tom; Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-02-15)
      This book offers an A-Z format which covers a wide variety of topics on learning disabilities.
    • Key concepts in nursing

      Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; McIntosh, Annette; Bryan, Ann; Mason, Tom; Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-03-17)
      Each entry features a snapshot definition of the concept, a broader discussion, key points, a case study and examples of further reading.
    • Knowledge and Determinants of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Adults in Hohoe Municipality, Ghana

      Awuni, Thomas K.; Kye-Duodu, Gideon; Duodu, Charles; Zotor, Francis B.; Ellahi, Basma; Ghana Health Service, Municipal Health Directorate, Elmina, Ghana 2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana 3 Ghana Health Service, Volta Regional Health Directorate, Ho, Ghana 4 Department of Family and Community Health, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana 5 Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester, Chester, UK (scholink, 2017-12-04)
      The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that a person consumes at least 400g of Fruit and Vegetable (FV) daily to prevent chronic disease risk. We assessed knowledge of current WHO guidelines and other determinants of FV intake among adults (≥ 18 years, n = 397) in Hohoe Municipality, Ghana. Face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire adopted from WHO Risk Factor Surveillance System were undertaken. Knowledge of FV daily servings and determinants of intake were evaluated by descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. There was a 99.2% response rate with approximately 9% of participants correctly stating the WHO daily recommended amount (P = .296). Most (54%) of respondents’ FV intake was affected by unavailability of desired choice (P = .050). Odd of inadequate consumption for persons aware of adequate amount was 1.97 (95% CI: 0.64, 6.05, P = .234) higher than persons without awareness. Participants with problems accessing their desired choice of FV had 0.59 odds (95% CI: 0.36, 0.95, P = .030) of consuming inadequate amount compared to those with easy access. Adequate FV intake depends on availability of consumer preference regardless of knowledge of recommendations. Individual FV cultivation is relevant for availability of preferred choice and adequate consumption for NCDs risk reductions among Ghanaians.
    • Knowledge translation and the power of the nursing academic conference

      Finnegan, Alan; McGhee, Stephen; Roxburgh, Michelle; Kent, Bridie; University of Chester; University of South Florida; University of Highlands and Islands; University of Plymouth (Elsevier, 2018-11-08)
      The national and international conference experiences present a unique learning opportunity. There are differing events that reflect the full nursing employment spectrum from clinical delivery, organizational and policy development and academia in education and research. Many conferences provide a platform for academics with differing levels of experience to come together and welcome contributions from students and all grades of post-registration nurses, educationalists, administrators, and researchers. In selecting the programme, the conference organisers will often circulate a calling notice and potential presenters will submit their abstracts to be blind peer reviewed. Therefore, conferences showcase the best of the best and provide the current perspective of areas of growth within the nursing sector. Conferences have a plethora of delivery routes ranging from posters, oral presentations (both short and long), panel discussions, key notes, seminars, exhibitions and workshops. These present an exceptional chance to listen, present, network and discuss nursing innovation and academic research.
    • Late life acquired dual-sensory impairment: A systematic review of its impact on everyday competence

      Tiwana, Rumandeep; Benbow, Susan M.; Kingston, Paul; University of Chester (SAGE, 2016-09-29)
      The literature on the relationship between late acquired dual-sensory impairment (DSI) in older adults and the ability to remain independent is limited. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to assess the impact that late life acquired DSI in older adults has on their ability to remain independent within their homes. Exclusion and inclusion criteria were applied to the papers identified and eight qualified for inclusion in the review. Each selected paper was assessed using a quality rating scale. Country of origin, population studied, age, vision, and hearing criteria all varied between papers. They provide evidence that DSI affects everyday competence, and this effect is complicated by physical comorbidities, mental health, and social factors
    • Layers of listening: qualitative analysis of the impact of early intervention services for first-episode psychosis on carers’ experiences

      Anna, Lavis,; Lester, Helen; Everard, Linda; Freemantle, Nick; Amos, Tim; Fowler, David; Hodgekins, Jo; Jones, Peter B.; Marshall, Max; Sharma, Vimal; et al. (Cambridge University Press, 2015-08)
      Background: Early Intervention Services (EIS) comprise low-stigma youth-friendly mental health teams for young people undergoing first-episode psychosis (FEP). Engaging with the family of the young person is central to EIS policy and practice. Aims: By analysing carers’ accounts of their daily lives and affective challenges during a relative’s first-episode psychosis against the background of wider research into Early Intervention Services, this paper explores relationships between carers’ experiences and EIS. Methods: Semi-structured longitudinal interviews with 80 carers of young people with FEP treated through English EIS. Results: Our data suggest that EIS successfully aid carers to support their relatives, particularly through the provision of knowledge about psychosis and medications. However, paradoxical ramifications of these service user-focused engagements also emerge; they risk leaving carers’ emotions unacknowledged and compounding an existing lack of helpseeking. Conclusions: By focusing on EIS’s engagements with carers, this paper draws attention to an urgent broader question; as a continuing emphasis on care outside the clinic space places family members at the heart of the care of those with severe mental illness, we ask: who can, and should, support carers, and in what ways?
    • Leadership

      Watts, Geoff; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-03-17)
      This book chapter discusses the concept of leadership and the response of the NHS to leadership demands