• Journey’s end? From residual service to newer forms of pathology, risk aversion and abandonment in social work with older people

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester (SAGE, 2016-05-01)
      Summary: This article details how social work with older people is disappearing whilst also being supplanted by seemingly more cost-effective forms of intervention in the UK. This has included the use of higher numbers of unqualified staff in roles once completed by qualified social workers, alongside highly rationed interventions that utilise fewer staff or associate welfare professionals, including those drawn from health care. Findings: Such reforms represent important changes embedded within neo-liberal inspired professional discursive practices. These include the biomedicalization of ageing and associate narrow gaze interpretations of social care needs that privilege pathology and risk. For social work there has also occurred an ongoing retreat from older adults within communities: from care managed and personalised support to the extension of ‘risk averse’ safeguarding and promotion of personal autonomy and informal care. Rather than represent a break with the past such socially constructed and politically motivated reforms remain part of longer held societal and ideological trends. Importantly these include assumptions that older users remain a peripheral concern in contrast to other social groups or needs Applications: The article concludes that the social work profession needs to articulate its distinct role with regard its capability to provide substantive support to an ageing population alongside it’s capacity to look beyond a narrow and unsustainable focus on rationing or the endorsement of self-support, treating illness and controlling risk.
    • Justice of truth? Alleged offenders with intellectual disabilities in the criminal justice system

      Lovell, Andy; Hellenbach, Michael (University of Liverpool (University of Chester), 2011-09)
      This PhD study examines how people who are intellectually impaired are processed within the criminal justice system. In this context it analyses the understanding of intellectual disabilities, criminal justice decision-making processes, and the constructon of crime and punishment by professionals involved in criminal justice. Despite significant changes in mental health legislation and greater awareness by professionals of issues around intellectually disabled offenders, previous research has demonstrated that this population remains disadvantaged when coming into contact with the criminal justice system. The study focuses on how the criminal justice system maintains its traditional way of operating when engaging with people who are impaired in their intellectual capacities and who, therefore, often have difficulties in processing information and understanding complex situations. The study draws on qualitative data generated through thirty five unstructured interviews with custody sergeants, forensic examiners, prosecutors, magistrates, judges and probation officers from three regions in the North West of England: Cheshire, Merseyside and Greater Manchester. Through those interviews, the provision of support to alleged offenders is examined and the process of legal representation evaluated. By analysing decision-making processes around vulnerable defendants, two conflicting views that influence cimrinal justice professionals in their strategic behaviour were identified: protecting offenders' rights and protecting the public from criminal behaviour. It is argued that the criminal justice system draws its normative and enforcement powers from a 'discourse of truth' that concentrates on capacity and intent. Defendants who are classified as vulnerable because of impaired intellectual functioning whereby capacity to reason and intellectual disability are functionally separated. This way, an alleged offender's vulnerability becomes a manageable object within the criminal justice system and is integrated into a person's risk management. The disjointed discourse around intellectual disabilities increases the risk that people with an impaired level of intellectual functioning become drawn into the mainstream criminal justice system and, therefore, further compromises the empowerment and social inclusion of this population.
    • Key concepts in learning disability

      Talbot, Pat; Astbury, Geoff; Mason, Tom; Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-02-15)
      This book offers an A-Z format which covers a wide variety of topics on learning disabilities.
    • Key concepts in nursing

      Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; McIntosh, Annette; Bryan, Ann; Mason, Tom; Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-03-17)
      Each entry features a snapshot definition of the concept, a broader discussion, key points, a case study and examples of further reading.
    • Knowledge and Determinants of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Adults in Hohoe Municipality, Ghana

      Awuni, Thomas K.; Kye-Duodu, Gideon; Duodu, Charles; Zotor, Francis B.; Ellahi, Basma; Ghana Health Service, Municipal Health Directorate, Elmina, Ghana 2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana 3 Ghana Health Service, Volta Regional Health Directorate, Ho, Ghana 4 Department of Family and Community Health, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana 5 Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester, Chester, UK (scholink, 2017-12-04)
      The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that a person consumes at least 400g of Fruit and Vegetable (FV) daily to prevent chronic disease risk. We assessed knowledge of current WHO guidelines and other determinants of FV intake among adults (≥ 18 years, n = 397) in Hohoe Municipality, Ghana. Face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire adopted from WHO Risk Factor Surveillance System were undertaken. Knowledge of FV daily servings and determinants of intake were evaluated by descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. There was a 99.2% response rate with approximately 9% of participants correctly stating the WHO daily recommended amount (P = .296). Most (54%) of respondents’ FV intake was affected by unavailability of desired choice (P = .050). Odd of inadequate consumption for persons aware of adequate amount was 1.97 (95% CI: 0.64, 6.05, P = .234) higher than persons without awareness. Participants with problems accessing their desired choice of FV had 0.59 odds (95% CI: 0.36, 0.95, P = .030) of consuming inadequate amount compared to those with easy access. Adequate FV intake depends on availability of consumer preference regardless of knowledge of recommendations. Individual FV cultivation is relevant for availability of preferred choice and adequate consumption for NCDs risk reductions among Ghanaians.
    • Knowledge translation and the power of the nursing academic conference

      Finnegan, Alan; McGhee, Stephen; Roxburgh, Michelle; Kent, Bridie; University of Chester; University of South Florida; University of Highlands and Islands; University of Plymouth (Elsevier, 2018-11-08)
      The national and international conference experiences present a unique learning opportunity. There are differing events that reflect the full nursing employment spectrum from clinical delivery, organizational and policy development and academia in education and research. Many conferences provide a platform for academics with differing levels of experience to come together and welcome contributions from students and all grades of post-registration nurses, educationalists, administrators, and researchers. In selecting the programme, the conference organisers will often circulate a calling notice and potential presenters will submit their abstracts to be blind peer reviewed. Therefore, conferences showcase the best of the best and provide the current perspective of areas of growth within the nursing sector. Conferences have a plethora of delivery routes ranging from posters, oral presentations (both short and long), panel discussions, key notes, seminars, exhibitions and workshops. These present an exceptional chance to listen, present, network and discuss nursing innovation and academic research.
    • Late life acquired dual-sensory impairment: A systematic review of its impact on everyday competence

      Tiwana, Rumandeep; Benbow, Susan M.; Kingston, Paul; University of Chester (SAGE, 2016-09-29)
      The literature on the relationship between late acquired dual-sensory impairment (DSI) in older adults and the ability to remain independent is limited. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to assess the impact that late life acquired DSI in older adults has on their ability to remain independent within their homes. Exclusion and inclusion criteria were applied to the papers identified and eight qualified for inclusion in the review. Each selected paper was assessed using a quality rating scale. Country of origin, population studied, age, vision, and hearing criteria all varied between papers. They provide evidence that DSI affects everyday competence, and this effect is complicated by physical comorbidities, mental health, and social factors
    • Layers of listening: qualitative analysis of the impact of early intervention services for first-episode psychosis on carers’ experiences

      Lavis, Anna; Lester, Helen; Everard, Linda; Freemantle, Nick; Amos, Tim; Fowler, David; Hodgekins, Jo; Jones, Peter B.; Marshall, Max; Sharma, Vimal; et al. (Cambridge University Press, 2015-08)
      Background: Early Intervention Services (EIS) comprise low-stigma youth-friendly mental health teams for young people undergoing first-episode psychosis (FEP). Engaging with the family of the young person is central to EIS policy and practice. Aims: By analysing carers’ accounts of their daily lives and affective challenges during a relative’s first-episode psychosis against the background of wider research into Early Intervention Services, this paper explores relationships between carers’ experiences and EIS. Methods: Semi-structured longitudinal interviews with 80 carers of young people with FEP treated through English EIS. Results: Our data suggest that EIS successfully aid carers to support their relatives, particularly through the provision of knowledge about psychosis and medications. However, paradoxical ramifications of these service user-focused engagements also emerge; they risk leaving carers’ emotions unacknowledged and compounding an existing lack of helpseeking. Conclusions: By focusing on EIS’s engagements with carers, this paper draws attention to an urgent broader question; as a continuing emphasis on care outside the clinic space places family members at the heart of the care of those with severe mental illness, we ask: who can, and should, support carers, and in what ways?
    • Leadership

      Watts, Geoff; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-03-17)
      This book chapter discusses the concept of leadership and the response of the NHS to leadership demands
    • Leadership development for public health practitioners

      Wilson, Frances; Greening, Kim; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses how public health practitioners develop leadership skills with specific reference to the NHS Leadership Qualities Framework (2001).
    • Learning and teaching in social work practice

      Beverley, Audrey; Worsley, Aidan; Salford University ; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2007-10-26)
      This book discusses the teaching and assessment of practice within the social work or social care environment. It focuses on setting the context for learning, learning partnerships, adult learning, creating and using learning opportunities, supervision, reflective practice, evidencing and assessing competence, learning in a multidisciplinary setting, and dealing with difficulties within the learning partnership.
    • Learning disability against itself: The self-injury/self-harm conundrum

      Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (Wiley, 2007-10-17)
      The article begins with a critical look at the existing literature explaining self-injury by people with significant learning disabilities and self-harm by those with mental health difficulties. It suggests that the different conceptualizations are perhaps less distinct than might initially appear, and that behavioural similarities between those with and those without learning disabilities might be greater than previously believed. The notion of 'career' is presented as a means of explaining the process by which people with learning disabilities engage in self-injury and subsequently integrate it into their lives. Data are subsequently presented from a number of life histories of people with learning disabilities to illustrate the development of self-injury over the life course. The findings of the research indicate that the development and consolidation of self-injury over time conforms to the expectations of a career and provides reason to question the contemporary separate categorization of the behaviour of people with significant learning disabilities. The evidence suggests that the relationship between self-injury and learning disability is best explicable in terms of its intelligibility, rational behaviour in the context of the individual's life.
    • Learning Disability Nursing in Secure Settings: Working with complexity

      Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (Wiley, 2017-01-04)
      This editorial argues that current changes in secure learning disability provision, particularly the twin imperatives to reduce in-patient beds and simultaneously restrict the use of physical interventions, have implications for direct nursing care. These implications revolve around the increased complexity of the backgrounds of those with a learning disability currently requiring secure care. Learning disability nursing needs to examine its skill and knowledge base and look seriously at the value of psychiatric nursing as a means of addressing current deficits.
    • Learning environments

      McIntosh, Annette; University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-10-29)
      This book chapter discusses the importance of appropriate learning environments for students, particularly in clinical practice where it is the joint responsibility of academic staff and practitioners.
    • Learning styles

      Hulme, Moira; Hulme, Robert I.; University of Glasgow; University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-10-15)
      This book chapter discusses learning styles inventories and how critical engagements by practitioners with the evidential base of learning styles is necessary to prevent application of labels that might restrict the potential of each learner.
    • Legal and ethical matters

      Deacon, Maureen; University of Chester (SAGE, 2013-01-15)
      This book chapter aims to discuss how practitioners can work ethically and legally in the best interests of adult patients; explain the principal legal and ethical issues of health inequalities and discrimination, consent and capacity, and advanced care planning; and discuss the matter of self-neglect and capacity.
    • The lived experience of UK street-based sex workers and the health consequences: An exploratory study

      Mellor, Rebecca; Lovell, Andy; Wirral Primary Care Trust ; University of Chester (2011-07-03)
      The complex, difficult lives and subsequent health issues of street-based female sex workers are well documented. This paper explores the health needs of a group of sex workers in one geographical locality in the north-west of England. Interviews were conducted with a number of women currently engaged in sex work, with the aim of identifying factors maintaining them in this work and examining their experience of health and health-related services. A thematic analysis revealed considerable life circumstance complexity, with violence, drugs, alcohol and housing problems being prevalent factors. The combination of such factors compounds the likelihood of the women's social exclusion. Other themes related to the casual perception the women had of their own health needs, their generally poor experience of services and the demonstrable impact of one specific service in supporting a group so reluctant to engage. The study suggests poor understanding of the complex needs of street-based sex workers by both services and professionals, particularly a failure to engage with the reality of these women's lives and the factors that maintain them in this work.
    • Lived experiences of negative symptoms in first-episode psychosis: A qualitative secondary analysis

      Gee, Brioney; Hodgekins, Jo; Lavis, Anna; Notley, Caitlin; Birchwood, Max; Everard, Linda; Freemantle, Nick; Jones, Peter B.; Singh, Swaran P.; Amos, Tim; et al. (Wiley, 2018-03-24)
    • The Long-Arm Approach to Placement Supervision and Assessment

      Knight, Kate H; Whaley, Viki; Bailey-McHale, Rebecca; Simpson, Angela; Hay, Jonathon; University of Chester (British Journal of Nursing, 2022-02-26)
      In response, to the regulatory changes that require health and/or social care registrants to supervise and assess students on practice placements (NMC, 2018), the University of Chester’s (UoC) Faculty of Health and Social Care (H&SC) has developed an innovative long-arm practice supervision model, which supports the development of these types of practice placements as HUBs and also funds the registrants to deliver it, ensuring optimum support for students and the practice area.
    • Long-term outcomes from prophylactic or episodic treatment of haemophilia A: A systematic review.

      O'Hara, Jamie; Sima, C. S.; Frimpter, J.; Paliargues, F.; Chu, P.; Presch, I (2018-07-13)
      Evaluating treatment success in patients with haemophilia A (HA) remains a vigorous debate, especially concerning the interpretation of results from clinical and observational research. The benefits of short-term prophylaxis are well established, but long-term outcomes, particularly related to humanistic and economic burden, are not as well understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to evaluate the association of episodic or prophylactic bleed control with long-term clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes. Studies published in English between 1 January 2006 and 15 December 2016 were included. Participants had HA (with or without inhibitors), received prophylactic or episodic treatment and had at least 4 years of treatment or follow-up. Results were analysed qualitatively with descriptive findings. A total of 2091 records were screened, resulting in 19 studies from 20 publications for inclusion. Most studies included children (84%), were limited to patients with severe disease (74%) and were conducted in Europe or North America (89%). Ten studies (53%) included patients with inhibitors. Median study follow-up ranged from 5 to 19 years. Long-term bleeding and haemarthrosis outcomes were consistently better for patients receiving prophylaxis, who also required fewer hospitalizations or surgeries. Health-related quality of life, functionality and productivity were generally more favourable in patients receiving prophylaxis. Quantitative comparisons were not feasible due to the lack of consistency in endpoint collection and reporting among studies. This systematic review confirmed that the benefits of prophylactic treatment on short-term outcomes translate to broader long-term clinical, humanistic and economic benefits. Better harmonization of data collection and outcome assessments across both registries and clinical studies is needed to allow for effective comparisons across studies and across data sources. [Abstract copyright: © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.]