• E-learning

      McCarthy, Jill; University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-10-29)
      This book chapter discusses developing successful e-learning for students.
    • Eating Behaviours of British University Students: A Cluster Analysis on a Neglected Issue

      Tanton, Jina; Dodd, Lorna; Woodfield, Lorayne; Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; Newman University; University of Chester (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2015-10-13)
      Unhealthy diet is a primary risk factor for noncommunicable diseases. University student populations are known to engage in health risking lifestyle behaviours including risky eating behaviours. The purpose of this study was to examine eating behaviour patterns in a population of British university students using a two-step cluster analysis. Consumption prevalence of snack, convenience, and fast foods in addition to fruit and vegetables was measured using a self-report “Student Eating Behaviours” questionnaire on 345 undergraduate university students. Four clusters were identified: “risky eating behaviours,” “mixed eating behaviours,” “moderate eating behaviours,” and “favourable eating behaviours.” Nineteen percent of students were categorised as having “favourable eating behaviours” whilst just under a third of students were categorised within the two most risky clusters. Riskier eating behaviour patterns were associated with living on campus and Christian faith. The findings of this study highlight the importance of university microenvironments on eating behaviours in university student populations. Religion as a mediator of eating behaviours is a novel finding.
    • Editorial

      Quinney, Anne; Harlow, Elizabeth; Bournemouth University ; University of Chester (British Association of Social Workers, 2011-04)
    • Editorial. Nurse Education Today Veterans' Special Issue

      Finnegan, Alan; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2016-07-25)
      Editorial from the Nurse Education Today Military Veterans Special Issue
    • Educating nurses to deliver optimum care to military veterans and their families

      Finnegan, Alan; Di Lemma, Lisa; McGhee, Stephen; University of Miami; University of Chester
      The aim of the project was to help prepare the future nursing workforce to provide optimum care for the Armed Forces Community. Structured evidenced-based educational sessions were designed and then delivered at two Universities in England. This educational model included a flipped approach, didactic classroom teaching, blended learning, and information technology. Educational sessions were provided to 468 first year Bachelor of Nursing undergraduate students in 2017 and 2018. A mixed methods evaluation included a quasi-experiential design with pre and post-test data followed by research interviews conducted by student nurses and analysed using a modified Grounded Theory. Post session evaluation demonstrated a significant improvement in students' knowledge. 93% agreed that the training was useful, 95% felt that nurses should be aware of the healthcare needs of the Armed Forces Community, and 89% indicated that the subject matter should be included in the undergraduate curriculum. A qualitative theoretical model was built from four major clusters: the military community; student's identity, clinical engagement, and future practice. These educational sessions are being introduced into a growing number of United Kingdom Universities to create future nursing leaders with a better insight into the large and diverse Armed Forces Community.
    • Educating nurses to provide better care for the military veteran and their families

      Finnegan, Alan; McGhee, Stephen; Leach, Johathan; University of Chester, University of South Florida, NHS England (Elsevier, 2017-05-03)
      Reports that military veterans do not divulge details of their military experiences because others “do not understand” has been accepted for too long. Veterans and their families require a nursing workforce that are knowledgeable of the specific demands associated with a military life, and who are educated and empowered to discuss these issues in a language that the veteran population understand. USA have taken steps to address this challenge through academic programmes that systematically teach nurses how to be pro-actively engaged in improving veteran’s health and wellbeing. These lessons are being absorbed into fully evaluated under-graduate nursing sessions being developed at the University of Chester that will ensure under-graduate nursing students gain the requisite knowledge and understanding of veteran health and social care.
    • Education in clinical practice

      Baldwin, Moyra A.; Greenwood, Joanne M.; University of Chester (2008-09)
      This powerpoint presentation discusses methods of working together to develop competent, reflective practitioners through the authors sharing their experiences and observations of teaching nursing students and stimulate discussion about education-practice partnership.
    • Educator

      Mannix, Jean; McIntosh, Annette; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-03-17)
      This book chapter discusses the concept of the educator in the context of nurse education, education within a Higher Education Institution, education in practice, nurses as patient educators, and service users as educators.
    • The effect of a short course in cognitive and behavioural therapy (CBT) on knowledge acquisition in non-specialist CBT practitioners

      Mitchell, Andrew E. P.; University of Chester (Nova Science Publishers, 2017-01-01)
      In this study, we investigate the effects of training on knowledge acquisition in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). Knowledge acquisition is assessed through the Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Knowledge Questionnaire (CBT-KQ; Myles, Latham, Ricketts, 2002). The CBT-KQ contains 26 multiple-choice questions from five conceptual topics: general CBT issues, theoretical underpinnings of behavioural approaches, theoretical underpinnings of cognitive approaches, practice of behavioural therapy, and practice of cognitive therapy. Thirty eight students attended weekly 3 hour sessions and were tested at weeks 1 and 15 in a before and after study. Improvements in the CBT-KQ were modest but showed significant changes in three conceptual topics; general CBT issues, theoretical underpinnings of cognitive approaches and practice of cognitive therapy. These findings may have important implications for structuring CBT training, so that both the cognitive and behavioural components are shown in the knowledge acquisition and practice applications. Recent evidence suggests that the behavioural components of treatment for some conditions, such as depression, may be more important than the cognitive components. In addition, recent evidence indicates that the behavioural components might be more suitable for delivery by non-specialist CBT practitioners.
    • Effective educational strategies

      Keeling, June J.; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill, 2008-05-01)
      This book chapter discusses some of the issues incumbent on educators when developing educational programmes for health care providers on intimate partner violence. It focuses on curriculum development, group work, and assessment strategies.
    • Effective Support for Serving Personnel

      Finnegan, Alan; Thomas, Mike (Adjacent Government, 2014-05-23)
      The British Armed Forces aim to provide a capable workforce, able to undertake military duties without mental health (MH) problems. This is achieved by maximising the psychological support afforded to soldiers by providing immediate and effective MH care wherever they are serving. The most common MH disorders affecting UK Armed Forces are depression, alcohol misuse and anxiety. Military Mental Health (MMH) provides an occupational MH service that makes recommendations regarding a service person’s suitability for service. In a peacetime setting, this is delivered through a clearly defined integrated care pathway between Primary Health Care, military Departments of Community Mental Health (DCMHs) and Secondary Health Care. DCMHs consist of multi-disciplinary clinical staff, providing service personnel with a medium for sharing problems, whilst utilising recognised treatments such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) including Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing. Hospital care is provided within the NHS through a defined contract. Performance indicators and military satisfaction surveys indicate that the British Armed Forces MH service is of a very high standard
    • The effectiveness of a short cognitive behavioural training course on awareness, knowledge and transferability of competencies in clinical practice.

      Mitchell, Andrew E. P.; University of Chester (Wiley, 2015-09-21)
      PURPOSE: In this study we investigated the effects of training on knowledge acquisition and core competencies in CBT. DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty three students attended 15 half day, weekly sessions and were tested with the Cognitive Therapy Awareness Scale (CTAS) at weeks 1 and 15 in a before and after study. The students case studies were assessed with competencies items 7-12 on the Cognitive Rating Scale – Revised (CTS-R). FINDINGS: Improvements in the CTAS were modest. Key competencies on the CTS-R subscales at week 15 were also observed. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: CBT knowledge acquisition might improve patients’ outcomes through impact on competencies.
    • Effectiveness of cooling gel pads and ice packs on perineal pain

      Navviba, Shahin; Abedian, Zahra; Steen, Mary; Zahedan University of Medical Science Nursing & Midwifery, Mashhad Iran ; Faculty of Health & Social Care, University of Chester (Mark Allen, 2009-11-01)
      The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a randomised controlled trial undertaken at the Hazrat Ommolbanin University Maternity Hospital in Mashhad, Iran which investigated the effectiveness of localised cooling treatments to alleviate perineal trauma. From October 2005 to February 2006, 121 primiparous women who were at term and had an episiotomy were randomly recruited to one of three treatment groups (Group 1 - no localised cooling, Group 2 - Ice pack, Group 3 - cooling gel pad). The intensity of pain, wound healing and women’s satisfaction levels were the main outcomes measured. The intensity of pain was measured by a (Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) (0-10) and wound healing was evaluated by the REEDA scale within 4 hours of episiotomy repair, at Day 1, Day 2, Day 5 and finally at Day 10. The usage of oral analgesia (acetaminophen) was measured at Day 10. Women’s satisfaction levels with oral analgesia and localised cooling treatments were also assessed at Day 10 by a NRS (0-10). There was evidence that localised cooling treatments are effective at alleviating perineal pain which was in favour of the cooling gel pad group. A statistical significant difference was reported at 4 hours (p=0.003) Day 2 (p=0.004) and at Day 10 (p=0.044). At Day 1 and Day 5 there was evidence of a reduction in the intensity of pain but this did not reach a statistical significant difference. A reduction in the usage of oral analgesia (acetaminophen) was reported in favour of the cooling gel pad group (p<0.001). Women’s satisfaction levels with oral analgesia were similar within the three treatment groups but a higher level of satisfaction when assessing localised treatment was reported by the cooling gel pad group (p<0.001). Wound healing rates were also reported to be better in the cooling gel pad group when compared to the other two groups(p<0.001). In conclusion, treatments to alleviate perineal pain without any adverse affects on wound healing and women’s views are important aspects of midwifery care. This trial has demonstrated evidence that localised cooling of the perineum reduces the intensity of pain, women were more satisfied when applying cooling gel pads and this treatment appeared to assist in wound healing.
    • The Effectiveness of Glyburide Compared to Insulin in the Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review.

      Odiba, Jephthah O.; Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; University of Chester (Scientific Research Publishing, 2015-04-24)
      Background: Insulin therapy has been the mainstay in managing women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but some disadvantages of insulin have led to the use of glyburide, which is inexpensive in some countries, to manage GDM. However, there has been debate over its effectiveness, efficacy and safety when compared to insulin for maternal glycaemic control, and some adverse neonatal outcomes in GDM. Method: A systematic review of eight randomised controlled trial (RCT) studies was undertaken to compare glyburide and insulin. Studies involving 849 participants were included in the quantitative analysis. Results: There was no significant difference between glyburide and insulin in maternal fasting (P = 0.09; SMD: 0.13; 95% CI: ﹣0.02 to 0.28) and postprandial (P = 0.45; SMD: 0.05; 95% CI: ﹣0.09 to 0.19) glycaemic control and glycosylated hae-moglobin (P = 0.35; SMD: 0.08; 95% CI: ﹣0.08 to 0.24). When compared with insulin, glyburide had an increase risk ratio (RR) for neonatal hypoglycaemia (P = 0.0002; RR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.47 to 3.51) and large for gestational age babies (P = 0.03; RR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.41). Estimation of standard mean difference shows that neonatal birth weight was significantly higher in subjects receiving glyburide than in the insulin group (P = 0.002; SMD: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.35). Conclusions: Glyburide was seen to be clinically effective and a safer alternative to insulin for maternal glycaemic control in GDM women. It is affordable, convenient and requires no comprehensive educative training at the time of initiation of therapy. However, its adverse outcomes—neonatal hypogly-caemia, high neonatal birth weight and large for gestational age babies—call for careful monitoring of GDM patients for any need for supplemental insulin.
    • Effectiveness of nitric oxide agents in preventing the early onset of pre-eclampsia and possible modification of metabolic factors in high-risk pregnancies

      Nnate, Daniel; Massey, Alan; Ridgway, Victoria; Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; University of Chester (International prospective register of systematic reviews, 2018-11-28)
      Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-specific condition which affects at least 2 - 8% of pregnancies and is the major cause of foetal growth restriction, small gestational age and increased rate of preterm birth from induced labour and caesarean section. The rate of early-onset of pre-eclampsia raises serious concern; and the most affected population are nulliparous women, women with chronic hypertension, multiple pregnancies and those with chronic diseases. Increasing the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) in the endothelial system through the timely administration of NO agents could minimise the metabolic precursors of pre-eclampsia which may be a cost-effective intervention in preventing the complications related to the ailment. While the effectiveness and safety of suggested interventions for the prevention of pre-eclampsia on maternal and neonatal health is being deliberated, evidence on the role of NO in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia is well recognised. Nitric oxide agents have been proven to be effective in preventing complications from pre-eclampsia; however, there is limited evidence on NO agents in preventing its early onset in high risk pregnancies. Previous studies on pre-eclampsia prevention with NO agents lacks the criteria required to achieve optimum effects; and the benefit of administering NO agents before 20 weeks’ gestation is yet to be established.
    • The effects of induced negative mood state on recalled autobiographical content and memory

      Hayes, Peter; Boulton, Mike; Mitchell, Andrew E. P. (University of Chester, 2012-04)
      Autobiographical memory has been theorized to serve as an adaptive function in coping with negative mood state. To gain a better understanding of whether autobiographical memory changes with negative mood state, a number of experiments examined the relative accessibility of cognitive content and ability to recall specific event memories in those who had a previous history of depression or showed some aspects of current depressive symptoms. Five separate studies involved 288 participants and examined the effects of negative mood components on autobiographical recall. Studies 1 – 4 examined the autobiographical content by cueing content using a cue word technique to evoke autobiographical memories by means of a modified version of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986). Negative mood state was induced by Velten mood induction technique, and self-reported mood was measured using University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology Mood Adjective Checklist (UWIST-MACL; Matthews, Jones & Chamberlain, 1990) before and after mood induction. The ability to recall specific event memories was measured in Study 5 by the Sentence Completion for Events from the Past Test (SCEPT; Raes, Hermans, Williams, & Eelen, 2007). The results indicate that negative mood does influence autobiographical recall in terms of content and memory. These results indicate that autobiographical memory is a phenomenon that is in part dependent on negative mood state and in part dependent on current depressive symptoms and history of depression. Increased rumination was particularly responsive to induced negative mood state in those with current depressive symptoms. Reduced levels of activity, alertness, loss of interest and diminished pleasure are aspects of negative mood that seem to be particularly important components of mood state at the time of recall. To gain further insights into mood state effects in autobiographical recall, future directions in mood research should focus on and differentiate between the separate mood state components that are more important in bringing about changes in recalled content, especially in those with either a history of depression or showing current depressive symptoms.
    • Eight simple rules for writing in health and social care

      Chapman, Hazel M.; Keeling, June J.; Williams, Julie; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2013-09-03)
      This chapter highlights eight simple rules for writing in health and social care - write, plan your writing, proofread and edit your writing, look it up, reflect, record the care you give, prepare, and enjoy yourself.
    • Eight simple rules for writing in health and social care

      Chapman, Hazel M.; Keeling, June J.; Williams, Julie; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2013-09-03)
      Writing is a creative process. It transforms your own view of the world and enables you to grow and develop. This is why it is so commonly used as an assessment method, as educationalists use it to help you develop a more sophisticated understanding of your field in health and social care. In this book we have attempted to provide you with simple tools to improve your writing skills and achieve your professional goals. We have aimed to inspire you with insights into how you can use writing to help you think more deeply and flexibly about the world and how that knowledge can improve you as a practitioner. While writing and learning are refined over many years, there are some ideas in this book that can change your thoughts, feelings and behaviours quite simply and quickly, and open your mind to the simple pleasure of writing. In this concluding chapter we highlight a few of these hints and tips, and guide you to the relevant chapters to read more about them. We have identified eight simple rules for writing in health and social care. help you develop a more sophisticated understanding of your field in health and social care. In this book we have attempted to provide you with simple tools to improve your writing skills and achieve your professional goals. We have aimed to inspire you with insights into how you can use writing to help you think more deeply and flexibly about the world and how that knowledge can improve you as a practitioner. While writing and learning are refined over many years, there are some ideas in this book that can change your thoughts, feelings and behaviours quite simply and quickly, and open your mind to the simple pleasure of writing. In this concluding chapter we highlight a few of these hints and tips, and guide you to the relevant chapters to read more about them. We have identified eight simple rules for writing in health and social care.
    • Elderly Persons Health and Wellbeing

      Ridgway, Victoria; University of Chester (2019-10-01)
      This chapter considers older persons’ health and wellbeing. As the world population changes there are global challenges to ensure that health and social care systems, individuals, communities and countries meet the needs of older people so that they are empowered to lead active and connected later lives. However, these opportunities are heavily dependent on two fundamental characteristics that of good health and wellbeing and healthy ageing. The conceptualisation of ‘being old or older’ first needs to be considered. The use of 65 as a parameter to measure old age is a political and social construct. Baar et al. (2014) for example noted the tendency to use 60 to 65 as the entrance point to old age and although useful to establish understanding writers in the field of gerontology have argued against such use. Culturally older age can occur from 50 upwards (Baar et al. 2014) as consequence of poor health, education, financial situation and environment and there is no typical older person (World Health Organisation (WHO) 2018a). Other authors have defined no age categorisation boundaries but have referred to a third and fourth age. The third age being conceptualised as a life period full of opportunity and good health and wellbeing, whilst the fourth age is perceived as a period of decline, increasing dependency and ultimately death (Higgs and Gilleard 2015). Therefore, being older is difficult to define and for this chapter 60 will be used as a ‘marker of old age’. There are two lenses from which society view and perceive older people, first by some they are considered a burden, a drain on resources and are less valued. Alternatively, older people are considered wise, dependable individuals who contribute to society, local communities and family life. The increasing older demographic has both immense potential for society but also comes with challenges. This chapter will explore population growth, perceptions of ageing, health and wellbeing in later life, factors that negate against healthy ageing and will end with preventive strategies
    • Emergency hormonal contraceptive service provision via community pharmacies in the UK: a systematic review of pharmacists’ and young women’s views, perspectives and experiences

      Chirewa, B; orcid: 0000-0003-2784-8274; Wakhisi, A (SAGE Publications, 2019-08-12)
      Aims: Unintended pregnancy among young people remains a major public health problem in the UK, despite recent evidence suggesting that the number of teenage pregnancies in England is falling. Community pharmacies have the potential to reduce health inequalities among young women through improved and appropriate access to sexual health services. This study seeks to examine the views, perceptions and experiences of young women and community pharmacists concerning emergency hormonal contraceptive (EHC) provision from community pharmacies in the UK. Methods: Six electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2000 and 2017. Titles and abstracts were screened by two researchers according to the inclusion criteria. Results: A total of eight papers reporting studies carried out within the UK were included. Five key themes were identified from the perspectives of young women: convenience and ease of access, embarrassment and non-judgemental services, free services, confidentiality and pharmacist being helpful. Six key themes were identified from the perspectives of the pharmacists: concerns about supply of EHC, improved access, no need for appointment, confidentiality, free EHC and training. Conclusions: The review suggests that services should be designed based on the views, perceptions and experiences of the service users and providers in order to reduce inequities to access of EHC. Pharmacists who provide EHC should continuously upgrade their knowledge base through training if the sexual health needs of the young women who access pharmacies are to be adequately met.